Created (XML-WORKS_COUNTRY-USA.xml) Open frame source for XML data.

( 22 Christian Marclay 1955 4508 images/spacer.jpg Groove 1982 USA audio/Marclay--records-groove-1982.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 4509 images/spacer.jpg His Masters Voice 1982 USA audio/Marclay-records-his_masters_voice-1982.mp3 23 John Oswald 1953 140 images/spacer.jpg Plunderphonic CD Plunderphonics 1989 USA audio/Oswald-DAB.mp3 21 Ryoji Ikeda 1966 1140 images/works/Ikeda-1998-zero.gif 0 degrees - 1998 USA audio/Ikeda-0_degrees_c_zero_degrees_1.mp3 24 Vito Acconci 1940 143 images/spacer.jpg Ten Packed Minutes Ten Packed Minutes is an eclectic audio collage of music, text, found sounds, and excerpts from the recordings of Leon Redbone, Cow Cow Davenport, Eric Dolphy, Karl Berger, and Ornette Coleman.This is written before the piece is recorded. What I want is: ten packed minutes (that can be the title-or, maybe, Ten Minutes to Zero.) The beginning is a single voice: crooning familiars as a base for tongue-twisting (after all, this is a record: theres no space to pin down here-now do you get the picture?-so there are games in the air, yes, its you/me/ we/go/come/who goes further/the question is, who made somebody come tonight, who among those crowds of people ... ) But the song drifts off: theres a world out there, besides you and me: so this is a record of war, there s been an invasion of the city that could have been built into the empire of our love. But things go quickly, on the air: there s an underground, time passes, the scene changes: this is like overhearing a police broadcast: there s a report, from person A, under the grating, of person B s movements, on top of the grating-have we caught a sneak out of those multitudes of armies? (So the picture becomes clearer, no? But, all the while, there s always the thought: we can go to the movies later.) Say, then, that person C has escaped: there s a bar in another part of the forest: but person C fades away here, person C is just the excuse for the placement of a duel duet: bring back the music, bring on the night. After a life like this, I come back to you, bearing my very first songs: but, now, by this time- oh-oh-oh ... At this point, then the picture should have disappeared right in front of your eyes; but what replaces it is, no, not a thousand words-rather, the sound of the sounding that the words were there merely to prop up. --Vito Acconci. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/acconci.html 1977 USA audio/Acconci-Vito_Ten-Packed-Minutes.mp3 25 Dick Higgins 1938 151 images/spacer.jpg In Memorium In memoriam was made of assembring loops a dub a phonograph record of 16th century dance music. The dance is heard, simultaneously, up to sixteen times as fast and sixteen times as slow as the original, backwords as well as forward, giving a sort of cinematic effect. loop, phonograph 1961 USA audio/Higgins-1962-In_Memoriam.mp3 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 108 images/works/Vitiello-1999-WTC.jpg World Trade Center project 1. Processing sound through the windows of the World Trade Center, from the 91st floor, facing north: contact mic, delay, filter bank. contact mics 1999 USA audio/Vitiello-09-WTC-Open-House-Bounce.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 582 images/works/Dunn_David-1999-3systems.jpg Three Dynamical Systems Three Dynamical Systems was composed and performed during the Techne and Eros electronic media workshops (Santa Fe, New Mexico), summer, 1999. The composition is for a live assortment of electronic devices that produce particular dynamical behaviors. These included two Comdyna 808 analog computers, a Wavetek signal generator (capable of producing a very low frequency triangle wave), a J. L. Cooper CV to MIDI converter, an oscilloscope with external sync input, a video projector, and a digital computer running the software program Reaktor. Output from the signal generator was patched into the analog computers whose output signals were fed to both the oscilloscope (X and Y) and the CV to MIDI converter. The analog computer circuit was also synced to the oscilloscope. The oscilloscope waveform display was projected onto a wall of the performance space. MIDI output from the converter was sent to the digital computer in order to control a Reaktor patch that produced the final sounds. The signal generator was set to its lowest possible frequency and functioned as a control envelope for the analog computer circuit. Patch points in this circuit were changed at two different times during the performance in order to alter the dynamical behavior of the system. These were the only times that changes were made. All other events were emergent properties of the system. 1999 USA audio/Dunn_David-3systems.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 578 images/works/Dunn_David-1989-Ponds2.jpg Chaos and the Emergent Mind of the Pond The following sounds are a compilation of underwater recordings made in a variety of North American freshwater ponds. They were digitally recorded with a portable DAT recorder using a pair of omnidirectional hydrophones at a 12 inch separation. Some of the sounds are at actual speed while others are slowed to an octave below their true frequency and time domains. Besides their sequencing, no other alterations of the sounds have been made. Since most of the insects generating these sounds have not been studied for their sound making capacities, the specific sources remain a mystery. 1989 USA audio/Dunn_David-Chaos.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 576 images/works/Dunn_David-1985-entr2f.jpg Entrainments 2 Three performers prerecorded stream-of-consciousness descriptions and observations of the surrounding environment from the three mountain peaks delineated in the diagram. Each performer was assigned a separate peak and recorded for 45 minutes. These recordings included thoughts about and reactions to events within the environment but no attempt to overtly control such events was to be made. An attitude of focused openness to whatever occurred was desirable. These recordings were subsequently mixed with static drones derived from astrological chartings for the time and location of the performance (as indicated in the diagram). Playback of these sounds occurred from portable cassette recorders with selfamplified loudspeakers and sufficient amplitude to be audible from the center of the performance configuration. These were placed at the positions notated in the diagram as solid black circles. Each speech recording was closest to and in alignment with its corresponding peak where the recording took place. In the center of the space (notated as a solid black square) was placed a digital recorder programmed to sample and then immediately output periodic sound blocks of three seconds duration. This was amplified through a central loudspeaker. The input signal to the digital recorder was from a single omni-directional microphone mounted within a parabolic reflector. A performer carried this microphone while walking slowly along the clockwise perimeter of the large central circle. The microphone pointed outward from this circle. This same performer also recorded the overall performance through use of binaural microphones attached to a stereo tape deck. Three other performers carried small portable oscillators made audible through self-amplified loudspeakers. These performers walked slowly along the perimeter of the three large outer circles while altering the oscillator frequency in a process of conceptual tuning to the overall sound environment. This process was relaxed and continuous while avoiding very abrupt changes. The primary task was to somehow define nodes of interaction within the changing soundscape. The spatial distance between the triangulation points indicated was approximately a radius of 33 feet. The performance began at 2:05 PM and ended at 2:50 PM. This took place at Azalea Glen, Cuyamaca State Park, California, on May 19, 1985, and was sponsored by SUSHI GALLERY, San Diego, California. PERFORMANCE PARTICIPANTS: David Dunn, Ronald Robboy, Lizbeth Rymland, Peter Seibel, Stephen Storer, Dan Schwartz; ASTROLOGICAL CASTING: Ellen Band; GRAPHIC: Stephen Storer and David Dunn. 1985 USA audio/Dunn_David-Entrain2.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 574 images/works/Dunn_David-1979-espial.jpg (espial) To be performed by solo violin in a remote outdoor environment of low amplitude ambient sound. 1979 USA audio/Dunn_David-espial.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 569 images/works/dunn-1973-nexus1.jpg Nexus1 Nexus 1 1 was performed and recorded in the interior of the Grand Canyon National Park over a three-day period from the 17th to the 20th of June, 1973. All performance and recording took place in the area known as Hermits Gorge, approximately two miles down into the canyon interior along Hermits Trail. The score specified sound gestures which the trumpets could articulate interactively with the canyon environment. This interaction primarily focused upon 1) the extended reverberation and extraordinary spatial acoustics of the rock formations, and 2) the non-human life forms such as the crows heard throughout the performance recording. 1973 USA audio/Dunn_David-Nexus1.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 570 images/works/Dunn_David-1974-orac2a.jpg Oracles (paragraph 2) ORACLES Ten Environmental Stimulus Compositions David Dunn 1974-75 - TWO Record the following process using two square-wave oscillators, two accordions, one omni-directional microphone, and appropriate recording and amplification equipment. Place the omni-directional microphone centrally in a large outdoor space. The output signals of both oscillators should be amplified with separate outputs through two loudspeakers separated approximately 50 to 75 yards and focused inward toward the microphone. The two accordionists are to start from approximately ten feet separation facing outward from each other on opposite sides of the microphone in a line intersecting the line of the loudspeakers at a 90 degree angle at the point of the microphone. Both players are to walk slowly in opposite directions continuing to play until both are out of the microphones reception range. oscillator 1 - 447 Hz oscillator 2 - 449 Hz accordion 1 - sustain single pitches G, A, and E flat in any octave for 4 and 6 seconds alternating and separated by equivalent durations of silence accordion 2 - sustain single pitches B flat, C, and F sharp in any octave for 3 and 7 seconds alternating and separated by equivalent durations of silence 1974 USA audio/Dunn_David-Oracles2.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 571 images/works/Dunn_David-1974-orac6e.jpg Oracles (paragraph 6) Performance of the following materials is to take place through any number of appropriate output transducers secured in ocean tidepools. Separate all transducers approximately fifteen feet from each other such that each is placed at a slightly different elevation. Outputs from the following three signal generators are to be routed to all transducers at equivalent amplitude. sine 371.2 Hz sine 396 Hz sine 528 Hz 1975 USA audio/Dunn_David-Oracles6.mp3 37 David Dunn 1953 573 images/works/Dunn_David-1977-sky4.jpg Skydrift Skydrift requires 10 vocalists, 16 intrumentalists, and 4 channel tape. Performance is to take place in a vast open aor space with no boundaries to impede performer motion over a 30 minute period. Spaces of low amplitude ambient sound remote from populated areas are essential. 1977 USA audio/Dunn_David-Skydrift.mp3 19 Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller 1957 1081 images/works/Cardiff-2005-words-in-water1.jpg Words drawn in water For this audio walk I took the audience on a tour around the area of the Mall in Washington. After starting the piece looking at the fountain of the Hirshorn Museum they wandered through the sculpture garden, along the Mall and ended in the Peacock Room (by Whistler) at the Freer Gallery. In my research I noticed that there were fountains all over the area with underwater grids supporting them. I decided to use water as a metaphor for the fluidity of time and for connecting political ideas and people. Another interest for me in Washington became the prevalence of political illusion and working with that metaphorically. Just as a piece of mirror found on the sidewalk becomes a chunk of sky, the varying soundscapes, such as an audience clapping around you, a car passing, or a band playing, make you question the truth of anything you hear. Accessed 04.11.2008 from http://www.cardiffmiller.com/artworks/walks/wordsdrawn.html 33-minute multisensory audio walk artwork, Words drawn in water, in which the artist?s layered sound effects merge to evoke a blending of history and memory. The audio walk debuts Aug. 3 and will continue through Oct. 30. The audio walk is free and available Wednesday through Sunday from 11 am to 2:30 pm Last dispatch is 2:30 p.m. Directions?Janet Cardiff offers visitors an interactive means to consider an array of ideas and experiences while contemplating the legacy of the National Mall. This artwork also will become a dynamic addition to the Hirshhorn?s collection. To begin the walk, visitors will start out individually from the Hirshhorns lobby with an Apple iPod shuffle that delivers audio directions instructing them where to walk. Led by an anonymous narrator-which is interspersed among enhanced recordings of ambient sounds, a cappella music, excerpts from historic speeches and snippets of interviews with individuals who recount their Washington, DC, experiences-participants will pass through the Hirshhorn plaza and Sculpture Garden, along the National Mall and through other Smithsonian museums. Cardiffs voice-over also includes instructions and references to specific artworks, buildings and vistas as visitors approach them on the predetermined route. The work is designed to be an individual experience. A drivers license or passport is required in exchange for the temporary loan of the equipment. Visitors should allow one hour to complete the audio walk. The artist has designed this work specifically for adults as a solo experience. Priority will be given to those who wish to participate in the work as intended by the artist. Cardiff?s first audio walk artwork was developed in 1991 during a residency at the Banff Center for the Arts in Alberta. She inadvertently turned on a tape recorder and felt estranged from the persona projected by her own voice. Since then, she has used narration as a means to create an intimate connection to her audience. According to organizing curator Kelly Gordon, In many of Cardiff?s works, her soothing whisper is off set by sound effects so vivid, so subtle, so three-dimensional that they challenge participants to distinguish what is and is not real. Interview with the artist and project curator Kelly Gordon, July 2005: KG: Can you describe what led you to develop your audio walks? JC: The development of the audio walks came about through a totally serendipitous experience. I happened to press rewind while walking and taping in the field, and when I replayed it, listening with my headphones, I was fascinated by the layering of the past onto the present. It had a strange quality of creating a new world, blending together the physical and the virtual. I was also very excited by how my recorded body walking and talking created such an intense physical presence for me, as if there were another woman that was part of me but separate. KG: How do you create such intense three-dimensional soundscapes? JC: The technique that I use is called binaural audio. I record right on the site, following the exact route that the participant will eventually take. The recording system is made from two microphones mounted in the ears of a dummy head. Because of the head s shape, it captures the way we hear. I get many looks and comments from people as I wander around with this blue (hairdresser s dummy) head held out in front of me. KG: How does location influence the development of each project? How has working on the National Mall compared to working on projects in other cities? JC: Location is really very important to the content of a walk. The Mall was one of the most difficult and the most fascinating sites I ve used. It was fascinating because of the abundance of important, historic actions that have occurred there. It was difficult because in the end I had way too much information and too many recordings and not enough space to include them, so the editing process was pretty extreme. Also, I have to say that doing a walk in the capital of America in this current political situation was antithetical to my creative process. I had to turn off my negative feelings about the Bush administration in order to produce the piece. It made me realize how difficult it is not to become political in Washington. KG: How did work on this project begin? What was the most difficult aspect to develop? JC: The first part of the process was finding a route that interested me?a beginning, a middle, and an intimate location for the end. After establishing the route, the next part in the process was to do a lot of walking, listening, and looking. This is how I find themes that echo the location. In this piece, I concentrate on a couple of themes. One is the use of water as a metaphor for the fluidity of time and for connecting political ideas and people. Another interest for me in Washington became the prevalence of political illusion and working with that metaphorically. Just as a piece of mirror found on the sidewalk becomes a chunk of sky, the varying soundscapes, such as an audience clapping around you, a car passing, or a band playing, make you question the truth of anything you hear. Concurrent with my walking and thinking, I researched a lot of the history of Washington to find things that would inspire me. I also interviewed several local people in the hopes of using their firsthand accounts. Some of these weren t used in the final piece but gave me insights. KG: Can you describe what techniques and strategies you use in Words drawn in water to give participants a kind of out-of-body experience? JC: Sound has an innate ability to transport you out of your body, so if you give an audience various soundscapes, you can transport them through their imagination into many different places. For example, the sound of ghostly people talking around you can be startling, or the sound of horses going by can give you a sense of the past. I include simple but effective elements such as a fly buzzing your ear, passing musicians, or a helicopter flying overhead to take you out of your body into different imaginary spaces. KG: Could you comment on the play between public space and private experience embodied in Words drawn in water? JC: There is an intimate relationship between the artist and listener created by the audio walks. My thoughts are transmitted through the headset and create a very private space for the audience in the midst of a very public area. It s like being an anonymous person walking in a city. Your thoughts are your own, establishing a mix between the private and the public. KG: Are there particular elements in this audio walk that will surprise people who are familiar with your work? JC: I think that this work is very much within the genre of my other pieces. I don t think there is anything surprisingly different, but there will be surprising moments. That s what I hope for?the unexpected taking you into a different world for a few moments, making you feel a bit of magic. That s what art is all about, isn t it? Accessed 14.10.06 from http://www.hirshhorn.si.edu/exhibitions/description.asp?Type=pastandID=20) - 2005 USA audio/Cardiff-2005-In_conversation_at_Hirshhorn.mp3 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 850 images/works/gal-1999-defragmentation.jpg Defragmentation/blue In Defragmentation/blue, time seems to stand still. Five bright blue lines float in the dark. Depending on the viewer’s perspective, they appear as a horizon or as a covering of the space, and they continue into the infinity of unlimited black. In actuality, the light rays are ultraviolet-reflecting ribbons. To move further into the room, one has to crawl under them, which completely changes the visual and acoustic perception of the space. The unboundedness of the architectural installation is reinforced by the static-repetitive structure of the sound installation. In the compositional design of Defragmentation/blue, Bernhard Gal incorporates psycho-acoustic phenomena like masking effects, combination tones, and the gestalt laws of psychology. In a progression of frozen time-windows, superpositions of partial tones unfold, varying with the listener’s position in the room; micro-tonal glissandos form floating sound textures that fill the whole room. A CD-version of Defragmentation/blue was released on the German label Plate Lunch in September 2000. Defragmentation/blue was also published as part of Bernhard Gals Book and audio CD Installations , Kehrer Verlag Germany, 2005. - 1999 USA audio/gal-defragmentationblueexcerpt1.mp3 42 Qubais Reed Ghazala 1953 687 images/works/ghazala_reed-morphium1.jpg Morpheum Perhaps my most difficult instrument, the Morpheum is a bent animal voice synthesizer. Using the body-contacts and pitch dials to alter the voices in real-time, the player will be able to create an assortment of intense vocalizations. The Morpheum is designed to be an alien lead animal voice to be heard on top of backing tracks. Here we hear the instrument accompanying the SA2 Aleatron (see the Aleatron section for more). Rhythm backing and notes belong to the Aleatron. All cries and voices come from the Morpheum. Circuit bending, home electronics 1995 USA audio/ghazala_reed-morpheum-example002.mp3 42 Qubais Reed Ghazala 1953 688 images/works/ghazala_reed-eyed-photon.jpg Photon Clarinet Photon Clarinets are light-sensitive instruments containing two eyes and are played without touching. The sound files were created by simply waving hands in space above the instrument. You will hear theremin-like sounds when I allow my hand shadows to fall on the sweep eye. The step eye creates keyboard-like response, stepping from note-to-note through arbitrary scales as it falls under differing degrees of shadow. Typically, the right hand shadows the step cell while the left hand shadows the sweep cell, allowing the player to tune the notes in real time as on a theremin. Additionally, the volume and flange changes are also done with hand shadow. The only effect added here was reverb. The passages were played live. Circuit bending, home electronics 1996 USA audio/ghazala_reed-photon_clarinet-example001.mp3 42 Qubais Reed Ghazala 1953 685 images/spacer.jpg Silence the Tongues of Prophecy This is a song entitled Silence the Tongues of Prophecy, heard also on the Ellipsis Arts CD Gravikords, Whirlies and Pyrophones. In addition to Incantors the recording also features my Sub Chant Generator (a home-made stereo human voice/chant synthesizer) and an electric er hu (Chinese fiddle). Circuit bending, home electronics 1992 USA audio/ghazala_reed-silence_the_tongues_of_prophecy.mp3 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1118 images/works/Labelle-2003-music.jpg Music and its double Pierre Boulez’ “Structures” from 1952 was an attempt, as Boulez stated, “to eliminate from my vocabulary absolutely all trace of heritage.” Thus, musical parameters were determined by external procedures through developing two matrices (original and inverted) whereby notes, duration, and tempo were determined and assigned value. Functioning as a kind of ultimate textbook for the methods of total serialism, “Structures”, as it announces in its title, obsesses with method and its resulting order in such a way as to suggest composition as “architecture”: external procedures and musical production form an affair through which intellectual rigor aims for total design. To further eliminate all trace of heritage, I’ll introduce the drum kit into Boulez’s musical vocabulary—jamming with “Structures”, improvising against the architectural order, my own addition will function as a shadow, a doubling up of information, so as to tease out the musical affair by introducing a seemingly antithetical form of composing: improvisation on the drum kit as physical exertion, as meditative intuition, as emotional thrust. Total serialism meets total free form. The performance was organized around two parts: the first being nothing but drum-kit, and my playing while listening to Structures through headphones, improvising to Boulez; and the second, playing back my drumming (which was recorded) and Structures together, uniting drum and piano, the original and its shadow. - 2003 USA audio/Labelle_event_and_its_double_2003.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 4510 images/spacer.jpg Pandora's Box 1984 USA audio/Marclay-1984-pandoras_box.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 1251 images/spacer.jpg BlackStucco Held at El Sonoscop archivo de arte sonoro, Barcelona - 1986 USA audio/Marclay-black_stucco-1986.mp3 13 Paul D. Miller 1974 59 images/works/Miller-2002-duchamp.jpg Errata Erratum - Duchamp Remix Project recordings 2002 USA audio/Miller-2002-duchamp-dubmix.mp3 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 1493 images/spacer.jpg Soundtrack from First Violin Film - 1969 USA audio/Nauman-1969-soundtrack.mp3 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1359 images/works/Polli-2002-Atmospherics.jpg Atmospherics / Weather Works Web Project for the sonification of Weather patterns. More specifically thr web project allows visitors to listen to any combination of 14 individual regions from each of 5 elevation levels of the sonification of 1991 Hurricane Bob - 2002 USA audio/Polli-2003-Atmospherics-18000ft.mp3 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 2443 images/spacer.jpg Unintending - 2005 USA audio/Schumacher_unintending_2005.mp3 98 Brion Gysin 1916 1008 images/spacer.jpg No Poets Accessed 13.10.06 from ubu.com - 1962 USA audio/Gysin-1962-No-Poets-Dont-Own-Words.wav 98 Brion Gysin 1916 1011 images/spacer.jpg 3 Permutations Permutation is a technique commonly used by avant-gardes and above all, and systematically, by the American writer Gertrude Stein. It is possible to permute sentences, words within a sentence, syllables and phonemes within a word. Permutation is a typically modern device and considerable use was made of it in the plastic arts by the constructivists. In fact it permits the complete exhaustion of all the possible combinations within a given choice of material, without limit of number. The Englishman Brion Gysin, one of the founders of the beatnik movement and inventor of such new formulas as the collage-novel, has composed his phonic texts on this principle. I am is a classic of the genre. Composed exclusively of permutations of the biblical words I am that I am, with ever more marked accelerations, he succeeds in rendering, from the initial nucleus, a crowd of I ams, the creation of the world in geometrical progression until it fades away in the sidereal silence. Pistol-Poem (1960), ermutation for voice and pistol shots, is based on a number of pistol shots fired one, two, three, four, five times simultaneously, while the author, in the typical tone of a sergeant-major, orders the shots as if on parade. No, poets dont own words and Junk is no good baby, both composed in 1962, follow the same principle. Accessed 13.10.06 from ubu.com - 1960 USA audio/Gysin-1960-3-Permutations.wav 98 Brion Gysin 1916 1010 images/spacer.jpg I Am Accessed 13.10.06 from ubu.com - 1960 USA audio/Gysin-1960-I-Am.wav 98 Brion Gysin 1916 1007 images/spacer.jpg Pistol Poem Accessed 13.10.06 from ubu.com - 1960 USA audio/Gysin-1960-Pistol_Poem.wav 98 Brion Gysin 1916 1009 images/spacer.jpg Junk is No Good Baby Accessed 13.10.06 from ubu.com - 1962 USA audio/Gysin-1962-Junk-Is-No-Good-Baby.wav 82 John Cage 1912 1467 images/spacer.jpg Radio Music Radio Music is a work composed using chance operations. The score indicates 56 different frequencies between 55 and 156 kHz, notated using numbers (and not using conventional staves, like in Imaginary Landscape No.4). Cage mentions that the work is in 4 sections, with or without silences between them, to be programmed by the player(s). Sources: Paul van Emmerik: Themas en Variaties; David Revill: The Roaring Silence; Richard Kostelanetz: John Cage writer - previously uncollected pieces ; New York Public Library online catalog; Martin Erdmann: Chronologisches Verzeichnis der musikalischen Kompositionen, Schriften, Gespräche, Hörspiele, Bilder, Objekte und Filme (in Musik-Konzepte: John Cage II, Ed. Heinz-Klaus Metzger, Rainer Riehn). for one to eight performers, each at one radio 1956 USA audio/Cage-1956-Radio_Music.wav 52 Maryanne Amacher 1943 828 images/works/Amacher-1999-Characters.jpg Sound Characters (Making of the 3rd Ear) Tracks 1, 4, 4 and 6 contain what I call “Third Ear Music”, - when our ears act as instruments and emit sounds as well as receive them.“Third Ear Music”is composed to stimulate our ears to “sound” their own tones and melodic shapes. When played at the right sound level, which is quite high and exciting, the tones in this music will cause your ears to act as neurophonic instruments that emit sounds that will seem to be issuing directly from your head. In concert my audiences discover music streaming out from their head, popping out of their ears, growing inside of them and growing outside of them, meeting and converging with the tones in the room.They discover they are producing a tonal dimension of the music which interacts melodically, rhythmically, and spatially with the tones in the room.Tones “dance”in the immediate space of their body, around them like a sonic warp, cascade inside ears, and out to space in front of their eyes, mixing and converging with the sound in the room. Do not be alarmed! Your ears are not behaving strangely or being damaged! Nor are loudspeakers being damaged.These virtual tones are a natural and very real physical aspect of auditory perception, similar to the fusing of two images resulting in a third three dimensional image in binocular perception. Produced interaurally, these virtual sounds and melodic patterns originate in ears and neuroanatomy, not in your loudspeakers. I believe that such response tones exist in all music, where they are usually registered subliminally, and are certainly masked within more complex timbres. I want to release this music which is produced by the listener, bring it out of subliminal existence, make it an important sonic dimension in my music. - 1999 USA audio/Amacher-xxxx-Plaything-Sound_Character.wav 82 John Cage 1912 1454 images/spacer.jpg Bacchanale Bacchanale is Cages first work for prepared piano. He intended to write a piece for percussion ensemble, but the performance hall being too small, he started experimenting with objects inside the piano. The preparations are quite simple: weather-stripping, pieces of rubber, screws and bolts, placed between the strings. - 1940 USA audio/Cage-bacchanale.wav 82 John Cage 1912 1456 images/spacer.jpg Imaginary Landscape No. 1 This is one of the earliest electro-acoustic works ever composed. (Some sources give it the credit of being the first ever, but there were earlier examples like Respighis Pini di Roma (1924), using pre-recorded sounds of birds). Cage uses a muted piano, large Chinese cymbal and 2 variable-speed turntables. On the first of the turntables a Victor frequency record (84522B) and a constant note record (nr.24) are played, on the second is another Victor frequency record (84522A). It was premiered in a program together with his Marriage at the Eiffel Tower. Sources: Leta E.Miller: Cage s collaborations in David Nicholls (Ed.): The Cambridge Companion to John Cage ; New York Public Library online catalog; Paul van Emmerik: Thema s en Variaties; David Revill: The Roaring Silence; Information provided by Ian Stewart For 2 variable-speed phono turntables, frequency recordings, muted piano and cymbal; To be performed as a recording or broadcast by 4 performers. 1939 USA audio/Cage-imaginary_landscape_no_1.wav 76 La Monte Young 1935 1420 images/works/Young-1979-DreamHouse.jpg Dream House A public institution for the study and presentation of my work and the work of Marian Zazeela and Pandit Pran Nath, set in a 6-story building featuring multiple inter-related sound and light environments, exhibitions, performances, research and listening facilities and archives, ---- about Dream Music In Dream Music there is a radical departure from European and even much Eastern music in that the basis of musical relationship is entirely harmony. Not European harmony as textbooks have outlined it, but the intervallic proportions and acoustical consequences of the particular ratios which sound concomitantly in the overtone series when any simple fundamental is produced. Melody does not exist at all (The Disappearance of Melody) unless one is forced to hear the movement from group to group of various simultaneously sounded frequencies derived from the overtone series as melodic because of previous musical conditioning. Even before the first man moved successively from one frequency to another (melody if you like) a pattern for this movement, that is the relationship of the second frequency to the first was already predetermined (harmonically) by the overtone structure of the fundamental of the first sound. And in the life of the Tortoise the drone is the first sound. It lasts forever and cannot have begun but is taken up again from time to time until it lasts forever as continuous sound in Dream Houses where many musicians and students will live and execute a musical work. Dream Houses will allow music which, after a year, ten years, a hundred years of constant sound, would not only be a real living organism with a life and tradition of its own, but one with a capacity to propel itself by its own momentum. This music may play without stopping for thousands of years, just as the Tortoise has continued for millions of years past, and perhaps only after the Tortoise has again continued for as many million years as all the tortoises in the past will it be able to sleep and dream of the next order of tortoises to come and of ancient tigers with black fur and omens the 189/98 whirlwind in the Lost Ancestral Lake Region only now that our species has had this much time to hear music that has lasted so long because we have just come out of a long quiet period and we are just remembering how long sounds can last and only now becoming civilized enough again that we want to hear sounds continuously. It will become easier as we move further into this period of sound. We will become more attached to sound. We will be able to have precisely the right sounds in every dreamroom, playroom and workroom, further reinforcing the integral proportions resonating through structure (re: earlier Architectural Music), Dream Houses (shrines, etc.) at which performers, students and listeners may visit even from long distances away or at which they may spend long periods of Dreamtime weaving the ageless quotients of the Tortoise in the tapestry of Eternal Music. - 1979 USA audio/Young-1973-Dreamhouse.wav 52 Maryanne Amacher 1943 826 images/spacer.jpg Music for Sound-Joined Rooms I produced my first large scale multichannel installation/performance in the MUSIC FOR SOUND-JOINED ROOMS Series, Living Sound, Patent Pending (Traveling Musicians Being Prepared) for the Walker Arts Center, during the New Music America Festival, Minneapolis-St. Paul (June 7-14 1980). The music and visual sets were staged architecturally, throughout the nearly empty Victorian house of the conductor Dennis Russell Davies and filmaker, Molly Davies. The visual elements gave clues to a story discovered in the different rooms, and in the outside garden. The house, on a hill in St. Paul with its panoramic view of Minneapolis, was lit by tall quartz spots, as if a movie set. The time: midnight. Davies music room, where two grand pianos had been, was now an emergent music laboratory, where 21 petri dishes with something growing in them (the musicians and instruments of the future) were placed beside metal instrument cases marked Fragile: traveling musicians being prepared and the molecular orchestra; TV story boards refering to symbiotic aids, biochemical companions tailored to enhance neurophonic recognition; making new scores. DNA photos and biochemical diagrams were placed on music stands. Meanwhile, the entire house was full of sound, circulating throughout the rooms, out the doors and windows, down the hill, past sedate Victorian mansions. I was thrilled to discover that the law to patent life forms (the Diamond V. Chakrabarty decision) followed a few days later. As the possibilities of biocomputers and emerging media approach, perhaps this work was not as much fantasy as it may have seemed at the time. - 1980 USA audio/Amacher-1979-LivingSound.wav 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 380 images/works/Lucier-1977-Wire.jpg Music on a Long Thin Wire 1979 USA audio/Lucier-1979-MusicOnALongThinWire.wav 31 Francisco Lopez 1964 4106 images/spacer.jpg Live in San Francisco Performances from 2000/2001 2005 USA audio/Lopez-xxxx-LiveInSanFran.wav 21 Ryoji Ikeda 1966 1141 images/spacer.jpg Matrix - 2000 USA audio/Ikeda-1999-Matrix.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 4107 images/spacer.jpg San Francisco-A Setting Of The Cries Of Two Newsboys On A Foggy Night In The Twenties Written 1943 1958 USA audio/Partch-1943-San Francisco.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 4108 images/spacer.jpg The Letter Originally composed 1943 1972 USA audio/Partch-1972-TheLetter.wav 187 Trimpin 1951 4111 images/spacer.jpg Study No. 51 (3750) Realisation of Conlon Nancarrow's 1992 player piano composition of 1992 1999 USA audio/Trimpin-1999-Nancarrow(_3750_).wav 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 384 images/works/Obadike-2000-auto1.jpg Automatic automatic asks, what is the difference between our experience of visual and aural information/signs in public zones? do visual and aural textures trigger memories and emotions in a comparable manner when experienced in public? is all public, non-commercial, expressive writing (visual or aural) graffiti? Textures built from words found in the paintings of raymond saunders and jean-michel basquiat are the foundation for this composition. both painters are well known for creating works that blur the line between high and low forms. as in hip-hop, saunders' and basquiat's employment of found objects and graffiti techniques is significant in crafting a personal sign or tag out of appropriated materials. i cut my teeth (or ears) on hip-hop and now spend an equal amount of time on opera, soundscapes and experimental narratives. As such, I have had to ask myself constantly what it means to make art/music for the streets. Automatic is my most recent answer. Accessed 13.08.2009 from http://blacknetart.com/ 2000 USA audio/Obadike-2000-Automatic.wav 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1167 images/spacer.jpg sexmachines (for nam june paik and james brown) sexmachines is a sound art triptych dedicated to nam june paik and james brown. this project is hosted by nomads and was featured in the exhibition audiophfile 6. it requires netscape communicator and a flash plug-in.the third movment of sexmachine is included on the cd radio action II from the transmission arts organization free 103 point 9. - 2000 USA audio/Obadike-2000-sexmachinessample.wav 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1170 images/spacer.jpg The Uli Suite he uli suite is a sound art work for cd and installation.the cd is available from hellomachine.com uli is a classical painting style and design system from the igbo people of nigeria.traditionally, as practiced by mgbadunwa okanumee, uli has been used to decorate the body or architecture. since the 1960s, however, academic artists such as uche okeke, obiora udechukwu and olu oguibe also have incorporated uli designs in their contemporary works on canvas and paper. the uli suite iis an attempt to aurally render the lyrical lines (eke-the sacred python) or stippled dots (ntupo) of uli, while simultaneously articulating a sense of an architectural space that has been treated with uli designs. the source sounds/pigments for this project were favorite everyday sounds submitted by participants in the e-2A project. with certain submissions, the sound of the participant saying her name was also used as a source sound/pigment. an excerpt ffrom this project can be heard at at the danish artnode foundation/ the danish film institute website (http://artnode.dk) in the sonik area. low resolution mp3s of the work can be heard at the m.i.t./race and digital space website . - 1998 USA audio/Obadike-1998-Uli.wav 24 Vito Acconci 1940 149 images/spacer.jpg Two Track In Two Track, Acconci experiments with direct and peripheral perception of information in the context of communication and interaction. He sits with a man and a woman in front of a microphone. The man and woman each read a different text (a Mickey Spillane novel and a Raymond Chandler novel) simultaneously; Acconci repeats everything the man says. Occasionally an off-screen voice interrupts to question Acconci on what the woman has read, and he tries to answer. Camera, Microphone 1971 USA video/Acconci_TWOTRACK.mpg 24 Vito Acconci 1940 148 images/spacer.jpg Association Area This early performance tape is an example of what Acconci has termed his quasi-ESP exercises, in which he explores mental concentration and intuition as a means of non-visual and non-verbal perception, interaction and communication. Blindfolded and wearing earplugs, Acconci and another man attempt to intuit and imitate each others movements and bearing, though they can neither hear nor see. The goal, as Acconci has stated, was to concentrate on each other so totally that wed begin to blend together. Audible only to the audience, an off-camera voice whispers directions and locations to the performers as they move slowly and haltingly around the performance space: Mel, Vito is facing you. Turn around and get into his position. Vito, turn completely around. Mel, Vito is facing your right side.... Cassette, Microphone 1971 USA video/Acconci-ASSOCIATION.mpg 82 John Cage 1912 1459 images/works/Cage-1952-433score.jpg 433 The premiere of the three-movement 4?33? was given by David Tudor on August 29, 1952, at Woodstock, New York as part of a recital of contemporary piano music. The audience saw him sit at the piano and lift the lid of the piano. Some time later, without having played any notes, he closed the lid. A while after that, again having played nothing, he lifted the lid. And after a period of time, he closed the lid again and rose from the piano. The piece had passed without a note being played, in fact without Tudor or anyone else on stage having made any deliberate sound, although he timed the lengths on a stopwatch while turning the pages of the score. Richard Kostelanetz suggests that the very fact that Tudor, a man known for championing experimental music, was the performer, and that Cage, a man known for introducing unexpected non-musical noise into his work, was the composer, would have led the audience to expect unexpected sounds. Anybody listening intently would have heard them: while the performer produces no deliberately musical sound, there will nonetheless be sounds in the concert hall (just as there were sounds in the anechoic chamber at Harvard). It is these sounds, unpredictable and unintentional, that are to be regarded as constituting the music in this piece. The piece remains controversial to this day, and is seen as challenging the very definition of music. - 1952 USA video/Cage-John_4-33_2004.mpg 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1111 images/works/Labelle-2003-seedbed.jpg Learning from Seedbed “Already with Seedbed (1972), I was part of the floor; a viewer who entered that room stepped into my power field — they came into my house.” (Vito Acconci) Vito Acconci’s 1972 project “Seedbed” performed the body by housing it under a constructed wooden ramp. Exhibited at Sonnabend, the ramp rose up from the gallery floor to end against a side wall, running approximately 22 feet wide, 16 feet long, and 2 feet high. Acconci occupied the space under the ramp three days every week, for a period of 8 hours, masturbating and speaking through a microphone connected to a speaker positioned inside the gallery space. As Acconci has stated, the work was an attempt to establish an “intimate” connection with those who visited the gallery, through fantasizing sexual relation — Acconci would speak to visitors as if they were lovers. Acconcis “Seedbed” operates as a performative work not only through its use of the body, but also through its reliance upon the ramp — the ramp could be said to make possible the fantasized moment of intimacy through its very operation of concealing Acconci the masturbator. Architecturally, the ramp creates a hidden space, embedded within the gallery as an anomaly, and yet acting as an “amplifier” for the desires of an individual body seeking its social partner. In this regard, the ramp suggests an “architectural performance” in which the negative space under the ramp allows something to occur within the gallery space.Learning from Seedbed restages Acconci’s work by articulating the ramp as the main character. The ramp is replayed, though inverted, so rather than conceal a hidden body (and its desires) this ramp opens out onto the space of the gallery, inviting visitors to enter its interior, as a social space.The ramp was constructed out of wood, measuring 16 long x 12 wide x 4 high. In addition, four contact microphones were mounted onto the ramp, and connected to two speakers placed in the gallery space. The volume was turned up to such a degree that a steady feedback hum was produced; the feedback could be modulated, played, and toyed with by walking on the ramp, tapping on it, etc. In this regard, the ramp functioned as a resonant instrument, performed by visitors.To enact “Seedbed” as an architectural “other” whose presence makes possible the articulation of interior wishes, the ramp is envisaged as an idiosyncratic form, an amplifier of noise, against the Modernist tendency of straight lines, cool surfaces, and geometric purity, exemplified in Mies van der Rohe. In contrast, the ramp diagonally cuts across and splits space, marking an uneven ground, a blob or jag on surfaces. Such unevenness as Acconci suggests is also the site of the body in its most libidinal and performative position — thus, the ramp can be understood as architecture’s own moment of fantasy, driven by a desire to embrace those who occupy its spatial potential.In addition to the ramp, a performative action was organized and staged in the city of Chicago, documented on video and presented in the gallery space on a small monitor. The performance consisted of working with a group of participants who were instructed to occupy the crack of various buildings by lieing down in the seam between the building and the street, thereby adopting the position Acconci occupied in the original Seedbed work. - 2003 USA video/Labelle-2003-LearningFromSeedbed1.mpg 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 649 images/works/Masaoka-2002-plants.jpg Brainwaves and Plants Pieces for Plants is an interactive sound installation for laptop, synthesizer, and the American semi-tropical climbing Philodendron. Versions of the piece have also been presented in a musical setting in which the plant participates as a member and soloist within an instrumental ensemble. In the piece, a plant’s real-time responses to its physical environment are translated to sound. Highly sensitive electrodes are attached to the leaves of the plant. Scored movements by a human “plant player” stimulate physiological responses in the plant that are monitored via the electrodes and biofeedback wave analysis. The “plant player’s ” proximity, touch and interactions with the plant are then expressed in sound via midi and synthesizer. During the piece, the plant is brought to a range of physical/psychological states, from calm to agitation. - 2002 USA video/Masaoka-2002-pieces_for_plants.mpg 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 47 images/works/Neuhaus-1977-Times.jpg Times Square In situ until 1992 1977 USA video/neuhaus-times_square.mp4 6 Janek Schaefer 1970 18 images/spacer.jpg Pulse Field 2003 USA 6 Janek Schaefer 1970 20 images/spacer.jpg Weather Report + ISEA festival, Estonia 2004 USA 6 Janek Schaefer 1970 28 images/spacer.jpg Solo Tour 2001 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 42 images/works/Neuhaus-1967-DriveIn.jpg Drive-in Music a sound oriented piece for a situation other than the concert hall 1967 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 43 images/spacer.jpg Fan Music 1967 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 44 images/spacer.jpg Walkthrough 1973-1977 I was interested in making a work that would be anonymous. After I stopped performing I was no longer required to be a celebrity. The other part of the idea was that it would be discoverable, that anybody had the opportunity to find it. This was a transient space, but not a passage because people moved in diverse ways. The work was subtle, but it was also very clear once you heard it. It also had this idea from Fan Music of connecting to its environment. Here it was sensitive to wind speed, light intensity, temperature and humidity. Connecting it to the weather made it flex. There was also this other idea about working with a fine level of subtlety. I thought I could do it here because we notice change, even very small changes in a very familiar environment, one we encounter daily. This was a piece for the people who went in and out of that subway entrance every day; it wasn't meant for the art world, as such. Accessed 12.08.2009 from http://www.max-neuhaus.info/soundworks/vectors/place/evocare/ 1973 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 45 images/works/Neuhaus-176-listen.jpg Listen 1965 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 46 images/spacer.jpg Public Supply he combined a radio station with the telephone network and created a two-way public aural space twenty miles in diameter encompassing New York City where any inhabitant could join a live dialogue with sound by making a phone call. 1966 USA 15 Ros Bandt 1950 74 images/spacer.jpg Altars of Power and Desire commissioned for the Benjamin Cohen Peace Prize 1987 USA 15 Ros Bandt 1950 107 images/spacer.jpg The Six Exquisites Galloping, Port Angeles Forest in surround sound, Sonic Archeologies, Thrausmata and Mungo, collaborative works with German and American Sound Artists. surround sound, loudspeaker 1999 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 126 images/spacer.jpg Sound Structure as Social Structure vol. 28 no.3 1990 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 111 images/works/Vitiello-2000-Tetrasomia.gif Tetrasomia Interview with Stephen Vitiello by Sara Tucker: For years Stephen Vitiello has focused on sounds that might be called ambient, environmental or incidental. His work has combined field recordings with digital processing to create slowly evolving, sonically-rich soundscapes. For example, the first track on his CD Light of Falling Cars is composed from manipulated sounds of a paper cutter. In other works, Vitiello has sought to reveal sounds that, in a given space, are ambient or inaudible, sounds that might exist just beyond the reach of the listener. One example is his 1999 installation atop the World Trade Center, in which he placed contact microphones against the glass windows of a 91st-floor office to amplify exterior noises that were otherwise unheard but implied by the view. Vitiellos intention was to increase the phenomenological experience of the space while bringing the visitor to an increased awareness of the buildings height and movement as it was affected by wind and other natural and non-natural forces. When Dia commissioned Vitiello to participate in its series of artists projects for the web, he looked to the internet as a source and found himself thinking about non-musical sound archives. He soon zeroed in on physical, mostly natural sounds, which he then organized in accordance with the four elements: earth, air, wind, and fire. The resulting work serves as an interactive guide to these sometimes hard-to-find archives. Each site is represented by an audio sample that visitors can turn on or off by clicking as they draw on up to seventeen simultaneous tracks to devise a mix that might include a fruit fly courtship, an underwater volcano, poison frogs, and extracts from the fiery sounds of the Saturn 5 lift-off. In addition, Vitiello created four new sound pieces generated in part from his collection of found web-based sounds. These compositions can be heard by clicking on icons taken from a Western representation of a Tibetan Stupa.¹ In this cosmology, the elements are ordered from the bottom as Earth, Water, Fire, and Air, with Ether as the fifth element. When a fifth element was included by ancient and medieval civilizations, it was usually described as space and often had a metaphysical dimension. In the nineteenth century, it was widely accepted in physics that a luminiferous ether existed-a theoretical, transparent, weightless, undetectable, and universal substance believed to act as the medium for transmission of electromagnetic waves. While this idea was ultimately disproved by Einstein s theory of relativity, it gave rise to the name Ethernet, the standard for data transmission used by most networks, including the Internet. Bob Metcalfe, its accredited founder, explained Ethernet was named, on May 22, 1973, for the luminiferous ether...an omnipresent passive medium of the propagation of electromagnetic waves, in our case, Internet packets.² Vitiello named his project after the ancient Western notion of four elements. The term Tetrasomia refers to the Doctrine of Four Elements written by Empedocles, the fifth-century BC philosopher, who first postulated that all matter is comprised of four roots, or basic elements. A contemporary notion of the fifth element is also present in Tetrasomia: its content and context exist in the ether(net). ST: The sites you chose for this project range from individual hobbyists personal sound collections to a database containing 25,000 species of orthopteroid insects. How did you select the sites and what drew you to these kinds of sounds? Why did you decide to exclude the fifth element as a category for organizing sounds? SV: Over the last year or so when I have mentioned to friends or colleagues that I was looking for specific sounds for projects, they would often point me towards the Internet. My expectation was that these sounds would be hard- to-find and low quality. However, recently, when I was working on an installation and wanted sounds of bats my wife, Tracy Leipold, quickly called up several sites with high-quality, diverse recordings of bats from around the world. Michael Lavin, at the Guggenheim Museum, also pointed out sites that feature beautiful, ethereal ground-based ELF-VLF recordings. I started to make lists of sounds that I would like to find, from close-ups of butterfly wings and other flying insects to events like falling rocks and earthquakes. I would then search online to see what I could track down. I was amazed to learn how much is out there and how varied the sites are: postings by amateur bird watchers; documentation by scientists; archives for children to examine various things that make a crackling sound; a religiously-inspired site that collects recordings of thunder; commercial sites that sell sounds as well as non-commercial sites generally sharing more arcane sounds for others to use freely. For this project I was interested in finding a variety of evocative and well-recorded sounds. At the same time, I wanted to create a reading list of sorts -- links for further listening. I was interested in presenting sites that could introduce the visitor to the web as a sound space, in much the way it has already become a resource for image, text and popular music. Some archives are very personal, perhaps obsessive collections of sounds that few beyond the site host might find interesting. In other cases, they may appeal to larger audiences. Several, including sites with archives of Big Foot or UFO audio recordings, offer instructions on recording technique, suggested equipment, and the locations where one might capture similar sounds. Several times while working on this project I gave thought to whether to include ether. One idea was to fill it with so-called impossible or improbable nature, such as the Big Foot recordings, perhaps a nature that we imagine rather than one we can be sure exists. Another idea was to put links to other artists sound projects. I don t have a conclusive answer but I do feel that the presence of natural sounds, supported and kept alive in this non-natural environment suggests an interesting mystery. Where it might be argued that this network and transfer system for information is not at all unearthly, I believe that it exists and continually expands like a universe, in a way that starts to take on its own character and personality. You were part of the collaboration responsible for Dia s first artist project for the web in 1995, Fantastic Prayers. Five years later, how is it different to be working in this medium again? Few people I knew at that time had adequate access to the web. Far fewer had the proper set up to receive sound or video files. I was told by everyone to keep the sound files very short, highly compressed and at the lowest resolution to conserve bandwidth. I thought of the sound for that site as a kind of punctuation, or a small moment in a cartoon bubble above the head of the core character: the text. Fantastic Prayers, as a performance, and now, as a CD-ROM, always treated sound as an element equal to text and image, but in 1995 the web was not capable of that equivalence. You ve done live performances around the world and released several CDs. How does working in a digital, networked space differ from performing in a physical space or making recordings, and how do you think about audience in this medium? I always start with thinking about context. For a long time, I created soundtracks for experimental film and video. I began by thinking about the images, as well as the intent of the artist and the sound that might emphasize those ideas. When I began making site-specific sound installations, I came to spaces as rooms in which to create soundtracks, looking for existing sounds that would underline and amplify, or that might change, a visitor s perception of space within that environment. For example, I am interested in ways to make a space larger by sound. My approach to working with the web is not that different. The Internet becomes the space to amplify. In this project I wanted to dig up or unearth specific sounds and then amplify them through the interactive screen as well as through my compositions. Of course, I had to be aware of file sizes, keeping the pieces short so that visitors would not need to wait too long for the download. I also realize that people s patience in realation to a computer is much shorter than, for example, in front of their stereo or in a concert. It seemed clear that the pieces should be kept relatively brief: were these compositions meant for CD release, they would no doubt be longer and evolve more gradually. Creating works to be heard on the web also encourages a conservative use of high and low frequencies. Most people s computers are not able to render sound with a quality equal to that of the home stereo; they remain typically better equipped for higher quality with imagery than with sound. ST: How did you approach the compositions? And on a continuum from abstraction to representation, where would you locate these pieces? This quartet of works utilize sounds that were found on the designated sites as a basic palette from which to begin. The combinations of sounds are not dictated by logic, rather they are based on impression and on pleasing combinations. The results may be experienced as abstract, but in my head as I created them each one had its own narrative and its own vocabulary. I find myself attaching names to certain sounds that may not have anything to do with their true origins, but come from the feeling I get from listening to them. I consider these purely personal associations and I don t expect anyone else to pick up on my narratives, but it helps when organizing sounds while imagining how to present an evocative experience, one that might be as rich in associations as any visual counterpart. For example, when creating Air I imagined the sounds as if heard from an insect riding on the back of a larger bird as it flies over a dark countryside. You hear close-up scratches and movements of wind and dust bouncing off the bird s wings, as well as long-shot ambient clusters of sounds from the ground below. With Earth, I pictured a slow moving animal or insect that moves along the dirt at night, half submerged, listening from the ground, experiencing the bass rumble from unseen events. A short piece for a slow loris Walkman. Truth in relation to sound is even more subjectively determined than with visual imagery. In creating soundtracks, or sound environments, it is often more important to present the idea of the thing than an actual recording. Foley artists have long known that you do not need documentation of one hundred horses running to give the viewer the sensation of a hundred horses running by. A true recording might seem muddy or too dense or unreadable, whereas a few people clapping their hands knocking coconuts or slippers together into a microphone might give a more persuasive and hence truer experience of horses running. The images used in the interactive screen were all taken from your photographs. What is the relationship between the sound and image here, and what prompted you to make your own, rather than work collaboratively with a visual artist as you have in the past? For twelve years I worked with visual artists creating soundtracks for their films, videos or installations. It wasn t until I started to create exclusively sound works that I could see myself as an artist in my own right, rather than as an artistic collaborator. I learned a great deal from collaborations but it was important to start to define the landscape myself rather than simply respond to other peoples frameworks. In the last year I have started to create visual responses to my sound pieces. These have taken the form of video, installation, and now, photography. I shot the photos for this project in Ouro Preto, Brazil, where I was teaching a workshop in sound and image production. While there I also spent time making field recordings relating to the four elements. When recording audio I would sometimes stop to take photographs. Several of the photos were shot at night, standing alone in darkness. While listening to something I would shoot with a digital still camera, catching whatever the flash managed to find. The combination of chance with knowing that something is there that I cannot see but might feel and can still capture is another way to imagine the presence of the ether. Notes: 1. A stupa is a dome-shaped monument used to house Buddhist relics or to commemorate significant facts of Buddhism or Jainism. The graphical representaion of a Tibetan stupa used for this project came from Dictionary of Symbols, (Malmö: Merkur International KB, 1991), p. 255. 2. Quoted from an August 20, 2000 email from Bob Metcalfe. 2000 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 115 images/spacer.jpg I am Sitting in a Room:Sound Works by America 2000 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 118 images/spacer.jpg Ear to the Image: Soundtracks by Steven Vitiello New York-based guitarist/composer exhibits experimental videoworks for which he has contributed musical scores. Among them will be works by Peter Callas, Scoungho Cho, Jem Cohen, Tony Oursler, Constance Dejong, and Eder Santos, by Tony Oursler, Nam June Paik, . Vitiello will perform the soundtrack to one of the works. 1996 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 121 images/spacer.jpg uknown (an off-site event of the 1997 Whitney Bienniale) 1997 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 127 images/spacer.jpg Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, 1992 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 128 images/spacer.jpg Body Building 1986 USA 20 Kim Cascone 1964 130 images/spacer.jpg Laptop Music - Counterfeiting Aura in the Age no 107 2002 USA 20 Kim Cascone 1964 131 images/spacer.jpg Composing Emergent Sound Art using Simple Genetic Algorythmns 2006 USA 20 Kim Cascone 1964 132 images/spacer.jpg The Aesthetics of Failure vol. 24 2000 USA 23 John Oswald 1953 139 images/spacer.jpg Plunderphonics E.P. Plunderphonics 1988 USA 23 John Oswald 1953 141 images/spacer.jpg Discosphere Plunderphonics 1991 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 144 images/spacer.jpg Running Tape Running Tape is an endurance piece that Acconci made in New Yorks Central Park on August 26, 1969, as one of a series of what he terms tape situations. This piece relates to Acconcis performance and film works of the same period. Acconci describes the process of this piece as follows: Cassette recorder on my belt, microphone in my hand. Running, and counting each step as a I run. (When I have to -- when my words get jumbled, when Im out of breath - I stop and breathe into the microphone, catching my breath, until I can continue my run, continue my count.) Cassette, Microphone 1969 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 145 images/works/Acconci-1976-Gift.jpg The American Gift Alternating between an English lesson, in which a French-speaking man and woman translate English phrases, and short samples of what Acconci calls the voice of America -- movie soundtracks, Creole singers, honky-tonk piano -- The American Gift investigates the problematics of translation and nationality. Cassette, Microphone 1976 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 146 images/spacer.jpg Under-History Lessons Playing both the teacher and the students, Acconci enacts a series of short lessons, from Lesson 1: Lets Believe Were in This Together to Lesson 12: Lets be Oppressed, offering an ideosyncratic take on the ideological underpinnings of American education and society. Cassette, Microphone 1976 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 147 images/spacer.jpg The Gangster Sister From Chicago Visits New York Originally installed in a makeshift house painted red, white, and blue, this provocative audio piece features Acconci addressing imaginary characters -- Mama, Daddy, Big Brother, Sister, and Jesus -- in a singular take on the American family. Cassette, Microphone 1977 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 150 images/spacer.jpg Storm Riders Storm Riders collages the first Moral Essay by Alexander Pope and my own poems from a set in which all the nouns and all the verbs begin with St, spoken by characters whose names begin with St . These St people are then referred to where all the nouns appear in Pope s original text, so that I have Alexander Pope talking about Harriet Beecher Stowe or Alfred Stieglitz or Igor Stravinsky and people whom obviously Pope could not have known. This substitution and interplay becomes a perfectly valid form of New Hörspiel, and yet it s absolutely maddening when I play these kinds of things to a composer, because the composer finds the musical implications are more or less minimal. The piece functions conceptually on a completely different plane from the one that composers are used to. - from an interview with Nicholas Zurbrugg, July 1993 collage, voice 1982 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 152 images/spacer.jpg Omnia Gallia Omnia Gallia is a sound or performance poem using three voices (all mine in this case);the list could be varied year by year to keep its dualities current (see enclosed score) Dick Higgins voice 1980 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 3617 images/works/Anderson-1978-Handphone.jpg Handphone Table When the listeners put their elbows on the table and cover their ears with hands, they can hear the sounds coming through wood and bones of their own arms which, similarly to wood, have a porous structure.The principle of the performance of Handphone Table bases on the conduction of sound through bones. Stereophonic music in low ranges is strengthened and processed to the form of impulses, spread through metal bars connecting with four points on the inner surface of the table top. Accessed 30.04.2008 from http://www.textually.org/textually/archives/2007/03/015327.htm 1978 USA 26 William Furlong 1944 160 images/spacer.jpg British Soundworks included Gerald Newman, Stuart Brisley, Charlie Hooker, Silvia C Ziranek and Audio Arts tapes. Being presented in New York resulted in the magazine issue, ‘New York Report’. Accessed 30.03.2008 from http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/exhibitions/audioarts/cd1_rg_transcript.htm 1983 USA 26 William Furlong 1944 163 images/spacer.jpg On the Wall/On the Air 1984 USA 29 Christina Kubisch 1948 267 images/spacer.jpg Cross Examination 1996 USA 29 Christina Kubisch 1948 274 images/works/kubisch-1997-clocktower.jpg The Clocktower Project The comparison of a citys clock to a persons heart, though it has been made countless times, remains evocative. When Christina Kubisch first visited MASS MoCA in 1996, she was moved by the fact that the century-old factory clock had not kept time, nor had its bells rung, since 1986, when the Sprague Electric Company vacated the 13-acre site. This 19th-century clock, located in an eighty-foot tower with a 750-pound and a 1,000-pound bell, had set the rhythm of the workday in North Adams since 1895, ringing every quarter hour. Now those bells and beautiful brass clockworks share the tower with components of The Clocktower Project: solar panels, electronic sound system, and a computer with Kubischs unique program on its flash disc. Kubisch felt that the loss of these bell sounds could be as keenly felt as the loss of an important local building. With this in mind, she undertook to restore the clock in a way that would also mark the arrival of contemporary art in the city. A classically trained musician and professor of experimental art, Kubisch began playing the bells like musical instruments, ringing them with their clappers as well as hammering, brushing, and striking them with her hands and various tools. She recorded the bell tone database with a digital audio recorder. Kubisch then placed small solar sensors in a band encircling the tower just under the bell window. The sensors relay information about the intensity and location of the sun to a computer inside the tower. A unique software program, designed for this project by Berlin engineer Manfred Fox, interprets the solar information and combines Kubisch s pre-recorded bell sounds in response to light conditions. Thus, a sunny summer morning generates loud, distinct, metallic tones, while a gray afternoon in winter brings about softer, somewhat melancholy sounds. At noon and 5pm, the computer plays a short pre-set concert, but at other times the brief compositions change with the quality of light and time of day. This use of unpredictable changes in the weather, coupled with an algorithmic function in the program that prevents the mini-compositions from repeating, marks the influence of the American composer and artist John Cage on Kubisch s work. The fading daylight, registered by the solar panels, causes The Clocktower Project to fall silent in the evenings. At the same time, the four faces of the clock begin to glow faintly and remain illuminated through the night. Kubisch coated the 4 -diameter clock faces with a phosphorescent paint and placed black lights behind the faces. The cool blue-white light quietly marks the transformation of the tower when the bell sounds have ceased. Since 1991, Kubisch has made a number of hauntingly beautiful synaesthetic works, culminating in The Clocktower Project, that allow her audience to hear the light. Many of her recent installations have focused on the transformation of light into sound using solar panels and ultrasonic devices. Kubisch s thoughtful investigation of the historical sound character of the MASS MoCA site, and creation of a complex, technology-rich work, typifies MASS MoCA s symbiotic approach to site-specific art. photo: Ben Garver The Clocktower Installation and Restoration Project was made possible by the generosity of the Clark Art Institute in support of the Williams Graduate Program in the History of Art, the Goethe-Institut Boston, Mary and Henry Flynt, and Solarex. 1997 USA 30 Carsten Nicolai 1965 322 images/spacer.jpg Major Group Show 1996 USA 30 Carsten Nicolai 1965 326 images/spacer.jpg Major Group Show 1993 USA 30 Carsten Nicolai 1965 330 images/spacer.jpg Major Group Show 1999 USA 30 Carsten Nicolai 1965 331 images/spacer.jpg Major Group Show 2000 USA 30 Carsten Nicolai 1965 333 images/spacer.jpg Major Group Show 2001 USA 31 Francisco Lopez 1964 344 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2004 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 379 images/spacer.jpg Chambers 1988 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 378 images/spacer.jpg Sound On Paper commissioned by Real Art Ways 1985 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 377 images/spacer.jpg Seesaw 1984 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 381 images/spacer.jpg Music for Pure Waves, Bass Drums, and Acousti 1988 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 382 images/spacer.jpg Spinner commissioned by Real Art Ways 1985 USA 253 Gary Hill 1951 4201 images/spacer.jpg Art of Limina: Gary Hill with Up Against Down, Wall Piece, Figuring Grounds, Big Legs Don’t Cry, Around and About, Happenstance (part one of many parts), Why Do Things Get in a Muddle? (Come on Petunia), Incidence of Catastrophe, Site Recite (a prologue), and Goats and Sheep) 2009 USA 35 Scanner 1964 396 images/spacer.jpg Ear as Eye : Drawings by Sound Artists Organized by Brandon LaBelle and Steve Roden, Ear as Eye featured the drawings and other visual artwork of one hundred sound artists in addition to a listening station. Participating artists: Leif Elggren, Ryoji Ikeda, Harold Budd, Yasuano Tone, Ben Neill, Carl Stone amongst many others. I presented an instructional drawing to encourage found sound recording. 1997 USA 35 Scanner 1964 397 images/works/scanner-1997-ground.jpg Ground Control A collaborative project with artist-run space Jutempus in Vilnius and the Baltic Flour Mills in Gateshead, manifesting in exhibitions in London and Vilnius, a book, a web site and symposium. Artists projects focused upon the relationship between East and West Europe through their experiences as visitors, exploring the implications of travel and global communication and the potential of the artist as commentator and contemporary seer. Fiona Banner, Ceponyte and Ozarinscas, Lucy Gunning, Evaldas Jansas, Linas Liandzbergis, David Mollin, Deimantas Narkevicius, Aturas Raila with Darius Cuita, Scanner, Thomson and Craighead. As part of an exchange programme of artists from Lithuania and London, I created a soundscape for the show composed from location recordings and scanned voices from Vilnius which was then broadcast throughout the London exposition 1998 USA 35 Scanner 1964 427 images/works/scanner-2002-echodays.jpg Echo Days Katarina Matiasek + Scanner .The audio environment of the installation Echo Days used decelerated and thus audible echolocation sounds of bats flying through cities and landscapes for an unsettling and stroboscopic composition. As the soundtrack entirely exists of reflected sound, it secretly transports absent structures. In the acoustic gaps of the music, the staccato image of the visible moving structures of Echo Days appears, their afterimages projected onto the black screen coinciding with each echolocation signal of the soundtrack. Thus edited in a mutually exclusive way, the relationship between sound and image speaks of the difficult reconstruction of any outside world by our senses. 2002 USA 35 Scanner 1964 447 images/works/scanner-2004-natural.jpg A Natural Romance This work explores the astonishing sounds of seduction and passion in the natural world, using wildlife recordings of matings calls and sexual activity in such creatures as bats, albatrosses, tungler frogs, asian lions, billygoats mute swans, elephants, puerto rican tree frogs, peacocks, swallows, beluga whales, capuchin birds, blue tits, cats, bees, grey lions, toads, satin bowerbirds, grey seals, hammer headed fruit bats, swallow gulls and elephant seals. Exhibited as part of Charlie Morrows Sound Cube—a multi-channel playback environment providing a 3D audio experience. World premieres by Olivia Block, Shelley Hirsch, Miya Masaoka, Steve McCaffrey, Charlie Morrow, Phill Niblock, Michael J. Schumacher, Scanner, Stephen Vitiello, Martyn Ware, and Pamela Z. Produced by The Kitchen, Charles Morrow Associates Inc., and Harvestworks Digital Media Art Center; curated by Charlie Morrow, Stephen Vitiello and Christina Yang http://www.thekitchen.org 2004 USA 35 Scanner 1964 449 images/works/scanner-2004-elevator2.jpg Ricochet : Seeing in the Dark Elevator Music: Investigations in Experimental Sound Responding to the space and function of the elevator, artist Robin Rimbaud mixes urban field recordings of airborne bats to create Ricochet – Seeing in the Dark. Far exceeding the frequencies detected by the human ear, a bat emits ultrasonic signals as a means of orientation in its environment – a process termed echolocation. Once produced, the signals bounce off surrounding objects and return to the bat’s extremely sensitive ears, which detect subtle changes in the sonic waves to develop an audio “image” of the nearby terrain. To accommodate the comparatively handicapped human ear, Rimbaud decelerates these calls and re-mixes the resulting tones for this installation. The reflected noises mirror the elevators rebounds between floors, while pointing to the often-unnoticed interaction between sound and the everyday architectures we occupy. Gretchen L Wagner Catalogue essay 2004 USA 35 Scanner 1964 455 images/works/scanner-2005-crossed.jpg Crossed Circuits A group show with Pasqualina Azzarello, Cecilia Biagin, Mckendree Key, Tim Dowse, Lee Ranaldo, Damian Catera and others. Crossed Circuits features a headphone listening station featuring sound works from Free 103.9 Transmission Artists The varied works in this exhibit loosely reflect and invoke a blurring of the senses (synesthesia) and celebrate the inherently ephemeral nature of these connections. The meaning and presence of these crossed circuits are always in flux; they represent a fleeting perceptual moment….a snapshot of what is possible. These works, which come from a variety of mediums, encourage the viewer/ experiencer, to reflect on the process of experiencing art in a multidimensional, multi-sensory way. The negotiation of this is a constant process, a succession of ephemeral moments. In assembling this exhibit, we were able to consider a wide variety of works, that may not have been created with these concepts in mind, but were still open to be interpreted and experienced within this conceptual framework. 2005 USA 35 Scanner 1964 461 images/works/scanner-2005-heaven.jpg Heaven and Hell Scanner + Stephen Vitiello . Heaven and Hell is the premiere of a new multi-channel sound work by Richmond-based sound artist Stephen Vitiello and ScannerThe source material for this plays off of two unlikely cover songs - Dolly Partons version of Led Zeppelin s song Stairway to Heaven and the Hayseed Dixies version of AC/DC s song Highway to Hell. In the hands (and ears) of Vitiello and Scanner these tracks are manipulated beyond recognition offering a surprisingly lush and haunting sound environment. 2005 USA 35 Scanner 1964 462 images/works/scanner-2005-efficiency1.jpg Efficiency Dance collaboration with Jane Jerardi. The improvisatory work of D.C.-based performer, choreographer, and artist Jane Jerardi is characterized by weighted, whole-body action and a distinct vocabulary built on movement and gesture. She draws inspiration from everything in the world around her including music, visual arts, the written word, and such abstract themes as time. As part of Washington Performing Arts Society’s 40th Anniversary Season, Jerardi presented the world premiere of her latest experimental work at the GALA-Tivoli Theatre. Jerardi’s choreography used video of fast-paced D.C. life as a backdrop for her exploration of the tension associated with society’s ongoing quest for “free time.” The soundtrack presented an image of movement and speed within the frame of the piece. 2005 USA 35 Scanner 1964 466 images/works/scanner-2005-smallglobal1.jpg Small Global D-Fuse in collaboration with Scanner . The world is an ever changing, unconquerable place and yet our consumption of global products leads us to believe that the world and the things we use are everlasting. At the same time the world is becoming smaller and more homogenous at precisely the time that record numbers of people have the ability to travel to far-flung corners of it. With the same meal in every stomach, the same song on every radio, the same story on every news page, the same coffee in every cup, we are moving towards a monochrome culture, led by multinational business, where every high street has been replaced by global and national chains. With economic systems that favour the large, remote and uniform there’s a threat to local economies and communities, diversity and choice. Aligned with this, biologists have suggested we are now living through a global mass extinction with environmental degradation and over-consumption, driving countless plant and animal species to extinction. D-Fuse created a multi-screened immersive environment that used 3D animations of high resolution still photos and simple vector maps of the planet to explore these issues. Offering a reading of this global mono-culture where aesthetic, architectural, agricultural, natural and civic diversity is being lost as the consumer driven culture spreads across the globe. As a data driven installation that explores themes of consumption, the first module referenced McDonalds and was chosen for Small Global as the most widely acknowledged symbol of the growth of mass global consumption. By graphically mapping the data of the company’s growth against the destruction of the rainforests the audience experienced the hidden costs of the great changes in our world. The second module contrasted the mining and prices of Coltan [the metal used in cellular phone chips] in the Congo, against the human death toll and the extermination of the world’s gorilla population. These are all facts that wash by us in our daily consumption of convenience and technology. 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 470 images/spacer.jpg Introspective Retrospective split cassette w/Collage Ensemble, 1991 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 473 images/spacer.jpg Secular Score From 1988 - 1990 all performances were in collaboration w/ multi-media performance art group Collage Ensemble. 1988 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 475 images/spacer.jpg Static A site specific sound installation series and CD catalog involving 10 international sound artists, 2000 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 476 images/spacer.jpg Site Of Sound 178 pages and CD. Book project involving international architects, sound artists, and writers including Rolf Julius, Christina Kubisch, Pierre Koenig, Alisson Knowles, Philip Corne 1999 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 477 images/spacer.jpg Are We Touched? two sections of the show co- curated and loaned (aliens and kids food and the work of Renee Meredith). 1997 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 478 images/spacer.jpg Ear as Eye an international exhibition of visual work by 125 sound artists, co-curator with B. Labelle. travel to Anomalous (Seattle WA) and Nonsequitur (Albuquerque, NM) 1997 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 480 images/spacer.jpg Fable Music 1989 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 481 images/spacer.jpg Fragment of Gold 1990 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 482 images/spacer.jpg Quartet for Ants 1990 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 483 images/spacer.jpg Theme For Gunshots w/ Alan Nakagawa 1991 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 484 images/spacer.jpg Fireworks 1991 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 486 images/spacer.jpg Heavan, Earth, Hell (first use of in be tween noise name) 1992 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 487 images/spacer.jpg Leda (the bride stripped bare) w/ Kevin Mchugh 1993 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 488 images/spacer.jpg Daspairing..Horizontally...Vertically w/Kevin Mchugh 1995 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 490 images/spacer.jpg Two Pieces 1995 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 492 images/spacer.jpg Hybrid w/ A. Homler and K.Mchugh 1995 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 493 images/spacer.jpg So Low 1995 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 495 images/spacer.jpg Listening Room a juried exhibition of recorded sound works 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 496 images/spacer.jpg The Radio 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 497 images/spacer.jpg In A Small Place w/ B. Labelle 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 498 images/spacer.jpg Ngattaugree 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 499 images/spacer.jpg Crop Circles 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 504 images/spacer.jpg Luminous 1997 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 505 images/spacer.jpg Diamond Sea to the film by Doug Aitkin 1997 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 507 images/spacer.jpg Vegetale Oscillations 1998 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 508 images/spacer.jpg Husk with John OBrien and Toti Mercadante 1998 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 509 images/spacer.jpg Wheres John w/ Brandon Labelle 1998 USA 187 Trimpin 1951 3355 images/works/Trimpin-2008-roots-branches1.jpg IF VI WAS IX: Roots and Branches “IF VI WAS IX: Roots and Branches” is a great starting point for visitors to begin their journey through EMP|SFM’s galleries and exhibitions, offering a dynamic, interactive, and historical journey into the origins and evolution of American popular music. From the ancient Scottish melodies that eventually gave birth to folk music, to the sweet home Chicago blues, to the irreverence of punk rock, visitors receive an audio/visual tour of American musical roots and influences. Computer touch-screens equipped with earphones guide visitors through various musical permutations as live music, provided by the sculpture itself, plays in the background. Numerous customized robotic guitars attached to the sculpture play music on cue. Each customized guitar plays only one string at a time, so six guitars work together to create the sound of one chord—an effective mechanical metaphor for the way that musical styles and traditions have influenced one another throughout time. About the technology: More than 500 musical instruments and 30 computers were used to create “IF VI WAS IX: Roots and Branches.” The process began when short stretches of music were played into a computer by live musicians. These short segments of music were then organized by Trimpin into a continuous electronic composition, with notes assigned to specific instruments by what is called a MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) platform. The computer activates a motor, the motor plucks the guitar string and the string makes the sound, much in the way that a player piano roll triggers the keys of a player piano. Accessed 25.02.2008 from http://www.empsfm.org/exhibitions/index.asp?categoryID=218andccID=54 - 2008 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 511 images/spacer.jpg In Search of Snow 1998 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 512 images/spacer.jpg Hysteria in collaboration w/ D.Aitken 1998 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 519 images/spacer.jpg Architeturra w/ filmaker Lara Lee 2000 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 520 images/spacer.jpg Bricks and Drones 2000 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 521 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2001 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 522 images/spacer.jpg unknown www.transmit.org 2001 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 523 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2001 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 524 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2001 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 525 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 526 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 527 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 528 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 529 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 531 images/spacer.jpg The Figure Five 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 532 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 533 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 534 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 535 images/spacer.jpg A House in Waterproof Paper part of 3 Nights of Fluxus, For Dick Higgins Exhibition 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 536 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2003 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 539 images/spacer.jpg unknown ( for the opening of sound of place show) 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 540 images/spacer.jpg Nest (part of sound of place show) 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 541 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 543 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 544 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 545 images/spacer.jpg On the Boards 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 546 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 547 images/spacer.jpg The Bells to the silent film the bells 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 548 images/spacer.jpg unknown 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 550 images/spacer.jpg Listening Room 1996 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 551 images/spacer.jpg All You Can Eat 1998 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 556 images/works/roden-2004-earthogami1.jpg ear(th) ear(th) is an 8 x 16 x 24 wooden structure. 80 robots attatched to 80 glockenspiel bars were mounted on the roof and attatched to some basic stamp programming chips. earthquake data was translated from a visual interferogram, into code that would determine which notes were struck and in what sequence the robots played them. essentially we translated an image of earthquake data into a score for this sculpture to play - the resulting soundscape an audio translatio of a visual image of the earth s movement.ear(th) was a collaboration with cal-tech scientists ann polsenberg thomas and mark simons. the structure was designed and built with the help of julian goldwhite and john o brien. the entire project was guided by and initiated by stephen knowlin, director of the williamson gallery. 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 557 images/works/roden-2004-stills3.jpg stills (for guru dutt) stills (for guru dutt) was commissioned for curator gretchen wagners elevator music series at the tang teaching museum at skidmore college. the museums elevator has been fitted with a 5 speaker digital audio playback system for exhibiting sound installations. stills (for guru dutt) consisted of two works - the first was a sound piece created from electronically processed fragments of background sounds from various scenes in guru dutts film pyaasa. since the elevator space suggested listening lengths of a single ride, i decided to work with a 3 minute compositional length instead of my usual preference of 20 to 40 minutes. the entire audio work consisted of 10 different 3 minute pieces, sequenced randomly by the audio system s shuffle mode. the intention is that people who use the elevator regularly will seldom hear the same thing twice. the second part of the installation was a visual/text work created for the lighted ceiling panels using the hindi language lyrics of one of the songs from pyaasa to trigger a text in english. i spent a few nights transcribing the song text into phonetic phrases and then taking the phrases and translating them into english based on various visual and linguistic suggestions - thus the chorus of kaharhen began with the word harhen to equal the word hearing based on how it sounded and looked, which was already used in a verse, so by adding the ka in front of hearing, it suggested another word related to hearing... listen. the entire text was generated in this manner. the yellow squares are simple decoration, systematically placed throughout the text where every capital letter should be... the entire work was created as an hommage to the work of guru dutt who died in 1964, the year i was born. 2004 marks the 40th anniversary of his death. 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 558 images/works/roden-2004-fulguritesnyweb3.jpg fulgurites fulgurites was created for a 4 foot by 90 foot space at the sculpture center in new york. the work was named after the phenomenon of natural glass being created when lightning strikes the earth. my interest is in the idea of this piece of glass as a kind of poetic residue of a moment captured in physical form - an event frozen in time. the sound source of the installation was composed using the last notes i was able to sound on my grandfathers violin before it disappeared - sound as this poetic residue of a series of small moments captured in audible form. the installation consisted of 80 small audio speakers situated inside of the center core of a large bottle (the top and bottom have been cut away by hand) - the crude glass tube acts as a metaphor for the fulgurite as well as a funtioning resonator for the speakers. curated by regine basha 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 559 images/works/roden-2005-suspension1.jpg suspension suspension follows a lineage of sound works i have done using my car towards the creation of sound works. the first, done in 1999, was called 8 windows and was composed using the sounds of 8 contact microphones taped to various parts of my car while driving along the pasadena fwy. i created a 4 channel audio work for an empty space, and attempted to create a kind of private sanctuary to reference all of the time i spend in my own car (which has 8 windows). the second work was commissioned for a european radio project and was called the bumps of surfaces in this case i wanted to use my car to play instruments. i placed a banjo and a lap steel guitar in the back of my car while driving from los angeles to santa barbara. i recorded the banjo as it bounced up and down in the car, and on the way home i recorded the lap steel guitar - the movements of the car on the road determined all of the sounds being made - and the car was playing the instruments. i layered both forwards and backwards versions of the recordings to create a kind of compressed contour map of multiple views of the same road. with suspension, i wanted to push some of the ideas of these past works forward, using an installation object as a kind of listening station. to make the initial recordings, i prepared a cardboard box with a childs glockenspiel inside it, and various nails and paperclips hanging from fishing line over it. it was then sealed with packing tape with a microphone inside, connected to a digital tape recorder on the outside. while driving along I10, the clips and nails hit various notes on the glockenspiel whenever there was a bump or surface shift to the road. instead of simply presenting the recording as a kind of document of the roads surface, i decided to use these recordings as source materials for a new sound composition. every sound in the resulting work came from the recordings of the sound box in my car, but the sounds have been fragmented, looped, layered, and their pitches shifted. the resulting soundscape essentially came from taking the sound document of the drive apart, looking at the pieces through a microscope and rebuilding the whole thing with the parts in different places. the intention is to create a work of wandering introspection that becomes a surrogate thinking space - a mirror of the space that the car and long highway drives create for me... the sounds, like the scenery from a speeding car window, pass by the listener in a kind of suspended time, a slow moving screen of things blending into each other... 2005 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 560 images/works/roden-2004-airformslong1.jpg airforms airforms was created for the exhibition phx/la at the scottsdale museum of contemporary art in scottsdale arizona. airforms was created in response to the experimental houses designed by wallace neff in the 1940s through a process he called airform construction. the houses were built by spraying concrete over an inflated balloon structure to create an organic shaped dwelling that was inspired by neff s interest in the design of the nautillus sea shell. the goodyear company that built the balloons for the houses was based in a suburb of phoenix called lichtfield park, where a few of the houses were built. among the many interests that inspired neff s balloon structures, was an interest in the aesthetic and psychological results of structures formed by air. airforms takes off from neff s ideas in both the physical and audio construction - both using air as a kind of invisible skeleton. the 5 objects were sculpted out of plaster set over simple children s balloons. the sound piece was created using the transformed sound of one breath blowing through an old wooden organ pipe. the colors on the sculptures connect the work from my own home back to arizona, in that the colored lines are based on the vowel structures of 5 succulents that were listed as native to arizona in a 1930 s guide to the huntington libary of pasadena. each of the 5 hollow plaster forms has a speaker inside of it running a 4 channel audio work. the work was later shown at raid projects los angeles. 2004 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 562 images/works/Roden-2002-View2.jpg view (third version) this was the third view work that i have created using field recordings from the view of a window as the only source materials for the finished work. in this case i asked the curator, cassandra coblentz, to record the sounds of the spaces that were visible from the gallery window. she recorded 3 sections of sound working from the closest point to the farthest visible. the finished work was presented with headphones lying near the window, so that the viewer/listener could see the original view and hear it transformed. it was presented as part of the exhibition liminal spaces along with an earlier sound installation called 8 windows. 2002 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 563 images/works/roden-2001-forms1.jpg forms of paper forms of paper was created for the exhibition six degrees - art in the libraries - a group exhibition of site specific works for public libraries around los angeles. the soundwork was created using electronically manipulated sounds of book pages being rubbed, scraped, turned, etc. 8 speakers were placed on a small pedestal in the center of the library, upon a series of paper drawings made from discarded library books. the work was playing very softly within the library space continuously for one month. 2001 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 564 images/works/roden-2001-view.jpg view view was first presented as part of a solo exhibition at the jennjoy gallery in san francisco. the show also included paintings, drawings, and a silent video work. for the installation, i asked jenn to record for me the sounds of the view from one of the gallery windows. sounds were recorded from ledge just above radiator on various days and times in april sometimes the window was open, somethimes closed. i used fragments of these recordings as both a compositional cue as well as the entire source materials for the soundwork. although they had been fragmented, looped, and processed - the compositions were still entirely made up of the view. a series of four different landscapes were presented on headphones with a chair facing out the window that the recordings had come from. the viewer could see the landscape that produced the sounds; but with the headphones on, these sounds were completely transformed. a cd document was published by the gallery. 1999 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 565 images/works/roden-1999-8windows.jpg 8 windows 8 windows was originally created for the exhibition sig alert at the university art museum at arizona state university in tempe arizona. the piece originated by making recordings of various parts of my car while driving on the freeway - contact mics on the engine, windshield, doors, etc. after listening back to the original 8 recordings, i recorded myself humming 8 different notes on 8 tracks in resonance with the tones of my driven car. these voice tracks were then processed and mixed into a composition. 8 windows was originally presented in an empty room with 4 speakers and 4 chairs. 1999 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 566 images/works/roden-2000-hanginggarden3.jpg hanging garden hanging garden was created for a concrete courtyard adjacent to the gallery at pasadena city college for the inland specific exhibition. the piece was inspired by the emptiness of the space, and the 8 hooks attatched to the curved brick wall. the soundwork was created using the sounds of a microphone touching houseplants. there are 8 tracks of sound - one for each speaker hanging from the found hooks in the wall. sound is used to give the space the presence of a garden. 2000 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 567 images/works/roden-1999-observatory.jpg observatory observatory was created for the second annual beyond music festival at beyond baroque literary arts center in los angeles. the piece was created specifically for a small dark archive - a small room that acts as an archive for the centers library of literary publications. the piece was inspired by a quote from joseph cornell s diary regarding the 5 things he always saw from his kitchen window. he oftern referred to his kitchen as his observatory . 5 tape loop compositions were composed; each using one of cornell s 5 things seen. there were electronically transformed tape loops from the sounds of birds, trees, sun (in this case the sounds of the sun harnessed through a magnifying glass burning a contact mic), snow (tv static) and rain. each of the 5 loops was placed in a cassette player that was concealed in a hollowed out book. each book had a speaker embedded in its spine, so that the audio equipment was concealed and the sounds seemed to quietly eminate from the books. depending on the listener s location in the room, each sound had a different prominence in the piece - the listener s movements allowed for different sounds to be heard. the archive room had no windows, so the audio acted as a kind of access to another place. 1999 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 568 images/works/roden-1998-vegetalle.jpg vegetale oscillations in 1998, vegetale oscillations was presented as a site specific installation at the city market in downtown los angeles. the first part was a 24 minute soundscape created using only the sounds recorded during a 24 minute walk around the outdoor market spaces. initially, i carried a digital tape recorder around the market with me as i wandered through this space for the first time. as i listened back to the 24 minute recording i became aware of the secondary sounds - those very small acoustic activites in the background, that had occurred so quickly and seemingly random. i took an number of these details, and began assembling a new recording. in the final work, i have altered the pitch and sequence of the sounds - and expanded many mocroscopic audio fragments - in order to create an abstraction of the space; nevertheless, the entire composition is made up of the original sounds recorded during this initial walk through the space. the end result is a kind of transformed audio reflection of the city market itself. in an attempt to further some interaction with the produce market itself, and to expand upon my original intentions of walking through a public space and having moments of private audio experience; the second part of the installation involved placing some small labels in various parts of the produce market in an attempt to suggest a possible map for audio engagement. my interest being not just to send you out on an audio treasure hunt, but to suggest that a visit to an unfamiliar (or even familiar) place can extend beyond the visual experience, and yield a feast for the ears as well as the eyes. this place was filled with sounds - both beautiful and ugly - and it was my hope that one could find the time to explore this notion of active listening further 1998 USA 37 David Dunn 1953 577 images/works/Dunn_David-1986-Sim1.jpg Simulation1 (Sonic Mirror) Simulation 1: (Sonic Mirror) (1986) was an attempt to model a utopian project yet to be built. The original concept was conceived as a stationary cybernetic sound sculpture capable of processing acoustic data within an outdoor environment. Eventually the sculpture might function as an autonomous system structurally coupled to its surrounding environment in a manner that might allow for learning between components. This initial modelling was generated from a soundscape recording of the Cuyamaca Mountains of California. All of the analog and digitally generated sounds are pattern tracings of the environmental source. In effect, it is the environment that is instructing a variety of systems how to transform the various environmental sound events. I interacted with these pattern tracings in realtime using a portable, custombuilt sampling instrument (a 6502 microprocessor-based digital recorder programmed in Assembly Code) to further manipulate the environmental sounds and tracings. The environmental source remains audible throughout. 1986 USA 37 David Dunn 1953 581 images/works/Dunn_David-2000-pleroma3.jpg Pleroma 3 Pleroma 1-3 are a series of extended realtime multi-channel electroacoustic performances and installations for live computer. They explore the global behavior of hyper-chaotic analog circuits modeled in the digital domain (Reaktor software program). These circuits exhibit an immense range of sonic behavior, all generated from the equivalent of three sine-wave oscillators linked together in a feedback path that exhibits two of the essential traits of a chaotic system, nonlinearity and high sensitivity to initial conditions. The emergent complexity results from the dynamical attributes of cross-coupled chaotic states interacting in a multi-dimensional phase space. My role as composer/performer of this chaos instrument is to explore various regions of these behaviors in a manner analogous to the exploration of a physical terrain. While I can influence the complex sonic behaviors, I cannot control them beyond a certain level of mere perturbation, the amount of which is constantly changing. The experience is often tantamount to surfing the edge of a tide of sound that has its own intrinsic momentum. The compositions are to be regarded as improvisatory in structure but based upon a prescribed set of zones where particular chaotic behaviors reside. The opening and closing of virtual switches determines various combinations of structural coupling between distinct chaotic circuits, allowing different self-organizing behaviors to arise. The composition is a charting of transitions between these different zones of behavior that arise from a fundamental generative structure and its behavioral diversity, much like a genetic code. 2000 USA 39 Carl Micheal von Hausswolff 1956 594 images/spacer.jpg Solo exhibition 1996 USA 39 Carl Micheal von Hausswolff 1956 602 images/spacer.jpg Group exhibition 2000 USA 44 Mark Bain 1966 656 images/works/bain_mark_2005-omnisound.jpg The Omnisound Generator Seven octaves, 84 discrete tones, all at once all the time, a history of western music as played back in its entirety as one incessant chord. This drone, this filler of space and monster of the twelve-tone scale, is unrelenting in its ever pervasiveness. As a pneumatic sound engine, the Omnisound Generator allows for remote placement into the machine via air coupled headphones. Monitoring the insides with stethoscopic precision, hear its heartbeat, its scream, its infrasonic rumblings and the wind rushing by. ALL SOUND ENGINES ARE GO! Electric motor, mechanical sound generator 2004 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 659 images/spacer.jpg Performance - 1978 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4412 images/spacer.jpg THE MOUNTAIN LOOKED AT THE MOUNTAIN Full title: THE MOUNTAIN LOOKED AT THE MOUNTAIN...AND SLIPPED AWAY TO SEA – HALF THE AUDIENCE SAYING; "THE MOUNTAIN LOOKED", AND THE OTHER HALF; "AT THE MOUNTAIN" – Accessed 11.08.2009 from http://web.archive.org/web/20060613083129/http://rhythmajik.com/ S.WEISSER 1969 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4413 images/spacer.jpg BOOK OF LOVE BEING WRITTEN ... AS THEY TOUCHED BASED ON THE 40,320 PERMUTATIONS OF THIS SENTENCE. 14 MARCH 1975 S.WEISSER FOR 8 VOICES 1975 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4414 images/spacer.jpg OOMOONOON: DANCING ON THE BRINK OF THE WORD #1 A 3 HOUR TAPE INSTALLATION BEGINNING WITH THREE 3 MINUTE LOOPS OF 3 VOICES EACH - THEIR AMBIENCE WAS RECORDED AND EVERY 45 MINUTES THE LOOP REPLACED. VOICE PROGRESSION: 9-15-27-51 19 SEPTEMBER 1977 RELEASED IN AN EDITION OF 25 IN 1978 BY UNION GALLERY, CSUSJ S.WEISSER 1977 USA 42 Qubais Reed Ghazala 1953 691 images/works/ghazala_reed-voxinsecta.jpg Vox Insecta The Vox Insecta instrument is an insect voice synthesizer I designed and built into an antique Stenograph machine. The Vox Insecta not only creates insect sounds, but also choirs, orchestral textures and a vast assortment of surreal musical tones. As usual, once I finish an original design I then bend it just as I would any other circuit. The two examples here are from my Threnody to the New Victims of Hiroshima. (CD). All the sounds were generated on the instrument with nothing more than simple reverb added. Circuit bending, home electronics 1979 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 701 images/spacer.jpg Christian Marclay - 1999 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 702 images/spacer.jpg Pictures at an Exhibition - 1997 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 706 images/spacer.jpg Christian Marclay - 1993 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 709 images/spacer.jpg Directions: Christian Marclay - 1990 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 710 images/spacer.jpg Christian Marclay - 1987 USA 68 Leon Theremin 1896 746 images/spacer.jpg Termenvoks Etherwave developed by Robert mug, is the designer most popular in the world. Is possible to easily build its own Etherwave from the special collection of details. In this case it is required no special knowledge from the field of electronics, although it is necessary to make several solderings. Basic pay is assembled and disposed at the factory. Into complete set enter also the nikelerovannye antennas, wooden housing and external power unit. For additional charge Etherwave it is possible to acquire in the completely assembled and disposed form. Into the complete set also enters the video cassette Mastering the Theremin with the record of the lessons of game on termenvokse of Lydia kavinoy, and also cd The Art of the Theremin with the record of music in execution of Klara rokmor. Wood, Metal, Electronics 1919 USA 68 Leon Theremin 1896 748 images/works/Theremin-terpsitone0.jpg Terpsiton Idea terpsitona arrived at L.Termenu is even in the beginning of the 20th annual, probably, immediately after the creation of termenvoksa (see its article cathodic musical tool). But if into termenvokse the pitch of tone and loudness they depend on the position of the hands of executor, then in terpsitone frequency and amplitude of sound are determined by a change in the position of entire body of that dancing. Operating principle terpsitona is very similar to the operating principle termenvoksa, based on obtaining of beatings of audio frequency, the formable with interaction of high-frequency fluctuations two generators. One has of the generators frequency rigidly fixed, while in the second - variable. In the second generator the frequency depends on a change in the distance between the capacitor plates of oscillatory circuit. One of the capacitor plates is the isolated, metallic plate the placed hearth by the floor of dancing hall, and second facing is the body of dancer.The displacement of dancer in the space of hall entails a change in the capacity of oscillatory circuit and, correspondingly, a change in the difference audio frequency. This signal is strengthened and will be given to the loudspeaker. Thus the conversion of the motions of that dancing into the sounds, which change synchronously with a change in the position of body, is achieved The sonic number, obtained as a result of dance, is supplemented, if necessary, with the specially selected background music. The presence of automatic color joining is one additional special feature of invention. the visual display of sounding is panel with the lamps, painted in different colors. In time to the sounds, generated by the motion of dancer, light up the lamps, moreover lamp with the specific color corresponds to each note. However, this is ensured partially mechanically.The uvula, located of from behind each lamp, vibrates at that moment, when the sound corresponding to it is reproduced, the chain, which feeds lamp, is locked thanks to which. The sounds, generated by the motion of dancer, are reflected with the aid of the simultaneously being lit up and dying out fires. the visual display of sounding includes two generators, one of which gives a constant pitch (it it is possible to regulate), and the second - variable, its work changes from the motions of dancer and change in the capacity of the metallic plate, connected to the chain of lattice. Further signal will be given into the mixer or the control valve, to the sonic amplifier and the lamp panel. On the control panel located above are placed the volume controls and timbre, and also the regulator of control of vibrator, which controls the lamp panel of the visualization of notes. The first version of tool was prepared during a stay Of termena in THE USA. Another - during its work in the Moscow conservatory (1966-67 yr.). One additional copy was made for also entirely young Lydia kavinoy in the 70s and is located at its disposal to this day. - 1954 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 772 images/spacer.jpg Untitled 00 with laser light, - 2001 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 773 images/spacer.jpg Untitled Ô99 part of Volume: Bed of Sound, curated by Elliott Sharp. - 2000 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 775 images/spacer.jpg Room Piece Twenty four - 1999 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 776 images/spacer.jpg Room Piece Thirty-three 10 channel continuous sound installation with laser light, - 1999 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 777 images/spacer.jpg Room Piece Twenty-four Intermedia installation with 4 channel sound and 5 video monitors, with Ursula Scherrer, - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 778 images/spacer.jpg Monologue 4 channel continuous sound installation, - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 779 images/spacer.jpg Room Piece a 12 channel version of the CD - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 780 images/spacer.jpg Inside an intermedia environment for piano, sine tones and 4 video monitors, a collaboration with Ursula Scherrer, - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 781 images/spacer.jpg The Aural Site four continuous sound installations (Room Piece Twenty-four, Room Piece Twenty-five, Room Piece Twenty-eight, Mobile Chord Eight) - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 782 images/spacer.jpg Monologue 4 channel continuous sound installation - 1998 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 783 images/spacer.jpg Mobile Chord Eight 4 channel continuous sound installation - 1997 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 784 images/spacer.jpg The Secluded Vale a 16 channel continuous sound installation - 1997 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 785 images/spacer.jpg Multiple Fixation a 16 channel continuous sound installation in 5 parts, - 1997 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 786 images/spacer.jpg The Aural Site four continuous sound installations (Mobile Chord Eight, Room Piece Twelve, Room Piece Six, Mobile Chord Twenty Eight), - 1997 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 787 images/spacer.jpg Mobile Chord Three 4 channel continuous sound installation, - 1996 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 788 images/spacer.jpg The Aural Site continuous sound installations - 1996 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 792 images/spacer.jpg The Aural Site 12 channel continuous sound installation culminating in a happening with 25 performers - 1991 USA 71 Michael J. Schumacher 1961 793 images/spacer.jpg The Aural Site 8 channel continuous sound installation. Included speakers mounted under the floor and readings and performances by invited poets and musicians. A bar 1991 USA 72 Toplap 2000 797 images/spacer.jpg jitlib live in NY: west nile Julian Rohrhuber - 2001 USA 72 Toplap 2000 801 images/spacer.jpg Concurrent, On-the-fly Programming Language presented, Ge Wang and Perry Cook - 2003 USA 72 Toplap 2000 802 images/spacer.jpg ChucK double projection duet, - 2003 USA 52 Maryanne Amacher 1943 827 images/spacer.jpg day trip maryanne captures the collaboration between legendary sound sculptor Maryanne Amacher and experimental guitarist Thurston Moore of Sonic Youth. The 30 minute long film grew out of a collaborative film/video project between Kim Gordon, Thurston Moore and Andrew Kesin exploring the work of several important women in experimental music. That project tentatively entitled Other Women sought to bring the work of these accomplished and often overlooked women to the surface through a combination of live footage and intimate interviews. While a release date for the full-length documentary remains elusive, footage collected for Other Women will be on display at the HER NOISE exhibition held by Anne Hilde Neset and Lina Lina Dzuverovic-Russell of The Wire and Electra productions. As it stands now, there are no plans to publicly release daytrip maryanne. It was shown in some festivals in 2005 and further screenings will be considered on a case by case basis. I would like to thank Maryanne for sharing with us on that fall day. Her unfailing commitment to sonic exploration is truly inspiring. - Andrew Kesin, February 2005 festivals International Film Festival Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands January 2005 HANDCLAPS at Garage stralsund berlin, germany July 2005 PAUZE FESTIVAL in association with (K-RAA-K)3 Gent, Belgium October 2005 HER NOISE, South London Gallery, London, U.K. October 2005 - 2000 USA 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 839 images/works/gal-2005-defrag.jpg Defragmentation (Seattle) Part of Yumi Koris solo exhibition Infinitation. Bernhard Gal and Yumi Kori create audio-architectural installations. Since 1997, they have explored the interactions between aural, temporal and spatial situations and their influence on human perception and imagination. Their collaborations have been shown in Austria, Germany, Japan, and the United States. This installation was specifically created for the Centre on Contemporary Art in Seattle. - 2005 USA 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 840 images/works/gal-2005-hinauscd_cover_web.jpg Hinaus:: In den, Wald. In ‘Hinaus:: In den, Wald.’ (which translates into: ‘Out:: Into the, forest.’, deliberately written with ‘Wölfliesque’ punctuation) I translate Wölflis written transformations, abstractions and creations into my own sound language. Points of reference are Adolf Wölflis idiosyncratic punctuation and orthography, the rhythmic-repetitive character of his listings and testaments and Wölflis biography and megalomania in general. I tried to express his permanent creative urge through an additional recording, which is based on my own walking, running and breathing out there in the woods. Different text passages are interwoven on several layers - from totally untreated phrases to modified elements. Specific sound properties like speech rhythm, speech melody or contextual associations were focal points of my creative processing. All texts were spoken by myself or by Stella Kao, a Taiwanese girl who didn’t understand German at all. Stella’s voice can be either seen as a cross reference to the voice of young Wölfli himself or to the voice of one of his victims. By listening on headphones, you enter Adolf Wölflis mind, hearing voices whispering inside your (his?) head, running through the woods, breathing. - 2005 USA 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 851 images/works/gal-98-bestimmungnewyork.jpg bestimmung new york In bestimmung new york I intend to foster an awareness for the musical/sonic qualities of language. I spent the summer of 1998 in New York City recording the voices of 15 friends and colleagues speaking always the same phrases and words in different languages. Using digital sampling and some computer processing I extracted speech rhythms, speech melodies or simply sounds and recombined them creating short electro-acoustic pieces. Starting point was my experience that languages, when detached from their semantic and functional context, are perceived as sound events, as music. I am interested in opening up this acoustic space by focusing on melodic and rhythmic patterns, as well as sonic and dynamic characteristics of language, yet seen from a musical viewpoint. Strongly connected to this idea is what I call the individual sonic fingerprint of each voice. The acoustic and also the inherent emotional qualities of the different recordings played an important role within the compositional process. Thus, the 3-5 minutes long pieces emerge from the individual sound character of the respective voices, the influence of rhythmic and melodic textures, as well as my associative assemblage and modification of the recorded voice fragments. Voice. Language, Digital Recording 1998 USA 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 863 images/works/gal-2005-defrag_iscp2_web.jpg Defragmentation (ISCP) Acrylic boxes, LED lights, CD players, speake 2005 USA 58 Bernhard Gal 1971 872 images/spacer.jpg soundbagism Soundbagism was created for the group exhibition “The Luggage Project” and was presented at Denver International Airport in Denver, Colorado. The installation documents the acoustic journey of a suitcase through an airport – from check-in to take-off. A recorder and a microphone were repeatedly checked in as luggage with the suitcase. Interestingly, these electronic devices were never discovered by the security checks in the airports. Then Bernhard Gal developed a 40-minute composition from the resulting sound recordings; it is reproduced by two loudspeakers hidden in a small black suitcase. The recorded sounds of the suitcase are thus broadcast from a suitcase again at the end of the sound journey, in another airport and another country. Suitcase,black clothes, cd-player, active spe 2004 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2463 images/works/Marclay-1992-Echo.jpg Echo and Narcissus CDs 1992 USA 43 Achim Wollscheid 1962 900 images/spacer.jpg big and small happenings - 1996 USA 43 Achim Wollscheid 1962 903 images/spacer.jpg ear as eye - 1997 USA 43 Achim Wollscheid 1962 904 images/spacer.jpg triple transformation - 1998 USA 43 Achim Wollscheid 1962 907 images/spacer.jpg 2 spaces - 1998 USA 43 Achim Wollscheid 1962 909 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2000 USA 54 David Toop 1949 928 images/spacer.jpg Not Necessarily English Music a double CD of English experimental music for the Leonardo Music Journal issue, - 2001 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 958 images/spacer.jpg Speaking in Tongues To perform speaking as a physical and sonic gesture, the work consists of the action of trying to read aloud while holding a cows tongue in my mouth--as a way to complicate the gesture of speech to reveal its grain; yet ultimately emphasizing the schism that ruptures this process--the tension inherent to speaking as a body (sensuality) and speaking as an individual (social behavior). [sonic] square curated by Christof Migone video/audio 2000 USA 84 Sam Auinger 1956 1077 images/spacer.jpg Cloud Chamber Sonic alchemists Bruce Odland and Sam Auinger will install a laboratory for transforming the New York City soundscape into real-time ambient music. Can a city be heard as a harmonic symphony? The installation functions as an instrument, an industrial digeridu played by the citys roar. Random city sounds cause an overtone series inside the tuning tubes placed outside the Kitchen to resonate sympathetically. The chaos of cars, planes, people, motors, construction is reduced to the order of the Pythagorean harmonic series. Hidden melodies and harmonies are revealed. Real-time video from the tubes provides visual clues. The installation becomes a resonating sonic and visual cloud chamberof city music extracted from the complexity of accidental urban sound design. - 1997 USA 84 Sam Auinger 1956 1080 images/works/Auinger-2006-elevated.jpg Elevated Harmonies Bruce Odland and Sam Auinger create an instrument that transforms the noise of daily life in Manhattan into a living harmonic series, allowing the visitor to hear the city as a symphony. A tuning tube suspended from the railing collects the sound of traffic, helicopters, and boats, all visible from the plaza, and transforms them into harmony which is then played back in real time from three blue cement cube speakers on the walkway. The process creates a pleasant and gentle musical atmosphere, humanizing the industrial sounds of fossil-fueled daily life and enhancing the garden atmosphere of Elevated Acre. The sound engages the visitor to sit and reflect, feel and hear the city. Every instance of this installation is different, but here is a sample sound from Harmonic Bridge, a similar installation situated under a highway overpass in North Adams, Massachusetts: - 2006 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4416 images/spacer.jpg SPATIAL POETICS 19 NOVEMBER 1977 S.WEISSER LIVE MIX FOR TAPED VOICES 1977 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4417 images/spacer.jpg SOUND OF WIND AND LIMB 25 NOVEMBER 1977 S.WEISSER FOR MALLET PERCUSSION 1977 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1099 images/spacer.jpg Id Battery Accessed 18.10.06 from http://www.scaruffi.com/vol5/chasse.html concrete, ambient and industrial pieces 1996 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4420 images/spacer.jpg LIGHTNING MUSIC , CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. 1 MARCH 1986 Z'EV FOR MALLET PERCUSSION 1986 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 4415 images/spacer.jpg INSTILL 19 MARCH 1976 S.WEISSER FOR 4 VOICES AND TAPE REPLAY 1976 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1117 images/works/Labelle-2003-sitting.jpg I am sitting in a chair Architecture, like language, operates as a “symbolic” system through which the individual is granted freedom and held in at one and the same time; the vocabulary of buildings, urban design, and infrastructures liberates the individual while dictating a set of movements and spatial experiences. Such a vocabulary in turn extends to that of furniture design, and the primary form of a “chair.”Extending Alvin Lucier’s original work (“I am sitting in a room”) and its collapsing of sound onto architecture (or maybe it is the inverse?), my own “rendition” aims not so much for the acoustical properties of space and the voice as a sonic occurrence ((to resolve the stuttering voice) as in Lucier), but the meeting of a body and a chair as an amplified stutter.For the duration of 30 minutes I applied bits of wood to a chair with a screw-gun, while attempting to remain a part of the chair: sitting, standing on it, getting to know it... During this period two video-cameras recorded the action, alternating between recording for 5-minute periods, and then projecting back while the other recorded, etc. Thus, the projection contains the entire performance in sections of 5-minutes, creating a composite of the duration in the present. In addition, sound was amplified through 3 contact microphones attached to the chair, and transformed by Achim Wollscheid who sat off-stage mixing, and controlling a Max/MSP-patch. The sounds essentially mirrored the projections in so far as they sampled live sounds and continually re-presented them.Randy Yau (organizer): So, the performance is about time and space --and a chair. Can you elaborate on time and space--And how these elements relate to the added dimension of the chair and your body (action/video) becoming an object of transformation? Brandon LaBelle: Time becomes the time of the performance as highlighted in the video—the video will form a composite that gets built up over time, and will signal the duration of the event; space gets articulated through the video as well, as a series of frames that implode on themselves—yet in turn, by emphasizing the chair as an object: building the chair, as a mutant form, is also about turning the chair into a different space, and therefore, how the body gets “fitted” into it. Yau: What inspired you to take Alvin Lucier’s original work two steps further? As well as taking it from a private recorded situation to a public performance. BL: Lucier’s work, particularly “I am sitting…” always fascinates me, simply because it brings the dimensions of sound, space, and the presence of the body, into play in a stimulating way; to refer to it in a way is simply a beginning—it has a conversation with Lucier, in a playful manner, as well as breaks off from it, to form something else, possibly by situating it within a public performance—to make public the body and the act. Also, for me the chair talks about the “power” of architecture, which I don’t think Lucier addresses—his is strictly a “phenomenal” interest (though there is the stutter…). The chair for me signals how architecture, or the forms of the built environment, situate the body, and through such situatedness causes it to function a certain way: the chair tells me how to sit. By transforming the chair, through a performative act, I’m also hoping to underscore it as a powerful and determining object. This is how I think of architecture… Yau: What are your expectations of the audience? BL: That they’ll think about the chair they are sitting in. Yau: As a work that is specifically relative, in its context, to a previous work, what significance does it hold for those with no previous knowledge of this context? BL: It really doesn’t matter whether they know Lucier or not—I think the piece, while making a reference, doesn’t rely upon it. If you know the work, then maybe you have a little private laugh to yourself, and think about it a little. - 2003 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1119 images/spacer.jpg Phantom Radio a library of radio memories consisting of 97 entries to date, and aims to describe and collate music’s circulation through people’s lives. The collection of memories highlights very personal voices, and how they also speak toward collective experiences. The entries were initally acquired through a mass-call for submissions early in 2005, and have been sent from around the globe, from a diversity of age groups (the earliest memory dates from 1945). This was done by requesting people send in stories of events in their lives linked to particular songs – how a song intervened through a form of public broadcast, whether that be radio or other means, to embed itself on the event. Through such work the relation between music and memory is highlighted, creating recognition as to the particular nuance and potency of music to partially forge memory itself, where it becomes hard to know where the song ends and where the memory beginsThe project is ongoing and welcomes further contributions. If you have a radio memory to share, please feel free to send your story, when and where it happened, and itll be added to the library. Thank you in advance for your interest and for your story. - 2003 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1124 images/works/Labelle-2004-cd-concert.jpg concert documenting installation projects (florence, curitiba, roskilde, chicago) and the performativities around building, installing, recording, amplifying, sound and space, music and architecture, as a concert that reaches out and incorporates art and audience alike, activating sound and object, buildings and bodies - 2004 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1125 images/spacer.jpg techné series of pieces related to site specific investigations of sound through performative usages of found objects, physical actions and computer software - 2001 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1126 images/works/Labelle-2001-musiconshort.jpg Music on a short thin wire Being approached by Ground Fault to produce a CD led me to wonder what I would do: I surveyed various scraps of recordings around the house, things left over or half-finished, and speculated on possible scenarios, structures, and approaches. This process of selecting what to release and make audible to a wider audience is a process not only of making music, but also of contextualizing oneself; the record label functions to disseminate one s work through its own structure acting as a vehicle that aids in determining the placement and identification of a work. This extends past distribution or packaging -- the label functions to identify one s music according to the labels own identity, history, and interests, and further, to announce it as worthy of cultural attention. This question of context influenced my decision to focus on the Ground Fault label itself as the very source of my own release. Basically, I wanted to use the context, and the very works that have been produced through that context, in creating a work, so as to somehow sympathetically undermine the label as a determining force by allowing it to forcefully determine the musical process. Each track of music on a short thin wire was produced by using two of the first eight CD releases by Ground Fault Recordings. Chosing the discs in order of their release dates, I played two CDs simultaneously through separate players, and separate channels, splitting the CDs to a single speaker (one CD left, the other right). Using the speakers themselves as the main sound source -- the paper cone -- I attached short thin copper wires to their surfaces. I then attached the other end of the wires directly to contact microphones. Playing the CDs activated the speakers, and in turn caused the wires to vibrate. These vibrations in essence are direct sympathetic translations of the dynamic fluctuations of the music being played, though respond quite erratically. The following tracks are excerpts from these recordings; each track refers to two specific CDs. Special thanks to the artists whose CDs are the main source of this CD; and to Ground Fault Recordings. Track 1 - Blank .......... 0 7 Track 2 - Icki Beats the Stones of the Threshold .......... 7 53 Track 3 - Meter Sickness Sporadic Spectra .......... 8 38 Track 4 - Axene Eutecitc .......... 6 44 Track 5 - Stop Listening Hot Action Sexy Karaoke.......... 15 17 - 2001 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1127 images/works/Labelle-2001-automaticradio.jpg automatic radio includes three works: Speaking in Tongues--sticking a cows tongue in my mouth and trying to read aloud Roland Barthes The Pleasure of the Text... Conflating human speech with animal speech--a mimicry that draws the tongue outside idiolectical usage (to speak as a good boy should)--language and the body become part of the same mechanism of conveying a message; though in turn, this conflation emphasizes the schism that ruptures this process--the tension inherent in speaking as a body (sensuality) and speaking as an individual (social behavior). Multitude-Solitude (commissioned by Kunstradio and produced during a 3-day stay in Vienna in August 2000). Walking around Vienna with contact microphones taped to the bottom of my shoes, reciting poems across public phone lines, recording found appliances in ORF studios, and blowing into a bag again and again... Pillow Talking(in collaboration with l. chasse). This work was produced as a parallel performance to a concert by John Hudak at 7hz, San Francisco, September 2000. The parallel performance occurred through recording Hudaks own performance by placing contact microphones on a glass floor from a mezzanine within the performance space. In addition, a second contact microphone was mounted on a metal cooking funnel which I then placed inside my mouth. In essence, the final work is a combination of Hudaks performance and the subsequent translation of it as recorded through the microphones. This translation is in turn mediated through the architectural structure of the performance space, the metal funnel and through the cavity of my mouth. - 2001 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1128 images/spacer.jpg CD=Text (psycho-acoustical speech) having been invited to participate in a group sound project, I sent in a minute of sound, along with each of the other 11 participating artists. These sounds formed a sound bank from which each artist was then to produce a full-length CD work, using only the sound bank. My project was based on playing the sound bank to various people, and asking them to describe what they heard: wearing headphones, listening to the sounds, I recorded each persons responses, and composed a 45-minute audio work from this. The organizers of the project took issue with my approach, citing that I had not restricted my work to the sound bank. I argued that in fact I did, and that what you heard in listening to my work was nothing but the sound bank. - 2006 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1129 images/works/Labelle-2000-openingofthe.JPEG the opening of the field (with Steve Roden) - presents a series of live studio improvisations that move quietly through the intimate surfaces of objects to the fragmented landscapes of field recordings. In this movement, from textured scrapings to electronic manipulations, the distinctness of objects and the processes of recordings clouds over to create a highly detailed sonic flow. The spaces of sounds and their origin are transposed onto an imaginary space where listening leads to many openings. - 2000 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1132 images/spacer.jpg Text = CD series of audio pieces using the voice, explicitly to speak through bodily figurations, productions of identity, and modes of listening. Each work begins with a text, with a form of writing, with an instant of reading, and moves into a sonic interpretation. - 1999 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 1133 images/spacer.jpg 365 each day for the year of 1997 I made a recording at random places, at random times. Each recording instant was framed, or generated, through the speaking of a repeated phrase--each day I said the same thing, which produced a durational context: my speaking was a structure which housed whatever else around me happened to get captured on tape. - 1997 USA 21 Ryoji Ikeda 1966 1142 images/works/Ikeda-2002-spectra2.jpg spectra II The installation relies on the intersection of sound and architecture and continues Ikedas interest in phenomena - be they light, tone or sound - and how they materialise and manifest themselves in the world. The piece is built as a narrow, ceiling-covered corridor, allowing only one visitor to enter at a time. In the corridor space, red laser lights mark out the architectural construction of the otherwise darkened space and divide it into sections. Along the length of the space, speakers and strobe lights are mounted in the ceiling. The flashing strobe lights and high frequency sounds are synchronised and continuously change the experience of the space. Aiming at purity and simplicity in the sound, Ikeda deploys high frequency sine waves, only to subject them to his exploration of how pure tone and sound are distorted by the resonance and reflective qualities of a given architectural setting and the presence and movement of the public. Visitors can hardly recognise the dimensions of the space, which is almost invisible due to its intense darkness/brightness and inaudible due to its ultra-frequencies. However, as they pass through the corridor, subtle oscillation patterns occur around their ears, caused by their own movements interfering with the sounds. The sound itself may be subtle and minimal, but the experience of the sound in the installation is active and dynamic. It is only through the publics physical engagement in the sound space that the real character of the work can be perceived. powered speaker BOSE AM-15W (satellite spea 2002 USA 21 Ryoji Ikeda 1966 1154 images/works/Ikeda-2005-dataplex.jpg dataplex dataplex is the much-anticipated new release from leading Japanese electronic composer Ryoji Ikeda. Since the mid 1990s, Ikeda has pioneered a radical and highly influential minimalist approach in the worlds of electronic and contemporary music. His seventh solo album and the first musical composition in the datamatics series - a new body of work across various media that uses data as both its material and its theme - dataplex presents a significant and stunning progression in Ikedas career. Aside from demonstrating Ikedas unrivalled standards of technical precision, minute sound construction and engineering, the album also introduces an extraordinary and fascinating overall structure. The first eight tracks of dataplex consist mostly of high-frequency raw data. Their structures are located clearly outside the cosmos of music. Instead, these linear tracks seem to be source code transformed into an audible medium; a constant stream of data, they represent the basic material of the album. The following pieces become longer, increasingly complex and distinctly inter-related, before the rhythmic structure itself metamorphoses. Rhythms and tones are refracted progressively, until, with track 18, data.vortex, Ikeda opens up an apparently infinite acoustic space with an expansive piece that contrasts dramatically with all that precedes it. And following this caesura the album almost ends in the way it started , sinking back into the data flow. Through meticulous attention to detail and the most minimal of gestures, Ikeda succeeds in expanding and enhancing his sound design to reveal a new universe to the listener. dataplex opens up avenues of pure musical abstraction whilst simultaneously embracing complex, unique and elegant individual composition. In its entirety, dataplex remains inscrutable; a mystery whose secrets require individual investigation and discovery. Its defiance of appropriate definition, description or comparison, ultimately underpins the pioneering nature of this long-awaited release. Ryoji Ikedas biostates thathis work exploits the causality of sound with human perception .It s a claim that makes sense when experiencing his music (especially in an installation or performance setting, where the bulk of his work has been for the past few years); Ikeda s minimalist, rigorous electronica seriously plays with the listener s head. The first 19 tracksoriginate fromtiny flecks of noise, clicks, and pulses of pure sine tones ranging from dogwhistle-high to bowel-shakingly low. They re arranged with surgical precision into short slices of minimalist art-techno; funky in a very cerebral, molecular sort of fashion, they re immersive (and by track 19) almost lush and strangely beautiful. But be warned; a sticker on the sleeve says; This CD contains specific waveform data that performs a data-read test for optical drives. The last track will cause some CD players to experience playback errors, with no damage to equipment. I think it left my CD player undamaged, but mypsyche took a battering. Approach with caution... Reviewer: Peter Marsh Accessed 7.11.06 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/release/2dvr/ - 2005 USA 21 Ryoji Ikeda 1966 1155 images/works/Ikeda-2002-formula.jpg formula This is the first complete monograph about the seminal work of Ryoji Ikeda. With superb attention to detail and layout, the publication documents the artists latest projects and includes brand-new artwork especially produced for the book. At the same time, formula covers Ikedas landmark concerts and installations; and his collaborations with, amongst others, celebrated artist/musician Carsten Nicolai, acclaimed performance group Dumb Type and famous architect Toyo Ito. All of the dvd content is only available here, with a 35 minute full video documentation of formula [prototype] concert filmed in Tokyo and 8 sound pieces from installation works. Eagerly awaited, the publication comes in a numbered edition of 3,000. A special limited edition of 100, available exclusively from Forma, includes a new print signed and numbered by the artist. Not only the most complete Ryoji Ikeda catalogue, formula is an intimately-scaled minimalist artwork in itself, and an object of desire. How the book is held may cause the numbers and text, picked out in clear varnish on white page, to shimmer. Every aspect of look and feel has been considered by the artists critical eye. His superlative production values are ever-present in the quality of the images and the finish. Only through repeated investigation does the publication begin to reveal its richness. Readers will be able to pore over the photographs, ponder the schematics and technical drawings, and enjoy the spacious listings of performances, exhibitions and releases. The artist s first-rate assembly of data, diagrams and video stills create moments of graphic intensity that make the white spaces of the pages surprisingly dynamic. The book is pure pleasure to hold. formula [book + dvd] reflects precise design and the Ryoji Ikeda s flawless selection of surfaces and materials. An exceptional publication, it provides a heightened sensory experience in a similar way to his concerts, installations and sound works. - 2002 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1160 images/works/Obadike-2002-sour.jpg The Sour Thunder Mendi+Keith Obadikes multimedia opera The Sour Thunder was composed in 2002 on a commission by the Yale Cabaret, and first presented in a synchronized dual performance at the Cabaret and the universitys Afro-American Cultural Center. A hybrid of spoken word, rap, altered acoustic instruments, electronic sounds, video imagery, and live performances linked via the Internet, this complicated work blends diverse cultural elements to tell a quasi-mythological, quasi-autobiographical tale of parallel personal discoveries in two alien environments. The Obadikes ambitious use of technology and innovative presentation likely impressed the audience in live performance; but this recording of the opera leaves a dimmer impression of the composers project, and one is left to imagine too much. Without the computer visuals, the movements of the actors, and the effect of using two performing spaces, the opera on disc has lost its physical impact and almost all of its avant-garde appeal. The CD only suggests a little of the theatrical experience, and seems more like a pleasant poetry reading interlaced with soft rap songs -- imaginative and evocative, but not as transformative as the artists intended. Bridge provides vivid sound quality, but the hot volume level should be substantially lowered for comfortable home listening. ~ Blair Sanderson, All Music Guide .featured hypertext writings by literary critic Houston Baker, performance artist Coco Fusco and musician DJ Spooky among others. This was the first new media work commissioned by the Yale Cabaret - 2002 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1161 images/spacer.jpg Twilight: Los Angeles 1992 with playwright Anna Deavere Smith as sound designer and composer for play in response to an exhibition of visual artist Gary Simmons’ work - 2003 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1162 images/spacer.jpg The Pink of Stealth a Flash-based online game story about two characters who attempt different forms of passing, at the Art Institute of Chicago’s Gene Siskel Film Center in November Commission. 2003 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1163 images/spacer.jpg TaRonda Who Wore White Gloves A web-based project and physical installation that uses the idea of the Black debutante ball to explore the African-American relationship to formality. - 2005 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1164 images/spacer.jpg Ya Heard: Sounds from the Artbase Ya Heard is an online exhibition of Internet based sound works. This was the first in a series of permanent online exhibitions organized by Rhizome.org. Read Mendi + Keith’s curator’s statement below. curators statement When invited to curate an exhibition from the Rhizome Artbase, we were delighted to comb through the archived projects. Over the years we have been surfing the Artbase, watching the evolution of Internet art. The styles of interactivity and narrative have changed from moment to moment. But as artists who make sound art and net.art, one thing that has always fascinated us is the intersection of what some might consider separate fields. How we listen, when we listen, and where we listen are as important as what we hear in sound art. What effect does the web have on our experience of listening? In an essay called Whats Wrong with Sound Art Ian Andrews implies that sound art is a craft still looking for its medium: . . [P]erformed in front of an audience [sound art] can too easily be perceived as music or theater. If sound art happens on radio it becomes radiphonics or, again, music. So sound art ends up in the heavily culturally coded environment of the art gallery. . . . [T]he pieces which attain the position of highest importance in the hierarchy usually have a strong visual presence . . . Attention to the visual also unnecessarily dominates discussions of net.art. Writing about Internet art often depends on screenshots to identify artworks. However, many of the works are more conceptual than visual and many are more formally concerned with audio than images. As a medium, the Internet is visual, literary, and aural. Art made for the net may engage any or all of these elements. When we talk about audio on the net, many discussions gravitate towards the tension between the commercial distribution and the illegal exchange of music on the web. But there are also musics made for and from the web itself. In the 1995 book Being Digital, Nicholas Negroponte explores the Internet as a site for musical exchange. If Herbie Hancock released his next piece on the Internet, he writes, it would not only be like playing to a theater with 20 million seats in it, but each listener could transform the music depending on her personal situation (223.) In fact, today - nearly ten years later - what seems to be most interesting about sound online is not just the notion of the Internet as a theater but also as an instrument to be played and sculpted by the artists in the audience. The sound art represented in the Artbase includes instruments, avant-garde music, documents from webcast performances, and radio art. The works we feature from among them depend on the network - on the Internet as a medium for making sound and as a place where audiences listen. In almost all of these works, the participants are given control over the nature of the listening experience. Many invite participants to become DJs of a sort. The artist provides sounds and the participant mixes them. In One Day on the Air, for example, the participant can move the mouse over shifting, layered images and a collage of sixteen radiophonic bits recorded by Nicholas Clauss on French radio. In Eric Bungers Let Them Sing It for You, participants type in lyrics of their choosing and the words are sung to them in the voices of many sampled pop stars. In these pieces, the emphasis is on reinterpreting sounds from another context - radio and pop music, respectively. Other pieces that involve found sounds are not necessarily focused on the original context. In Errata Erratum, participants may select and mix sounds and images provided by the artist, Paul D. Miller aka DJ Spooky. The voice of Marcel Duchamp is mixed in a sea of beats and whirs. Miller s soundscape might be the realization of Duchamp’s quest for non-retinal beauty. Soundbox is a piece that Michiel Knaven has been developing since 1999. It is a series of virtual instruments containing short samples and phrases and allowing the control of pitch, volume, speed, repetition, and direction. With both Soundbox and Errata Erratum , the emphasis is on the mix created by the participant rather than the recognition of the sound s source. The interfaces differ greatly from piece to piece. In Stereo Michael Sellam explores how we process combinations of sight and sound with a microsound-inspired net version of a 19th century stereoscope. William Duckworth s site Cathedral features a number of virtual instruments, sound pieces, and documentation of live performances of the band by the same name. Online since 1997, Cathedral allows participants to collaborate with others online by playing an number of virtual instruments. These collaborations can also be incorporated into the Cathedral band s live performances. Somewhere between Detroit techno and the visual jazz of De Stijl is Conor O Boyle s Looptracks. Participants alter the sounds in this club music inspired piece by dragging an icon and clicking on brightly colored shapes. Not all of these works function as instruments, however. The audio of Mark Amerika and Erik Belgum s PHON:E:ME is a long, sonic essay on the smallest unit of speech. While there are interactive visual elements, rather than requiring participants to make audio, PHON:E:ME provokes the audience to listen and to think about listening. The number, range, and types of sound art works online today were unimaginable ten years ago, when Negroponte imagined the Internet as a theater. Therefore, so is the way we listen. In the projects exhibited here, the line between instrument and artwork is blurred and the permutations on the mix seem limitless. Because the place where we listen is the Rhizome Artbase, we are positioned to think about the sounds of the Internet in complex and ever-expanding ways. - 2005 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1165 images/works/Obadike-2005-4electric.jpg Four Electric Ghosts This work in progress features songs and stories based on a narrative remix of the video game Pac Man and the novel My Life in the Bush of Ghosts. This performance was streamed live from Princeton University on Dec 10th at 730pm. The event was produced by Toni Morrisons Atelier at Princeton. - 2005 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1166 images/spacer.jpg Lost in Music Back to Black - Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary 7 June - 4 Sept 2005 The 1960s and 70s was a period of dramatic transformation among black communities across the world, one that pushed the successes of the civil rights movement beyond a utopian colour blindness and straight into the heart of an emphatic racial consciousness. Back to Black - Art, Cinema and the Racial Imaginary presents a major survey of the Black Arts Movement in the US, Jamaica and Britain in the 1960s and 70s. Tracing its cultural impact in painting, sculpture, photography and drawing, it also focuses on the fashion, music and film that emerged over two decades. Symbols such as the raised fist, Afro and dreadlock hairstyles, African and Caribbean inspired clothing, media images of the inhabitants of the ghetto, and icons such as Angela Davis, Mohammed Ali and Bob Marley all infiltrated the art and popular culture of the period. Artists such as Ernie Barnes, Vanley Burke and Peter Simon were fascinated with inner city ghettos from Los Angeles to Kingston to Birmingham, while Faith Ringgold and Barkley L. Hendricks focused on fashion and the body as tools for social masquerade and invention. In Jamaica, Kapo and Osmond Watson conveyed images of a spiritual and idyllic Africanity, while Elizabeth Catlett, David Hammons and Gavin Jantjes were among many artists who combined political sentiment with a powerful aesthetic. Throughout the exhibition, Blaxploitation and art films, as well as the sounds and imagery of soul, funk and reggae, testify to the multiple roles that blackness has played in mainstream popular culture. - 2005 USA 33 Keith Townsend Obadike 1967 1168 images/works/Obadike-2002-untitled.jpeg untitled (the interesting narrative) Dangerous animals became even more sinister and uncanny in the dark. A snake was never called by its name at night, because it would hear. It was called a string. chinua achebe--things fall apart this project juxtaposes still images from director ridley scott and screenwriter dan obannons 1979 film alien with text from olaudah equianos 1789 autobiography, the interesting narrative of the life of olaudah equiano, or gustavus vassa, the african. i envision boladji badejo (the nigerian art student and actor who played the alien) as a nexus between dan o bannon s saga (influenced by joseph conrad) and equiano s real life epic. the sound source for this project is a recording of ocean waves breaking against the elmina slave castle in ghana. - 2000 USA 77 Hans Peter Kuhn 1952 1193 images/works/Kuhn-1992-StraightLine.jpg Straight Line 8 loudspeakers were placed on 8 columns standing in a line along a hallway in the PS1 museum in Queens. Short and impulsive sounds travelled at high speed from speaker to speaker interrupted by pauses of silence. - 1992 USA 78 Bernhard Leitner 1938 1214 images/works/Leitner-1971-Investigations.jpg Investigations In February 1971 empirical studies started in my New York workspace. Listening, measuring, verifying, making notes on my own, immediate ex-perience with sound lines and space. Linearly aligned loudspeakers created the laboratory for studying the characteristics of sound, movement and space: The speed of a sound-line, back and forth movements, changed tempi in repetition, staggered lines, changes in direction, angled lines. The body-space-relationship, the act of listening to space, was the central approach to artistic and empirical research. - 1971 USA 78 Bernhard Leitner 1938 1215 images/works/Leitner-1973-Immaterial.jpg Immaterial Arching In October 1968, I layed down the base for my Sound-Space-Work: Sound itself was to be understood as building material, as architectural, sculptural, form-producing material - like stone, plaster, wood. The invention of spaces with sound, formerly inconceivable as a readily available material, was the central artistic motive. Sound and its movement define space. A new type of acoustic-haptic space. - 1973 USA 78 Bernhard Leitner 1938 1216 images/works/Leitner-1971-SoundCube.gif SoundCube - 1971 USA 243 Yufen Qin 1954 4344 images/works/Qin-2001-Violence.jpg Beautiful Violence Qin Yufen unwound 5.75 miles of barbed wire into a dense configuration for the installation Beautiful Violence. Pushed into the barbed wire are colorful party balloons. Small speakers are suspended from the ceiling in the barbed wire and Yufen's composition of balloons being rubbed together and a Chinese bamboo flute are heard travelling throughout the piece. Accessed 04.08.2009 from http://www.mattress.org/index.cfm?event=ShowArtistandeid=26andid=85andc=Past 5.75 miles of barbed wire, multicolored balloons, framed text, 8 channel audio 2001 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1258 images/spacer.jpg Perry Mason in East Germany Held at El Sonoscop archivo de arte sonoro, Barcelona - 1988 USA 85 Walter Fahndrich 1944 1280 images/works/Fahndrich-1999-quarry.jpg MUSIC FOR A QUARRY Everyday, at the time of astronomical sunset. music plays for fifteen minutes in the Hoosac Marble Quarry. A music made specifically for this space – created from within it. There is no story here; instead, a space begins to emerge for the ears - everyday twice 22 minutes revealed from an ineffable perpetuity. But duration also plays no roll here; rather, a space becomes audible within the transition of day and night. The sequence changes every time, sounds arriving alone, in twos, in threes, interspersed with pauses, interwoven with one another, sustaining and creating space for each other; gentle, quiet, playful and unpredictable -- open -- weaving a fine web across this crescent. Does the twilight breathe? Small eerie lights appear . . . and the forest sings. Was all this not already here? Walter Fähndrich. Accessed 24.10.06 from http://www.musicforspaces.ch/en/F2.html - 1999 USA 90 Ron Kuivila 1955 1283 images/spacer.jpg Rock’s Role - (after ryoanji); a garden of sound works After Ryoanji is to be a group exhibition of sound works conceived as a garden where pieces sound environmentally, are allowed to overlap and interpenetrate, and, hopefully, create a renewed sense of place. Sound and the absence of sound - can intensify ones sense of place, while headphones can insulate us from those same places. Group exhibitions of sound works presented through an array of headphones allow variety without mutual interference. But they also present those pieces inside a cocoon of insulation that undermines the sense of a shared place. After Ryoanji seeks to restore to sound its sense of place. The exhibition title recalls the series of pieces by John Cage collectively entitled Ryoanji. These pieces are musical transliterations of the famed Zen rock garden of the same name. That garden consists of 15 boulders of different sizes placed in a field of raked pebbles. Cages view of the garden was that the specific arrangement of boulders was not as important as the way in which the emptiness of the garden intensifies the specificity of the constituent boulders. In Ryoanji, a separation of continuous and discrete aspects of sound is enacted that creates a similar intensification of our experience of sound. Continuous sound is rendered as solos consisting of glissandi derived from tracing of 15 different stones he had collected. Discrete sound is enacted as a part for any collection of instruments of limited resonance (exceeding one in number) that takes the form of a long, irregular pulse. The pulse is described as the raked sand of the garden, while each solo is termed a garden of sound. Rock’s Role is curated by Ron Kuivila and includes sound works by: DJ B, Gabriel Burian-Mohr, Damian Catera, Rilo Chmielorz, Bernhard Gal, David Galbraith, Mike Hallenbeck, Barbara Held, John Hudak, Brenda Hutchinson, David Matorin, Andrew Neuman, Maggi Payne, Michael Schumacher, Masahiko Sunami, Ed Tomney, Stephen Vitiello, and Lauren Weinger. - 2006 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1284 images/works/Hudak-1999-worry.jpg don’t worry about anything, i’ll talk to you tomorrow Completed in 1998, this is only the third full length composition from NY composer John Hudak to appear on CD. He is mostly known for his cassette work in the mid-eighties. His work is primarily built on repetition and alteration, usually from single sound sources. With this composition, he has manipulated an answering machine recording of his mother’s voice. The piece is shifting and complex. It is smooth and relaxed with the contradiction of extremely high, piercing requencies. It is undoubtedly one of his most complex works to date. In an edition of 1,000. - 1999 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1285 images/works/Hudak-2004-Room.jpg Room with sky 60 minutes of glimmering quicksilver falling through the fingers of a cupped hand. An hours worth of extra-terrestrial speech. The sound of distant starlight. A Mark Rothko painting seen through a shimmering heat-haze. The urge to create metaphors is difficult to resist. The title of John Hudaks latest work also conjures memories of sitting in one of James Turrells skyspaces (the artist has created a series of rooms in various locations around the world, each with a single opening in its ceiling and seating around the edge that allows visitors to gaze up undistracted at a patch of sky). The inside flap of the cd binder lists a number of indistinctly rendered words that might conjure a more prosaic image than the foregoing impressions: branches, sky, armore, comforter, books, door, cat, wood, clothes... (and so on) Further investigation reveals that the sound originates in a recording of Hudak s stream-of-consciousness speech. It isn t specified whether the words are a part of the recorded monologue, but the impulse certainly forms the basis of a work that, through the alchemy of digital filtering, is transfigured into something magically penumbral. Room With Sky initially appears to be a twinkling near-constant, but every so often the key of its sound takes a downward step or pauses for less than an instant. Consequently it fascinates both in the exact expanse of its 60 minutes (as though Hudak were merely cutting a slice from the day) and in a level of change akin to the bubbling of a stream, whose edges are generally defined by the wash of its flow, but whose precise form is momentary and impossible to remark unaided. Room With Sky is the third release on Spekk, a label established slightly under a year ago by Nao Sugimoto. It continues the focus upon a delicate form of electronic minimalism (important to note the small m ) explored previously by Taylor Deupree and William Basinski. Spekk joins the small number of labels (such as Rune Grammofon, Touch and Hat Hut) which pay rewardingly close attention to the presentation of their music as well as the music itself. As a result the label s delicate, vertically-formatted card binder provides an attractively subtle counterpart to Hudak s work. Reviewer: Colin Buttimer. Accessed 7.11.06 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/music/release/4jmq/ room with sky is distributed in the usa by Darla and Soleilmoon http://www.darla.com/ http://www.soleilmoon.com/ - 2004 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1286 images/works/Hudak-2001-curtain.jpg curtain each musician in tu M’p3 was invited to compose a soundtrack for image and to title the result, which is presented in flash format. For more information about tu m’, please see: http://www.tu-m.com/ - 2001 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1287 images/spacer.jpg Haus - 1985 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1288 images/spacer.jpg No Basis for Reason - 1985 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1289 images/spacer.jpg There Only Confusion is True - 1985 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1290 images/spacer.jpg Blackening - 1985 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1291 images/spacer.jpg Old Moon - 2003 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1292 images/spacer.jpg Tall Grasses - 2002 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1293 images/spacer.jpg May Fifth - 2002 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1294 images/spacer.jpg My Eye, My Son’s Eye - 2000 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1296 images/spacer.jpg Brooklyn Bridge - 1998 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1297 images/spacer.jpg Tick Tock - 1997 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1298 images/spacer.jpg Natura - 1994 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1299 images/spacer.jpg Momentumless Identity - 1991 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1300 images/spacer.jpg The Clockmaker - 1990 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1301 images/spacer.jpg Dweller in the Gulf - 1990 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1302 images/spacer.jpg For Ivan Who is Not Ivan - 1989 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1303 images/spacer.jpg Emerald Tablets of Hermes Trismegistus - 1989 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1304 images/spacer.jpg Brain Box re-released 1992 | 2 x CD - 1989 USA 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2028 images/spacer.jpg Two Ships A collaboration between David Lee Myers and Boston composer Ellen Band. As a live performance duo, Myers and Band combine Feedback tones with found sounds such as windchimes, teakettles, and subway trains to craft a deep and eerie soundspace. From Pogus Records. This is an intriguing collaboration between two very different sound artists. There are three long pieces on this disc, each fascinating in different ways. Valen Lagoon has a few layers of feedback drones and waves blended with slowed down ghost-like blurbs. Static, wind blowing and water sounds recorded beneath the surface, like a radar detecting equipment or sonar. Considering one of the main ingredients here is looped feedback, this collaboration rarely gets into that area where the electronic sounds are too alien and unnerving. Cape Uiquen has a calm center but there are layers of high-pitched static, an organ(ic) drone and selective bursts of noise. The combinations of sounds is delicately placed on a soft cushion of swirling electrons. A boiling tea-kettle whistles slowly over a sinister repeating throb...Sounds mutate and turn into something different. Bowed metal, flocks of birds, distant backwards voices, ritualistic percussion sounds, pulsating squiggles, elegant eruptions. Laventiya Bay is peaceful, sublime electronic meditations, mesmerizing waves washing over us, spirits flickering, howling slowly getting more dense, eerie bowed-cymbal like electronics, back to more high-pitched static nerve-endings, eventually sailing into early Tangerine Dream or Ashra Temple-like space. A well-balanced journey to the spheres.—Bruce Lee Gallanter, Downtown Music Gallery - 2005 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1305 images/spacer.jpg Wind Rain and Cloud To Human Being - 1988 USA 105 Miller Puckette 1959 1329 images/works/puckette-1992-puredata.png Pure Data Pd is a real-time graphical programming environment for audio and graphical processing. It resembles the Max/MSP system but is much simpler and more portable; also Pd has two features not (yet) showing up in Max/MSP: first, via Mark Danks GEM package, Pd can be used for simultaneous computer animation and computer audio. Second, an experimental facility is provided for defining and accessing data structures. - 1996 USA 105 Miller Puckette 1959 1335 images/works/Puckette-1999-Lemma2.jpg Lemma 2 Lemma 2 was the latest result of the Global Visual Music project of Miller Puckette, Vibeke Sorensen and Rand Steiger. The performance took place on April 8, 1999 at the Miller Theatre in New York City, and simultaneously at the Intel Conference Center in Hillboro, Oregon, as part of the 1999 Columbia University Interactive Arts Festival. The performers were Anthony Davis and Steven Schick, in New York (with Puckette, Sorensen and Steiger on computers) and Scott Walton and Vanessa Tomlinson in Hillsboro (with Harry Castle and Shahrokh Yadegari). The program note included the following information: We do not aim to teleconference between the two performance sites. Instead, we analyze the piano and percussion sets at each location in order to make the information emerge in various ways at the other site. Vanessas cowbell in Oregon might sound as a similar cowbell in New York, but it might instead appear as a tomtom or as middle C on a computer-controlled piano. Moreover, computer graphics are shown at both sites which can respond in many different ways to musical gestures at either location. The heart of the piece is the exploration of new transformations made possible both by the connection between two performance spaces and by the connection between music and moving images. Our work is sponsored by a generous grant from the Intel Research Council. - 1999 USA 105 Miller Puckette 1959 1336 images/works/Puckette-1997-Global.GIF Global Visual Music 1. Original Goals In January 1997, after receiving our first Intel Grant, we began work on the Global Visual Music Project with the following goals: a. To develop software for the creation, mediation, and dissemination of real-time multimedia content, including high resolution two and three dimensional graphics, digital audio and video. b. To develop a networking capability for this software, so that multimedia data could be shared between users in many locations. c. To organize a high profile event to unveil these resources by staging a networked multiple site public performance with accomplished artists in established artistic and technological venues. d. To create a web site to disseminate information about our research. e. To freely distribute the software we create. f. To develop and publish a communication protocol for networked distribution of high quality real-time multi-media data. 2. Progress to Date a. Software Miller Puckette has been developing PD, a graphical object oriented programming language optimized for real time audio and graphics applications. Mark Danks has simultaneously been developing GEM, a set of extensions for PD that enable it to draw on Open GL for control of two and three dimensional graphics. Rand Steiger and Vibeke Sorensen have been working with the alpha versions of PD and GEM, testing, developing applications and content for future performances, and providing Puckette and Danks with ideas and designs for additional objects and processes. b. Platform The software we are developing has the capacity to mix and process multiple sources of audio and video while at the same time generating high resolution two and three dimensional graphics and high fidelity audio. It is clear, however, that due to limitations in processor speed and memory architecture we are not able (at this time) to accomplish all of our content generation and manipulation in software alone. Therefore we have adopted the strategy of using external dedicated digital video and audio processors, controlled via an RS232 serial interface and dedicated objects in our software, for the first phase of our project. This way the CPU’s are concentrated on providing an integrated user interface, generating audio and graphics, controlling the external hardware, and performing signal processing which is not possible in the dedicated devices. The CPU’s are also used for analyzing the live audio and video signals both for data reduction and transmission over the network, and to provide for the use of data from one medium to be used to control data from another (ex. audio amplitude controls color of texture mapping on a 3D object). As personal computers become more powerful and robust, we plan on migrating more of these tasks into the workstation, at first with internal dedicated co-processors, and eventually with an entirely software based solution which would allow any user with an Intel platform to use the full capability of our software without requiring any special internal or external hardware. Of course, significant advances in microprocessor speed and memory architecture would need to take place before this last goal could be achieved. Click here for further information on the hardware configuration we have been using for our initial performance experiments. c. Networking As anticipated, research has shown that the best strategy initially for networking performance sites is a direct ISDN connection. We are using ISDN hardware, and have developed an object in our software that provides a simple means of sharing data between platforms across the network. We are experimenting with cross-platform networking and are currently planning a series of multiple-site performances for next season. - 1997 USA 4 Harry Bertoia 1915 2604 images/spacer.jpg Bertoia Collection for Knoll Wire 1950 USA 107 Mary Ellen Bute 1906 1348 images/works/Bute-1952-Polka.gif Polka Graph color, 5 min.) Music: Polka from The Age of Gold by Shostakovich. Cel animation over graph pattern, using Schillinger system. cutouts and cellophane layered. - 1952 USA 107 Mary Ellen Bute 1906 1349 images/works/Bute-1951-Color.gif Color Rhapsody (color, 6 min.) Music: Hungarian Rhapsody No. 2 by Liszt. Paint on glass, fireworks, animation, fireworks and clouds optically colored. - 1951 USA 107 Mary Ellen Bute 1906 1350 images/works/Bute-1954-Abstronic.gif Abstronic color, 7 min.) Music: Hoedown from Billy the Kid by Aaron Copeland and Ranch House Party by Don Gillis. Oscilloscope patterns over drawn backgrounds. - 1954 USA 107 Mary Ellen Bute 1906 1351 images/spacer.jpg Tarantella color, 5 min.) Music by Edwin Gerschefski. Drawn animation and cut-outs with light effects, McLaren. - 1941 USA 107 Mary Ellen Bute 1906 1352 images/spacer.jpg Pastorale color, 8 min.) Music: Sheep May Safely Graze by J.S. Bach. Kaleidoscope of ever-changing shapes, colors, forms, vapors, illuminations and mobile perspectives. - 1953 USA 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1357 images/works/Polli-2006-Soundseeker.jpg NYSoundmap -Sound-seeker What kinds of sounds can you find in New York City? With sound-seeker, you can zoom, pan and search for sounds with interactive satellite photos or detailed maps. Click on hot spots to listen to the recorded sounds of a location pin-pointed by gps. Sound-seeker was created using GoogleMaps and isnt viewable in all browsers - 2006 USA 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1358 images/works/Polli-2002-Fly.jpg The Flys Eye an animated document of both space and time and draws inspiration from the structure, function and significance of the eye of the fly and other processes of vision. In The Flys Eye, the history of a gallery space or film is built in layers of position and image. INSTALLATION: In The Flys Eye installation, multiple images are projected in the gallery space based on the movement of viewers in the space. The Flys Eye watches the viewer in the space while the viewer simultaneously enjoys some control and direction of the location of the image. Each time the viewer changes position, the live video feed moves and a visible trail is left in the gallery space. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION: The Fly s Eye consists of a computer system designed to perform a real-time spatial analysis and deconstruction of a live or pre-recorded video using a custom designed interface. Each video frame is tracked and analyzed according to the location of light, color, or motion in the frame. A copy of each video frame is placed in a grid according to the results of the analysis, and a live animation is created. TECHNICAL SUMMARY * The computer performs a real-time spatial analysis of a live or pre-recorded video * Video frames are tracked and analyzed according to the light, color, or motion in the frame. * A copy of each frame is placed according to the results of the analysis, and a live animation is created TECHNICAL REQUIREMENTS * Semi dark space for projection * 10 X 10 minimum area for projection on a wall or screen above the heads of viewers or a rear projection screen at eye level * Wall or other area to mount surveillance camera * Shelf or ceiling mount for projector * Shelf or other area for laptop computer LARGE FORMAT DIGITAL PRINTS: Digital prints created include: a lighting analysis of Fellini s 8 1/2 in which the print is divided into a grid of 28 squares, each documenting a ten minute section of the film layered over the previous ten minutes; an analysis of the location of the color red in five minute sections of the film Moulin Rouge; and a lighting analysis of Bunuel s Un Chien Andalou in which the print is divided into three rectangles each documenting a 5-10 minute section of the film. Prints vary in size but are approximately 60 X42 - 2002 USA 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1360 images/works/Polli-2000-RapidEye.jpg Rapid Fire A collaborative project focusing on the exploration and implementation of Intuitive Ocusonics, a process in which voluntary and involuntary eye movements create a visual and aural landscape. Intuitive Ocusonics melds visual and aural information through high end data transfer and eye-tracking technology. It concretizes the thought process, invading and amplifying subtle movements of the eye in real time through sound and image, examining the search for meaning through a biological lens. For two weeks from July 14 to July 28, visitors to www.franklinfurnace.org were tracked by their geographical location. The overture to Rapid Fire presents visualizations for each of the 14 days site activity. Animated visual maps by Andrea Polli and interactive artist Maria de Lourdes Costa Silva. - 2000 USA 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1361 images/works/POlli-2003-Intuitive.gif Intuitive Ocusonics: In Retina Burn, soundwaves generated by the sun are manipulated by movements of the performers eye, thereby allowing the listener to audibly view the sun without the usual risk of damaged vision. The composition s low hums and fluttering sine waves combine with percussive blinks and squints to gradually move through a series of sonic dilations; a feast for the ears prepared by the eye. -John Kannenberg, Stasisfield Founder/Curator. mprovisational performances have ranged from 20 minutes to 90 minutes and have been performed with Carol Genetti, Eric Leonardson, Steve Barsotti, Hans Fjellestad, Greg Smith, Mike Barron, and Eizabeth Gollackner. Interface for the performances designed by Andrea Polli Eye tracking software, BigEye designed by Tom Demeyer at STEIM Sound processing software: Opcode’s Max and MSP - 2003 USA 113 Andrea Polli 1969 1362 images/spacer.jpg BEAUT.E (CODE): Decoding the Art of Computer Programming Code is not like a painting, a play, or a musical performance. It is more like the painters preliminary sketches, the plays script, or the musics score. Can the scaffolding used in construction be considered beautiful? Can the artist s well-used but not cleaned palette be considered beautiful? Can the recipe used to prepare a wonderful dish be considered beautiful? excerpted from an essay by George J. Polli, Computer Scientist and Senior Lecturer This exhibition, the result of a collaboration between book and installation artist Karen Hanmer, digital media artist Andrea Polli, and software systems architect Robert Hanmer asks and attempts to find answers to the question: What are aesthetic values in contemporary computer programming and how they are similar to (or different from) aesthetic values in art? The exhibition is the result of two years of research including: the study of the most influential authors on the art of computer programming (Donald Knuth, Christopher Alexander, Brian Kernighan and Jon Bentley, for example), group interviews at computer programming conferences, and written questionnaires completed by computer professionals. Karen Hanmer initiated this project out of a desire to find a point of entry into her husband Robert Hanmer s world of programming, and to find a way to convey the aesthetic nature of coding to other non-technical people. Robert s interest in the project not only came from a desire to communicate the beauty of programming, but also to illustrate good coding practice and structures versus bad coding to programmers, non-programmers, and programmers of the future. Andrea Polli was naturally drawn to this project because at a young age, her computer scientist father conveyed to her the beauty and elegance of mathematical proofs, a kind of conceptual beauty she strives for in her own work. The exhibition includes quotes from the interviews, representations of artifacts from the history of programming, and illustrations of programming structures and processes in print and interactive format. Mathematical beauty, in its simplicity and elegance, is close to diamond cutting; the critical cleaving of a raw stone that results in one facet of a beautiful glistening diamond. Computer code is, on the other hand, a completely logical construct without physical limits, and sometimes code pushes the limits of what was considered possible. Sometimes coders don t follow the rules and for good reason. Contemporary code is a very strange creature. George J. Polli. - 2002 USA 116 Brian Eno 1948 1376 images/spacer.jpg Two Fifth Avenue for three or four video monitors - 1979 USA 116 Brian Eno 1948 1382 images/spacer.jpg Latest Flames - 1988 USA 248 William Anastasi 1933 4357 images/works/Anastasi-1986-Cage.jpg John Cage Collection of the artist Graphite on paper 1986 USA 248 William Anastasi 1933 4358 images/works/Anastasi-1963-Microphone.gif Microphone 1963 USA 116 Brian Eno 1948 1385 images/spacer.jpg African Rain Forest - 1989 USA 115 Oskar Fischinger 1901 1402 images/works/Fishchinger-1943-allegretto.jpg Allegretto Late or popular version, color, sound (made with the support of The Museum of Non-Objective Painting) - 1943 USA 115 Oskar Fischinger 1901 1403 images/works/Fischinger-1937-Poem.jpg An Optical Poem color, sound (made for MGM) - 1937 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 1419 images/spacer.jpg Record without a Cover - 1985 USA 184 Thomas Alva Edison 1847 3351 images/spacer.jpg Kinetograph - 1891 USA 90 Ron Kuivila 1955 1443 images/works/Kuivila-1999-visitations.jpg Visitations The industrial complex now occupied by MASS MoCA has lain fallow since 1986 when employees of Sprague Electric vacated it. These people once filled the buildings with sounds of industry, conversation, joking, and complaining - in other words, the voice of the now quiet company. Charles Babbage, the father of the digital computer, conceived of sounds as immortal, diminishing in volume but eternally reverberating within the space where they were made. This notion inspired sound artist Ron Kuivila to undertake an imaginary excavation of the voice of Sprague Electric in Visitations. The history of a place is hidden, he says, in the gentle murmur of its room tone - a din too soft and too subtle to discern with the human ear. The relationship of space and place to sound is the common denominator of Kuivilas work, a relationship manifested in Visitations through the incorporation of layered visual components within the former Sprague machine shop. At select windows of the shop the viewer sees a number of commemorative Sprague 5 Year Pins, awarded to employees for accumulated service time. Simple rotary motors, powered by capacitors much like those manufactured in Spragues heyday and accompanied by empty chairs, spin in the middle ground. Finally, orderly regiments of over 4,000 capacitors, standing in for the number of individuals employed by Sprague at its peak, are placed on long workbenches that form a spine down the center of the room. This pastiche echoes Kuivilas layered soundscape emanating from the walls outside. Visitations sonic component is comprised of oral interviews, readings, radio broadcasts, Sprague advertising video soundtracks, found industrial sounds, and computer generated noises. Through the incorporation of living memory and voices, however, Visitations illustrates the influence of John Cage s modern musical theory. Cage s work has been described as acknowledging the fact that we don t live our lives in orderly tenses or monotonic modes. We live in messy conversation located at lively intersections of present, past, and future. Visitations embodies this sentiment, incorporating Cagean interest in the contribution of random and unrehearsed circumstances to the evolution and completion of a work of art. Visitations mines memory for its source material. This fact, coupled with the difficulty inherent in navigating the past through oral history, is central to the organization of its narrative. Through the tradition of oral history, people, knowingly or not, recreate and reshape their own and others histories. Visitations offers a glimpse of the complex relationships among the past and present incarnations of the buildings on the MASS MoCA campus. Accssed 30.10.06 from http://www.massmoca.org/visual_arts/sound_art.html - 1999 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1455 images/spacer.jpg Sonatas and Interludes The Sonatas and Interludes are Cages prepared piano masterwork. Much has been written about the composition, in just about any article or book about the composer. The list of available CD recordings amounts to 14 at the time of writing these lines (December 2000). In the composition Cage expresses his interpretation of the permanent emotions of Indian tradition: The Herois, the Erotic, the Wondrous, the Comic (the four light moods), Sorrow, Fear, Anger, the Odious (the four dark moods) and their common tendency toward tranquility. It was Cages first composition using Hindu philosophy and he composed the Sonatas and Interludes in a period of reading the works of the Indian art historian and critic Ananda K. Coomaraswamy. Sonatas I through VIII and XII through XVI are written in AABB rhythmic structure, using varying proportions. The first two interludes have no structural repetitions. The last two interludes as well as Sonatas IX, X and XI have a prelude, interlude and postlude. In his book The Music of John Cage James Pritchett gives a very thorough analysis of the structure of the work. The order of the Sonatas and Interludes is as follows: Sonatas I-IV; First Interlude; Sonatas V-VIII; Second Interlude; Third Interlude; Sonatas IX-XII, Fourth Interlude; Sonatas XIII-XVI. Sonatas XIV and XV are paired together under the name Gemini - after the work of Richard Lippold (an American sculptor). The preparation of the piano is quite elaborate and takes between 2 to 3 hours. A total of 45 notes are prepared, mainly by using screws and bolts, plus 15 pieces of rubber, 4 pieces of plastic, 6 nuts and one eraser. In the last few years there has been a tendency to perform the work on a smaller piano, instead of concert grand piano. The reason for this is that Cage probably wrote the work on his own, smaller piano. Sources: Paul van Emmerik: Thema s en Variaties; Richard Kostelanetz: John Cage writer - previously uncollected pieces; David Revill: The Roaring Silence; New York Public Library online catalog; C.F.Peters Catalog; Paul van Emmerik: A Cage Compendium - 1946 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1457 images/spacer.jpg Concerto for Prepared Piano and Chamber Orchestra - 1951 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1458 images/spacer.jpg Imaginary Landscape No. 4 Each radio has two players; one to control the frequency the radio is tuned to, the other to control the volume level. Cage wrote very precise instructions in the score about how the performers should set their radios and change them over time, but he could not control the actual sound coming out of them, which was dependent on whatever radio shows were playing at that particular place and time of performance. This piece marked a move away from scores which had been merely composed with indeterminate methods, to those which were also performatively indeterminate. Such pieces as the Variations series paradoxically placed great responsibility in the hands of the performer in the demands the music made in terms of realising indeterminate (chance) procedures. Accessed 30.10.06 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cage twelve radio receivers 1951 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1460 images/spacer.jpg Theater Piece No. 1 collaborating with Merce Cunningham, David Tudor, Robert Rauschenberg, and Charles Olson at Black Mountain College where the performance took place amongst the audience. Happenings, as set forth by Cage, are theatrical events that abandoned the traditional concept of stage-audience and occur without a sense of definite duration; instead, they are left to chance. They have a minimal script, with no plot. In fact, a Happening is so-named because it occurs in the present, attempting to arrest the concept of passing time. Cage believed that theater was the closest route to integrating art and (real) life. The term Happenings was coined by Allan Kaprow, one of his students, who was to define it as a genre in the late fifties. Cage met Kaprow while on a mushroom hunt with George Segal and invited him to join his class. In following these developments Cage was strongly influenced by Antonin Artaud’s seminal treatise The Theatre and Its Double, and the “Happenings” of this period can be viewed a forerunner to the ensuing Fluxus movement. In October of 1960, Mary Baumeisters Cologne studio hosted a joint concert by Cage and the video artist Nam June Paik, who in the course of his Etude for Piano cut off Cage s tie and then washed his co-performer’s hair with shampoo. Accessed 30.10.06 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Cage - 1952 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1461 images/spacer.jpg HPSCHD a gargantuan and long-running multimedia work made in collaboration with Lejaren Hiller, incorporated the mass superimposition of seven harpsichords playing chance-determined excerpts from the works of Cage, Hiller, and a potted history of canonical classics, with fifty-two tapes of computer-generated sounds, 6,400 slides of designs (many supplied by NASA, and shown from sixty-four slide projectors), with forty motion-picture films. The piece was initially rendered in a five-hour performance at the University of Illinois in 1969, in which the audience arrived after the piece had begun and left before it ended, wandering freely around the auditorium in the time for which they were there. As much synaesthetic spectacle as ‘composition’, in any conventional sense, HPSCHD demonstrated Cage’s concern to enact a visceral experiential environment in which the myriad complexities of the individual elements combine together to negate the possibility of a single, dominant, centre of interest. Up to 7 harpsichords and up to 51 tapes 1969 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1463 images/works/Cage-1969-Marcel.jpg Not Wanting to Say Anything About Marcel superimposed type encased within plexiglas panels. 1969 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1464 images/spacer.jpg First Construction (in Metal) The rhythmic structure is 4-3-2-3-4, 16 times 16 4/4 measures. This is Cages first composition using fixed rhythmic structures. The composer uses standard as well as many unconventional instruments such as 8 anvils, watergong and 4 car brake-drums. Percussion sextet with assistant 1939 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1465 images/works/Cage-1952-Williams.gif Williams Mix This is a work for eight tracks of ¼ inch magnetic tape. The score is a pattern for the cutting and splicing of the sounds recorded on the tape. The rhythmic structure is 5-6-16-3-11-5. The sounds are in 6 categories: A (city sounds), B (country sounds), C (electronic sounds), D (manually produced sounds), E (wind produced sounds) and F (small sounds, which need to be ampified). Pitch, timbre and loudness are notated as well. Approximately 600 recordings are necessary to make a version of the piece. The compositional means were I Ching chance operations. Cage made a realization of the work in 1952/53 (starting in May 1952) with the assistance of Earle Brown, Louis and Bebe Barron, David Tudor, Ben Johnston and others, but it also possible to create other versions, using the score. Sources: Paul van Emmerik: Themas en Variaties; Richard Kostelanetz: John Cage (ex)plain(ed); Richard Kostelanetz: John Cage writer - previously uncollected pieces; David Revill: The Roaring Silence; New York Public Library online catalog; John Cage: Liner notes for the release of the recording on the Avakian label (reprinted in Richard Kostelanetz: John Cage - An Anthology); Paul van Emmerik: A Cage Compendium Magnetic tape 1953 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1466 images/spacer.jpg Speech 1955 The parts give specific time indications, as well as graphic suggestions for the playing of the radios. The actions are the reading of newspaper articles (to be determined by the performer) and the tuning of the radios. for news reader and 5 radios (6 performers) 1955 USA 82 John Cage 1912 1469 images/works/Cage-1969-33.jpg 33 1/3 his composition was part of the event called Mewantemooseicday. A dozen of phonographs and almost 250 records were arranged on tables around a room without any chairs to sit on. Loudspeakers were distrubuted around the space. The audience that entered the room didnt get any instruction, but after a while, people started putting records on the phonographs. It is Cages version of how to deal with audience participation, but in a way to avoid people sitting down at a piano, if they havent studied it, while everyone can handle a phonograph. Sources: Paul van Emmerik: Thema s en Variaties; Information from H. Wiley Hitchock (ed) The Phonograph in Our Musical Life, Brooklyn College, Institute for Studies in American Music, Monograph No. 4, Dec. 1977 twelve turntables, twelve stereo amplifiers, twelve pairs of speakers, and any 300 records 1969 USA 74 Dickson DEE 1984 1481 images/spacer.jpg PAST 1996 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1482 images/spacer.jpg Juice: A Theater Cantata In 3 Installments Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 85 Voices, Jews Harp, 2 Violins 1969 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1483 images/spacer.jpg American Archeology #1: Roosevelt Island Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 9 voices, Organ, Bass, Medieval Drum, Shawm 1994 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1485 images/spacer.jpg Vocal Gestures Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org - 2005 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1486 images/spacer.jpg Archeology of an Artist 2 Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org - 2004 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1488 images/spacer.jpg Eclipse Variations Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 2002 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1489 images/spacer.jpg Show People: Downtown Directors and the Play of Time Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org - 2002 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1490 images/spacer.jpg SHRINES Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org - 1999 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1491 images/spacer.jpg Archeology of an Artist Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org - 1996 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 1492 images/works/Monk-1988-Book_of_Days.jpg Book of Days Director of photography: Jerry Pantzer. Costumes and art direction: Yoshio Yabara. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org black-and-white and color, sound, 35mm film transferred to video, 74 minutes. 10 Voices, Cello, Shawm, Synthesizer, Hammered Dulcimer, Bagpipe, Hurdy Gurdy 1988 USA 5 Hildegard Westerkamp 1946 1496 images/works/Westerkamp-xxxx-Forest.jpg Beneath the Forest Floor Length: 17:23 Beneath the Forest Flooris composed from sounds recorded in old-growth forests on British Columbia's westcoast. It moves us through the visible forest, into its' shadow world, its' spirit; into that which effects our body, heart and mind when we experience forest. Most of the sounds for this composition were recorded in one specific location, the Carmanah Valley on Vancouver Island. This old-growth rainforest contains some of the tallest known Sitka spruce in the world and cedar trees that are well over one thousand years old. Its' stillness is enormous, punctuated only occasionally by the sounds of small songbirds, ravens and jays, squirrels, flies and mosquitoes. Although the Carmanah Creek is a constant acoustic presence it never disturbs the peace. Its' sound moves in and out of the forest silence as the trail meanders in and out of clearings near the creek. A few days in the Carmanah creates deep inner peace - transmitted, surely, by the trees who have been standing in the same place for hundreds of years. Beneath the Forest Flooris attempting to provide a space in time for the experience of such peace. Better still, it hopes to encourage listeners to visit a place like the Carmanah, half of which has already been destroyed by clear-cut logging. Aside from experiencing its huge stillness a visit will also transmit a very real knowledge of what is lost if these forests disappear: not only the trees but also an inner space that they transmit to us: a sense of balance and focus, of new energy and life. The inner forest, the forest in us. Beneath the Forest Floorwas commissioned by CBC Radio for Two New Hours and was produced in CBC's Advanced Audio Production Facility in Toronto with the technical assistance of Joanne Anka and Rod Crocker. Thanks to Norbert Ruebsaat for providing his recordings of an adult raven and a young raven from Haida Gwaii. All other recordings were made by myself mostly in the Carmanah Valley on Vancouver Island, as well as in forests near Cowichan Lake on Vancouver Island, on Galiano Island and in Lighthouse Park near Vancouver. All sounds were recorded throughout the summer of 1991. Thanks to Peter Grant for assisting in much of the recording process. Special thanks go to David Jaeger, producer of Two New Hours for making this possible and for giving me the opportunity to work in the above-mentioned all-digital facility at CBC Radio, Toronto. Beneath the Forest Floorreceived a mention at Prix Italia 1994 and was recommended for broadcast by the International Music Council's Rostrum of Electroacoustic Music in 1992. Available on CD! Accessed 12.06.2009 from http://www.sfu.ca/~westerka/program_notes/forestfloor.html - 2001 USA 4 Harry Bertoia 1915 1532 images/works/bertoialargesound.jpg Unfolding Japanese release of rare recordings by early sound sculpturist - he evolved his sonambient sculptures in the early 1970sDelicate and atmospheric metallic clouds of sound - 1972 USA 4 Harry Bertoia 1915 2603 images/works/bertoialargesound2.jpg Sounding Sculpture - 1960 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 1534 images/works/Feld-2004-bells1.jpg The Time of Bells Vol 1 Soundscapes of Italy, Finland, Greece and France After twenty-five years of recording rainforest soundscapes in Papua New Guinea, I’ve started to listen to Europe. I’m struck by a sonic resemblance: bells stand to European time as birds do to rainforest time. Daily time, seasonal time, work time, ritual time, social time, collective time, cosmological time — all have their parallels, with rainforest birds sounding as quotidian clocks and spirit voices, and European bells heralding civil and religious time. In these compositions you’ll hear how bells sound the time of day, the time of prayer, the time of festival, the time of transhumance. You’ll hear how their temporality shapes space, changing ambience with the season, making distance and dimension. You’ll hear how they interact with other time and space-makers, from the sea, insects and birds, to cars, televisions, and musical instruments. Most of all you’ll hear how bells simultaneously sound a present and past, as their immediate resonance also rings the longue durée of their technological and social history. 1. Gragnana: a village above Carrara in the marble mountains of Italy’s Tuscan coast. Late on a May afternoon the shepherd Benito brings his fifty belled sheep down from the hills. As they walk toward the small shed where Benito will milk and leave the sheep for the night, the village church bell, about one kilometer in the distance, sounds the descending three tones that signal a funeral. Later, at 8pm, the bell sounds the Ave Maria, marking the end of the day. The bell’s imposition of religious time on Gragnana is nothing short of ironic; the village has long been home to anti-clerical anarchists. [10:06] 2. Nauvo: a Finnish village on an archipelago southwest of Turku. In the brisk Nordic air of early spring a pair of austere bells calls the Sunday congregation. Then the resonance of the organ, one of the oldest in Finland, fills the old stone church. After the service, hymns are sung at the adjacent cemetery, and the birds, cars, and bells again mark the surrounding space and temporal motion of the day of prayer. [11:12] 3. Kali Vrissi: a Greek mountain village between the Balkan cities of Serres and Drama. Early in the new year, people gather for the annual festival of babouyera, “the old men” masked and costumed in heavy bells. Led by bagpipes and frame drums, dozens of belled men and boys parade through the winding streets. Here festival bells both create and collapse time, playing with the struggle of music and noise, plunging the village into a sonic river while making it audible like a passing flock of sheep. [11:08] Ringing The Angelus: A French Village Suite [24:56] The Catholic practice of ringing the angelus to signal prayer commemorating the incarnation dates to the 13th and 14th centuries. French village bells generally sound the angelus at 7am, 12 noon, and 7 pm, heralded by a triple ring of three pulses. 4. Sermérieu: a small agricultural village in the Isére, southeast of Lyon. The morning angelus sounds through the density of trucks, cars, and tractors heading to work, accompanied by roosters, birds, dogs and TV broadcasts, and an old fountain just across the road. [6:43] 5. Bormes-les-Mimosas: a village perched above the Mediterranean, west of St. Tropez. Light winds shape the ocean’s pulse at a rocky water edge, punctuated by summer tourist car horns in the bustling streets above. Suddenly the overlapping noon angelus of two church bells, one more distant, another in the town center, sounds like dolphins at play in the water. [6:46] 6. Méaudre: an alpine village in the Vercors, southwest of Grenoble. Belled cows graze along the road, and the evening angelus pours across the valleys, followed by the roar of motorbikes and cars heading home. Later, as the cows move back to the mountains, the evening is taken over by grillons, night crickets who sound as brittle as their name. The effect is enhanced by the electrical hum of street lights, and in the coming quiet, by my pulse. [11:27]Accessed 2.11.06 from http://www.voxlox.net/ - 2004 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 1535 images/works/Feld-2004-bells2.jpg The Time of Bells Vol 2 Soundscapes of Italy, Finland, Greece and France After twenty-five years of recording rainforest soundscapes in Papua New Guinea, Ive started to listen to Europe. Im struck by a sonic resemblance: bells stand to European time as birds do to rainforest time. Daily time, seasonal time, work time, ritual time, social time, collective time, cosmological time - all have their parallels, with rainforest birds sounding as quotidian clocks and spirit voices, and European bells heralding civil, festive, and religious time. In these six compositions youll hear how bells sound the time of authority and disruption. You ll hear how hand bells, animal bells, church bells, time chimes, and carillons interact with other time and space-makers, from birds to plaza fountains and cell phones, from walking and running feet to parades and urban traffic, from choirs and bagpipes to brass bands, DJs and amplified sound systems. Most of all you ll hear how bells ring a deep European history of gathering participants and calling in equal measure for prayer, protest, and carnival. 1. Turku Cathedral, Finland: Now over 700 years old, Turku Cathedral is the mother church of the Lutheran Church of Finland. On Sunday mornings its five bells sound continuously from 9:50-10 am, when the service begins to the steeple s time chime. In springtime, from a cluster of trees on the hill just to the side of the church, peipponen birds (chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs), respond with increasing excitement to the enormous swell of the enveloping bells. Further in the background, light traffic echoes off the surrounding cobblestone road. [11:16] 2. Turku Orthodox Church: The Orthodox Church of Saint Alexandra, by Turku s central Market Square, dates to 1846, its striking exterior marked by large bells at either side of the front door. Pavel Vierikko rings the three dome bells in a mixture of Russian and Finnish styles. His call to Vespers begins with forty strokes of the lead bell, followed by a series of rhythmic patterns using all three. The exterior staccato bells and city traffic contrast sharply with the church s sonic interior, where reverberant choral harmonies are ornamented by swinging hand bells as the priest circles the chamber. [7:22] 3. Oslo Cathedral, Norway: With its huge steeple and copper-plated dome, Oslo Cathedral dates to 1699. Acoustically bounded by a plaza of fountains and ever-present streetcars, it is also nestled against a shady park refuge. On a bright Sunday morning, as park people drink lite beer until the pubs open, the church s deep-toned bells echo across the city center. Around the corner, a downtown marathon gets underway, wrapped in the sonic surround of runners, a not-quite in-time brass band, DJ, hot-air balloon, and families strolling to the brilliant optimism of spring. [8:57] 4. Oslo May Day: As harbor gulls call, the 11 am ring of the City Hall chime and carillon ricochets off the facing semicircle of buildings. It s May Day, the international day of celebration for workers. In the crowd a man of Southeast Asian descent hoisted a distinct placard: JUSTICE - TEN YEARS HUMILIATION BY IMMIGRATION AUTHORITIES. Continuously ringing a small hand bell, his solitary protest overlaps the passing brass bands. The parade begins and ends with The Internationale, the song to celebrate the 1871 Paris Commune, where workers took state power into their own hands. Later, at the Folk Museum, a moving re-enactment of Oslo s 1933 May Day also concludes with a choral Internationale. [9:35] 5. Tricarico, Italy: The January 17 festival for Sant Antonio Abate opens the season of Carnevale. Tricarico, a village in Basilicata, celebrates the festival with a large parade, where men dressed as shepherds try to herd a wild throng of costumed bell-ringers through the streets and to the piazza. The bell-ringers dance around the strolling musicians Alberico Larato and Zi (uncle) Agostino Carlomagno, whose tunes on zampogna (bagpipe) and ciaramella (double reed) increasingly excite their revelry. [9:45] 6. Skyros, Greece: The goat dance on the island of Skyros is reputed to be the wildest carnival celebration in Greece. It certainly must be the loudest, featuring a procession of geros, costumed dancers who each continuously shake some sixty pounds of waist-strung bells. Ducking into a taverna to momentarily put the bells in the background, one hears another village keynote, the warmth of animated conversations overlapping the sound system s popular rebetika songs. Walking back outside, the river of bells takes over, in a mix with booming hip-hop music from a nearby dance club. [8:54] ADVISORY: EXPLICIT LYRICS. Accessed 2.11.06 from http://www.voxlox.net/ - 2004 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 1536 images/works/Feld-2005-bells3.jpg The Time of Bells Vol 3 Musical Bells of Accra, Ghana Produced and annotated by Steven Feld and Nii Noi Nortey Recorded by Steven Feld and Nana Agazi Color photographs by Steven Feld, Virginia Ryan, and Ruti Talmor Black and white photographs by Nii Yemo Nunu, Kotopon Afrikan Images Mastered by Manny Rettinger at UBIK Sound Designed by Michael Motley The Time of Bells 1 and 2 explored how church, animal, and ceremonial bells ring the time of day and season, ritual and festival, work and collective social life in Italy, Greece, France, Finland and Norway. Now the project turns to bells as musical instruments in Accra, capital city of Ghana, the former Gold Coast. In Accra one commonly hears musicians instruct that the bell is the keeper of the time in traditional drum and dance ensembles. And eminent scholars of Ghanas music, like J. H. K. Nketia, John Chernoff, and John Collins, have analyzed the authoritative power of rhythm in the interaction of bell and drums. But bells do much more than keep ensemble time. Listen here as bells of different sizes, pitches, and timbres make time multiple. Interacting with voices, wind, string, percussion and reed instruments - including car horns and jazz saxophone -bells ring the vibrant time of traditional, contemporary, and Pan African diasporic styles now resounding in Accra. LA TROTRO DRIVERS UNION POR POR GROUP Por Por music, invented by prominent timber truck drivers in Accra, dates to 1939-1945. It is played today by La branch drivers in the Ghana Private Road Transport Union who operate trotros, the minibuses that are the heart of Accras public transport system. Por Por links two great 20th Century inventions, the motor car and jazz music. The musics origin story speaks to a time when drivers used the squeeze bulb circular brass car horn brought to Ghana by Indian traders. Along with other instruments, they used this por por horn (pronounced paaw paaw) to scare animals away on forest roads at night as drivers pumped punctured tires. The music developed into a format like the mmenson elephant tusk ensembles of the Akan Kingdom, but with a distinctive tire-pumping dance accompaniment. One also hears resemblances to other African animal horn ensembles, as well as jazz horn riffs. The Por Por Group also sings tales of life on the road. Their repertory includes diverse rhythms and song types associated with recreation, church, fight, praise, and sorrow. Their reputation is extensive, and they perform at funerals for union drivers throughout Ghana. Members of the group playing dawuro or gankogui bells and por por are: Quarshie Gene, chairman; P. Ashai Ollennu, vice-chairman and leader; John Boye Hello Joe Mensah, Tetteh Klortey, Ashirifie Mensah, Adjetey Sowah, Ibrahim Ako Perkoh, and Gottfried Laryea Mensah. 1. Fast truck going, for four bells and four car horns, uses kpanlogo rhythm, the popular style of Ga origin that emerged around Ghana s independence. After the cadence, the band moves to a faster adowa rhythm (Ga-Akan). [9:07] 2. M.V. Labadi, dedicated to the late Ataa Anangbi Anangfio, has John Boye Hello Joe Mensah leading a song about the life of drivers on the road. M.V. Labadi, owned by pioneer transport operator Ataa Anangbi Anangfio (pictured left with one of his vehicles in 1950), was a famous trotro on the Accra to Takoradi (Ghana s first harbor) route in the 1950 s and 1960 s; it was popular among students and traders. The name M.V. Labadi links Accra s La(badi) region to the M.V. Aureol, a popular British passenger ship in the 1950 s. The piece uses the Ewe agbadza rhythm, and Nii Otoo Annan accompanies the group on sontin adeka ( something box ), a wooden box seat mbira with three keys. [9:28] 3. The Por Por group s bells and horns are joined in a kpanlogo jam by Accra Trane Station; Nii Noi Nortey on alto saxophone and Nii Otoo Annan on an ensemble of hand drums. [4:05] Recorded June 10, 2005, Studio Upstairs, Haatso, Accra ACCRA TRANE STATION 4. Suite for Bells and Instruments [11:33] Nii Noi Nortey, Nii Otoo Annan, and Aminu Kalangu weave bells together with wind, reed, string and percussion sounds of Africa and the Diaspora. -Welcome: improvisation with birds by Nii Noi on valiha Malagasy zither. -Palm Wine Groove/MDV: Nii Otoo, guitar, Nii Noi, Zimbabwean mbira dza vadzimu, and Aminu, kalangu talking' drum, connect the independence time music of Ghana to Zimbabwe's freedom songs. -Bell Sound Sculpture, 1 -Tamale: the largest city of Northern Ghana, home of the gonje one-string bowed lute; with Nii Noi, gonje, Nii Otoo, djembe, and Aminu, kalangu. -Bell Sound Sculpture, 2 -Afrifone: Invented by Nii Noi, the afrifone, is a North African double reed alghaita with a clarinet mouthpiece. Nii Noi's improvisation links sounds of Africa, the Middle East and Asia to the saxophone stylings of John Coltrane, with quotations from A Love Supreme. Nii Otoo plays djembe, and Aminu, kalangu, Recorded October 18, 2004; Anyaa Arts Library, Accra 5. Get the First Trane [10:25] Accra Trane Station recorded their tribute CD to the African legacy of John Coltrane in May and June 2005. This improvisation, from those sessions, features Nii Noi on alto saxophone with Nii Otoo on a rack of single and double bells, augmented by jazz hi- hat and ride cymbals, and xylophone. Recorded May 26, 2005, Studio Upstairs, Haatso, Accra] 6. POWERFUL BELLS [12:40] Carver's Lane at Accra's National Arts Centre features a number of shops where drums are made for the global marketplace. The four performers on this impromptu medley, seasoned musicians and teachers, are associated with one such institution, the Powerful Drum Shop. Nii Darku Ankrah leads on a double bell gankogui, and the three supporting parts are played by Benjamin Kotei on the second gankogui, Joseph 'JoJo' Kisseh, playing dawuro banana leaf bell, struck with an iron rod, and 'SS' Appiah Patrick Yeboah playing ododompo, a two-piece finger bell. Nii Darku and Benjamin illustrate a range of interlocking double bell patterns in the kpanlogo rhythm (Ga), creating diverse timbres by damping the larger bell on the thigh, and using stick techniques for striking different points inside and outside the bell. The songs are sung alternately in Ga and Akan. The opening one translates from the Akan: It is well and good; love and friendship is well and good. Other song themes range from road safety advice, to Christian praise songs, to covers of hit songs like Osibisa's 'Sunshine Day,' to the story of a tragic drowning accident of a girl. Applause from an enthusiastic crowd set off a danced tag for bells and donno 'talking' drum. Recorded October 20, 2004, National Arts Centre, Accra. Accessed 2.11.06 from http://www.voxlox.net - 2005 USA 17 Stephen Feld 1953 1537 images/works/Feld-2006-suikinkutsu.jpg SUIKINKUTSU : A Japanese Underground Water Zither Suikinkutsu, literally water-zither-cave, is a unique instrument associated with washing for the Japanese tea ceremony. Water drips from a chozubachi stone basin into a partly-filled underground ceramic bowl. The dripping sound, resembling a koto zither, is then projected up through bamboo tubes into a garden, where water may symbolize spirit, purification, solace, and reflection. Dating to the mid 17th century Edo period, the name suikinkutsu is often credited to the famous tea ceremony teacher Kobori Enshu. After a decline, the instrument re-emerged in the Meiji Era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with renewed recent popularity. This soundscape of Kyotos Enko-ji Temple suikinkutsu is a multitrack composition created from field recordings. At low volume one experiences a subtle acoustic ecology where ever-changing water rhythms flow randomly into the pulsing surround of summer cicadas. Produced, Recorded, Photographed, and Annotated by Steven Feld Edited, Mixed, and Mastered by Manny Rettinger at UBIK Sound Designed by Michael Motley With many thanks to Yoichi Yamada. Accessed 2.11.06 from http://www.voxlox.net/ - 2006 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1577 images/works/Masaoka-xxxx-whatisthesound.jpg What is the Sound of 10 Naked Asian Men? Medical equipment (EKG, EEG, heart monitors) and projected video 2000 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1584 images/works/Masaoka-2004-thinking.jpg Thinking Sounds Thinking Sounds, employs various musical and interpretive strategies to translate the data of brain wave activity into sound. These include: 1. A volunteer from the audience wears the EEG brain helmet. The actual voltage output of the brain is made audible with amplification. This electrical activity is then heard in real time by the audience in a pure unadulterated state, and also processed in a computer. 2. A graphic representation of pre-recorded brainwaves is superimposed upon a musical grand staff to create the pitch relationships and generate a written score. The musicians then “perform” the brainwaves and the expressive, gestural relationships that the waves imply. 3. The brain wave activity is interpreted via midi and mapped to a synthesizer where the waves are expressed in pitch, time and timbral relationships. The musicians then improvise with the midi output of the synthesizer. 4. In the final section, players perform an orchestrated rendition of the differentiated data of beta, theta, alpha, delta and eye movement. The SF Sound Ensemble members are: Matt Ingalls, clarinet; Hugh Livingston, cello; Tom Swafford, violin; David Birthelle, trumpet; John Shiurba, guitar; John Ingalls, saxophone; and Rakesh Khanna, percussion. Thinking Sounds is dedicated to David Rosenboom in recognition of his tremendous, intrepid research and creative work in brain wave activity. - 2004 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1585 images/works/Masaoka-1996-bee.jpg Bees The original Bee Project #1 premiered at the Oakland Museum as part of Sound Culture 1996. Performers: Wendy Reid; violin, Gino Robai; percussion; Miya Masoaka, koto. A glass-enclosed bee hive of 3,000 bees sits on stage, and bee sounds are amplified and sent through a mixer, manipulated in real time according to the instructions in the score. Several performances and re-interpretations later, in 2001 the Bee Project #5 premiered at the LAB in San Francisco. For this large scale work, bee sounds were spatialized and sent to eight channels to create a ““bee hive sound environment” with bee sounds filtered and mapped in B Format software, which twisted and tilted the sound on the X and Y axes. - 1996 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1586 images/works/Masaoka-20020koto_in_sky.jpg Koto In the Sky Laser lights beam between two buildings with performers stationed on the fire escapes. Wielding mops and broomsticks, the performers trigger samples with exaggerated movements, creating layered textures of sound. Commission. 2002 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1587 images/works/Masaoka-1991-interfaced_koto.jpg The Interfaced Koto Masaoka has developed compositions for interfaces for the computer and live koto; for computer and the live physiological response of plants and brainwave activity, and also for computer and infrared, laser and ultrasound sensors for use in both performance and installation.1991 Tom Zimmerman (Developer of the Body Glove, Scientific American, May, 1990) and I built an infrared sensor prototype for the koto. Multiple parameters of a single koto string could be tracked and differentiated: vertical, horizontal, circular movements, velocity, frequency and other parameters were successfully detected and analyzed, and the possibilities seemed endless. to top 1994, 96, 98 Residency at STEIM (Studio for Electro Instrumental Music—unique in that it is dedicated to live performance) two prototypes were built, one that was triggered by gestural hand and arm movements, and the other by data from the koto strings. The SensorLab, an analog-to-MIDI converter, is a small, custom microcomputer that can convert incoming analog electrical information into a standard digital code, which can then be interpreted by a personal computer or to MIDI devices. Four ultrasound sensors were imbedded in two rings worn on each hand that trigger samples when gestured on an X and Y-axis. A series of six pedals, and a button switchboard attached to the koto could select several modes for digital signal processing, and the whether the pedals or the rings, or the pitch-to-MIDI converter were to be active. WIRED magazine article WIRED Magazine article: Musical Monstrosity. View clipping Working in the unstable world of custom-built electronics, attempts at melding the acoustic real world to the digital world has proven to be a long voyage. Variants of proto kotos have been created, some with as many as 900 samples of original koto sounds—roughly equivalent to fifteen kotos—that can be accessed live and connected via computer to the Japanese traditional koto. These experiments, named Koto Monster and Laser Koto utilize multiple systems of hardware and software and were developed working with various technicians and institutions at STEIM, CNMAT; and with Donald Swearingen and Matt Wright. Ingenious inventor and colleague Swearingen, of sensorChip, has developed the Laser Harp and a microcomputer housed in acrylic that interfaces faders, lasers and a Basic Stamp analog-to-MIDI converter. - 1991 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 1588 images/spacer.jpg Whats the Difference Between Stripping and Playing the Violin an ensemble of dozens of musicians, a pair of male and female exotic dancers, and taped interviews with sex workers.An impressive blend of musical composition, and site-specific conceptual art. - 1996 USA 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1659 images/spacer.jpg Soundtrax Ultra-reds first public space action, Soundtrax (1992 - 1996), began as a collaboration between the artists and the Los Angeles clean needle exchange, Clean Needles Now. This collaboration yielded numerous performances (such as Ultra-reds April 1996 appearance at the UPDATE Festival in Copenhagen, Denmark), installations and other actions as part of the groups involvement in the daily functions of the needle exchange from its inception in 1992. introjection The story has been told so often of how Ultra-red began not as electronic musicians doing political music but as political activists accidentally acting as electronic musicians. Between 1993 and 1996, the founding members of the group, Marco Red Leader Larsen and Dont Rhine participated in the operation and organization of LA s first syringe exchange program, Clean Needles Now. In the early part of 1994, program director and visual artist Reneé Edgington proposed a video project representing the exchange. Of specific interest to Edgington was the program s unique use of art practice as a way of realizing within direct political action the radical potential of avant garde praxis. During the course of running the needle exchange, the organizers avant garde tendencies became tempered by more practical concerns. An increase in harassment from private security police necessitated some form of electronic documentation. However, the use of video recorders at the actual exchange sites (which, at the time, were solely street-based) proved too intimidating for the users of the exchange. Ultra-red suggested the possibility of audio recording the exchange. The efficacy of this strategy can be heard on the soundtrack doubledare when Edgington received a citation for drug paraphernalia possession by Los Angeles Police. Later, to coincide with Edgington s and CNN s participation in a group exhibition on William Burroughs, Ultra-red subjected the location recordings to the cut-up method. This early experiment with activist reportage and avant garde methodology appears in its entirety as the soundtrack dare ii [clean cut]. At the same time as these activities, Ultra-red had launched the electronic music club Public Space. Ground zero for Los Angeles nascent electronic music community, Public Space provided a meeting place for a diverse group of musicians including those associated with the Plug Research label, noise musicians like the group Fin and out-of-town acts like Spacetime Continuum, Autechre and numerous others. While Ultra-red s tenure with the club ended after a year, the workshop atmosphere of Public Space provided a vital environment for the group s use of the location recordings from CNN in their live performances. The results of this experience can be evidenced in the synthesis between ambient electronics and the cut up location recordings heard on the soundtrack dare i [silent running]. The tracks on this CD represent the earliest recordings of the group, before computer-based sound processing and editing presented the possibility of composing exclusively from site recorded sound sources. The soundtracks safe and those in the hype series Ð first presented in an April 1996 performance at the Update Festival in Copenhagen, Denmark Ð are the results of Ultra-red s first experiments with the new digital medium. Finally, tracks produced under the rubric Soundtrax are significant not only for how they advanced an aesthetic strategy of limiting useable sound materials to site-recorded documents. These compositions provided the blueprint for collaborations between electronic musicians and direct political action: a strategy of musical practice named, Ultra-red. dare The drug education program DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) is currently taught to more than 5 million children in more than 250,000 classrooms each year. Begun locally in Los Angeles in 1983 as the official drug education program of former Los Angeles police chief Daryl Gates, the DARE program uses uniformed police officers to deliver its message of abstinence to kindergarten children through senior high school youth. Presently, police, taxpayers and business give $700 million a year to fund the DARE program, making it the most funded and widespread drug education program in the country. The question stands whether DARE actually works in deterring youth from using narcotics, cigarettes and alcohol. Notwithstanding the controversies surrounding the much-publicized cases of DARE graduates narcing on mom and dad, studies indicate the program fails to reach its goal. In 1991, a Kentucky study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse reported that DARE produced no statistically significant differences in the choices made by children. Similar findings were reported by a Canadian Government study in 1990 as well as the Research Triangle Institute study of 1993 sponsored by the National Institute of Justice. Faced with mounting evidence indicating the program s ineffectiveness, DARE America launched a behind-the-scenes lobbying campaign against the RTI report released in November 1993. Despite this campaign some government officials are aware of DARE s shortcomings. In the immediate wake of questions raised by the RTI study, the Department of Education considered asking Congress to repeal a law requiring that states give DARE a total of $10 million or more a year from federal Drug Free Schools money. The history of DARE and its unbridled support have a profound sobering effect when placed in contrast to the small support granted AIDS education for actual drug using youth. At least one third of all persons with AIDS are injection drug users for whom sharing needles contributed to the transmission of HIV. In Los Angeles alone, there are an estimated 200,000 injection drug users, 10% of whom are young people. These figures are conservative and only hint at the threat of HIV/AIDS infection to young people using injection drugs. Effective drug education for young people must honestly and realistically address the needs of youth. This means educating young people about reducing the risk of infectious diseases like AIDS and Hepatitis. Dare to say no to politically-motivated programs like DARE which fail to respond to the real needs of young people. Dare to demand clean needles now. sane While drug education programs like DARE and SANE (the drug education program of the Los Angeles County Sheriff s Department) claim to be on the frontline in the nation s so-called War on Drugs, effective forms of AIDS prevention and education for drug users continue to be denied funding. Numerous studies such as the 1993 University of California study directed by the Center for Disease Control have determined that needle exchange programs reduce the rate of HIV infection and decrease new Hepatitis B infections. Both the Center for Disease Control study and the federal review which followed the study recommended that the ban on Federal funding of needle exchange programs should be lifted to allow communities and States to use Federal funds to support needle exchange programs as components of comprehensive HIV prevention programs. The studies go on to urge that States repeal prescription laws governing the possession of injection equipment. Both the 1993 review and its successor in 1994 were suppressed by the federal government and never made public. Clearly the message is that the American government is willing to support services for Americans who inject drugs only after they contract the HIV virus. Even then, the government denies funds for programs like needle exchange which could help reduce additional infections. In the war on drugs, drug users are considered an acceptable casualty and HIV/AIDS is deemed the acceptable risk. If we have learned anything after nearly twenty years of the AIDS pandemic, it is that the virus recognizes no ideology or political intention. We are all persons living with AIDS. Demand a sane response to the AIDS crisis, demand clean needles now. hype While the Federal government has concealed the facts about needle exchange programs as a proven means of reducing risk of HIV infection, where has been the investigatory journalism to uncover this concealment? Project Censored, a national newswatch organization, rated the suppression of scientific support for needle exchange programs in the top 20 of significant news stories to be censored by the mainstream press in 1995. For youth, the trade-off for helpful news reporting is the simplistic representation of a drug-filled youth culture. A Los Angeles Times article of November 3, 1994, titled Late, Late Show , carried the bi-line: At the new after-hours clubs, the party lasts until long after sunrise. But police say some club-goers keep the beat with the help of drugs. According to the Time s Life and Style writer, Dennis Romero, the drug of choice is Speed. And the police are at the limits of their resources to monitor the use of the drug as well as the often illegal clubs which attract tweakers. The article carefully portrays a youth sub-culture where underground events appear to combine a disregard for property with illicit drug use. To further the point of reckless drug-using youth, the leading photograph for the story depicts a young man shooting up what is presumed to be Speed. The subject of HIV/AIDS and safer using practices is altogether absent. Even such youth-enlightened publications such as URB Magazine, the so-proclaimed guide to underground club culture, assumes a similar silence in providing its readers useful information about reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS for injection drug users. In October 1995, almost a year after the LA Times article, URB writer Todd C. Roberts penned an expose on the increasing popularity of Speed, titled Built for Speed? While attempting to offer an informed perspective on the drug's addictive qualities, Roberts makes no mention of the number of youth who inject Methamphetamine as opposed to take the drug orally and nothing is said of the dangers involved with sharing syringes. By failing to provide useful information for Speed users, such as safer shooting practices or how to access harm reduction services, many articles about youth and the underground music scene only collaborate with the policing of leisure. The hyperbolic rhetoric and mock scandalized tone has long served dominant values when demonizing youth as wild creatures in need of control. Say no to hyped up portraits of drug using youth that fail to provide real information. Such hype only furthers the powers of Super-Vision. Demand access to useful information and life-saving injection drug equipment, demand clean needles now. safe Clean Needles Now (CNN) is a free needle exchange located in Hollywood. CNN was launched by a group of AIDS activists responding to the lack of direct AIDS intervention available to injection drug users in Los Angeles. Since its first exchange in June of 1992 (coinciding with Daryl Gates' much anticipated withdrawal from office), CNN has grown to where now it exchanges 70,000 needles per month. While the program receives some money from the City, all funds for the purchase of supplies is provided by private sources and fund-raising activities. Besides the Hollywood storefront facility, Harm Reduction Central opened in 1995, CNN also operates street-based exchanges in West Hollywood and the Pico-Union area. All CNN exchange sites provide harm reduction services to active injection drug users with a special focus on HIV intervention, bringing everything Los Angelenos need for a safer trip: your source to exchange used syringes for clean needles in a variety of sizes, safer shooting kits (including bleach, distilled H2O, 100% pellet cotton, tourniquets, anti-bacterial creams, cookers/mixers, alcohol wipes, condoms and lube), medical and drug treatment referrals and risk reduction education. In addition to CNN's services and clean injection equipment, Harm Reduction Central also facilities art programming for Hollywood street youth. To access CNN services and/or volunteer your own services call the Clean Needles Now information line 323.243.0280. Text written for the April 1996 installation, Sound Tracks part of the Without Alarm exhibition held at the former Lincoln Heights Division Los Angeles City Jail, curated by the Arroyo Arts Collective. Facts for DARE supplied by the Colorado Hemp Initiative Project -- (http://www.welcomehome.orb/cohip). Facts for SANE supplied by the Drug Policy Foundation (http://www.drcnet.org). needle exchange and mapping the city 1992 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 2078 images/spacer.jpg Electronics and Percussion: 5 Realizations by Max Neuhaus - 1968 USA audio/Neuhaus-Max_Electronics-Percussion_05_John_Cage.mp3 24 Vito Acconci 1940 2085 images/spacer.jpg 3 fragments for a radio songfest For book and radio - 1999 USA audio/Acconci-1999-3_fragments.mp3 24 Vito Acconci 1940 2110 images/spacer.jpg The Bristol Project - 2001 USA audio/Acconci-Vito_The-Bristol-Project_2001.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2048 images/spacer.jpg Is Anybody Home? Peter Gordon: clarinet Joe Kos: drums Scott Johnson: bass Laurie Anderson: voice, violin for boot horn, camera, stairs, piano, and voice, 1976 USA audio/Anderson-1976-anybody_home.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2049 images/spacer.jpg Its not the bullet that kills you, Its the hole Scott Johnson: guitar, boss; Joe Kos: drums; Ken Deifik: harmonica; Laurie Anderson: violin, voice; Scott Johnson, Laurie Anderson and Ken Deifik: arrangement - 1976 USA audio/Anderson-1976-not_the_bullet.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2052 images/spacer.jpg Song from America On The Move with Julia Heyward - 1978 USA audio/Anderson-1978-song.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2051 images/spacer.jpg Three Expediences - 1978 USA audio/Anderson-1978-three.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2053 images/spacer.jpg Dr Miller - 1981 USA audio/Anderson-1981-Youre-The-Guy_01_dr_miller.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2054 images/spacer.jpg It was up in the Mountains - 1981 USA audio/Anderson-1981-Youre-The-Guy_02_mountains.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2055 images/spacer.jpg Drums - 1981 USA audio/Anderson-1981-Youre-The-Guy_03_drums.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2056 images/spacer.jpg Closed Circuits - 1981 USA audio/Anderson-1981-Youre-The-Guy_04_closed_circuits.mp3 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2057 images/spacer.jpg Born, Never Asked - 1981 USA audio/Anderson-1981-Youre-The-Guy_05_born_never_asked.mp3 137 Vicki Bennet 1990 2115 images/spacer.jpg WFMU - 2004 USA audio/Bennet_V_PLU_WFMU-Premium-01_2004.mp3 117 John Bischoff 1949 1700 images/spacer.jpg Immaterial States 1999 USA audio/Bischoff-1999-imstates.mp3 117 John Bischoff 1949 1702 images/spacer.jpg Piano 7hz 2002 USA audio/Bischoff-2002-piano7hz.mp3 117 John Bischoff 1949 1704 images/spacer.jpg Eternal Network Music - Aperture APERTURE, by John Bischoff, invites sonic exploration and play using a palette of textured noise. By executing mouse-based motions, players can shape large and small changes in the sonic fabric. JSyn software synthesis and TransJam network music software 2003 USA audio/Bischoff-xxxx-aperture2.mp3 117 John Bischoff 1949 2116 images/spacer.jpg Interlude 1.5 - 2003 USA audio/Bischoff-xxxx-interlude1point5.mp3 82 John Cage 1912 2060 images/spacer.jpg excerpt from Silence Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1969 USA audio/Cage-1969-silence.mp3 82 John Cage 1912 2059 images/spacer.jpg Mushroom Haiku, excerpt from Silence Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1972 USA audio/Cage-1972-mushroom.mp3 82 John Cage 1912 2063 images/spacer.jpg Mureau Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1975 USA audio/Cage-1975-mureau.mp3 82 John Cage 1912 2062 images/spacer.jpg Song, Derived from the Journal of Henry David Thoreau Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1976 USA audio/Cage-1976-song.mp3 82 John Cage 1912 2061 images/spacer.jpg Writing for the Second Time Through Finnegans Wake Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1978 USA audio/Cage-1978-finnegans.mp3 20 Kim Cascone 1964 1979 images/spacer.jpg Edgeboundaries 1 2 3 I prefer to listen to sound in an active mode where the music is read like text and where multiple channels of information are presented simultaneously, forcing one to aurally multitask. This allows the listener to situate themselves in the audio information in a variety of ways, sort of like a mix of sonic cubism and futurism. - 2001 USA audio/Cascone-2001-Edgeboundaries.mp3 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1973 images/spacer.jpg Last Pieces My past experience was not to meddle with the material, but use my concentration as a guide to what might transpire. I mentionned this to Stockhausen once when he had asked me what my secret was. I don t push the sounds around. Stockhausen mulled this over, and asked: Not even a little bit ? Morton Feldman Morton Feldman s own words are as valuable for the composer as they are for the performer. His music slowly draws you towards silence by a process of atomization or repetition -- as do some of Beethoven s or Schubert s late compositions. You realize therefore how useless it is to try to act, to push his music against its own will. You will experience something about interpretation: question the music and then use your concentration. Playing or listening to Morton Feldman leads you to very unique moments, like those you feel when you look at a starry Summer sky, unable to measure its dimensions because this is beyond your understanding. A sense of infinity within a finite space. Stephane Ginsburgh. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ginsburgh.net/engl/welcome.html?http%3A//www.ginsburgh.net/Recordings/engl/Morton_Feldman_Last_Pieces.html - 1959 USA audio/Feldman-1959-Last_Pieces.mp3 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1969 images/spacer.jpg A Very Short Trumpet Piece a live performance of Feldmans piece by Stephen Altoft (duration 4:02 minutes). The recording was made by James Saunders during a concert at Feldmans A Very Short Trumpet Piece is dated 17th May 1986. His publisher, Universal Edition, had asked him to write something for an album they were compiling entitled Fanfares - New Trumpet Pieces for Young Players (UE 19060). The album was published in 1989, two years after his death. He never heard the piece performed. - 1986 USA audio/Feldman-1986-short_trumpet_piece.mp3 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 2011 images/spacer.jpg Transient Definitions Interacting with the architecture of the Beyond Baroque building, this installation consists of a series of wooden beams of varying lengths painted red and mounted at various angles across the front facade of the building. The beams were mounted in such a way as to intervene and disrupt the symmetry and perspective of the building. A series of 8 speakers were fixed into the wooden beams and amplify prepared audio based upon recordings of vocal sounds manipulated and turned into static. The audio was positioned in such a way as to travel quite actively across the facade of the building.http://www.sara.uea.ac.uk/?artistandid=3 - 2001 USA audio/Labelle-2001-transient.mp3 36 Steve Roden 1964 2138 images/works/Roden-2003-speaknomore.jpg Speak No More About the Leaves 1. airria (hanging garden) 2. speak no more about the leaves 3. airria (hanging garden) second version The cd contains 3 pieces inspired by Arnold Shoenbergs The Book of the Hanging Gardens and in particular the poems by Stefan George that Shoenberg used as lyrics. Track one uses my voice reading/singing part of the text as the only sound material. Track two uses the vowel structure from the text as a score for striking five tones on a small chime and was originally used for an installation at the pomona college museum of art. Track three uses samples from the Shoenberg work as well as my voice singing the same text as track one. Accessed 4.12.2006 from http://www.modisti.com/ - 2003 USA audio/Roden-2006-speak_no_more_about_the_leaves-tk3-Airria_(Hanging_Garden)_Second_Version.mp3 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2075 images/spacer.jpg Violin Problem No. 2 - 1969 USA audio/Nauman-1969-violinproblem.mp3 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1890 images/works/Ostertag-1993-saynomore12.jpg Say No More CDs 1 and 2 Originally released as two separate CDs, Say No More and Say No More in Person (1993), this double-CD set is number six in a series of limited editions co-released on Ostertags My Very Own Record Label, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. It features the virtual participation of Joey Baron, Gerry Hemingway, Mark Dresser and Phil Minton In Bobs words: I began the Say No More project by asking each player to record solo improvisations, separately, with no communication with each other nor instruction from me. I then took the resulting tapes and, using a digital editing system, broke the solos into fragments and assembled a band piece-by-piece from the splinters. The resulting tape became the first Say No More CD (1993), including the compositions Say No More and Tongue-Tied. This is probably the first group in the history of music to release a CD without having played a note together, or even having met. I then created a highly unorthodox score of these compositions I had created on the computer using the solo improvisations as sources. I gave both the parts and the computer-generated tape back to the musicians, instructing them to learn their parts. The result was Say No More as a performance ensemble, and the Say No More in Person CD, recorded in October 1993 at ORF-Vienna. It features the compositions from the first cd, but in their transformed, concert rendition. 2-CD SET limited hand-made CD-R edition by Bob Ostertag in screened metal tin with inserts 1993 USA audio/ostertag-Say_No_More_Volume_1__01.mp3 53 Meredith Monk 1942 2047 images/works/Monk-1976-Quarry.jpg Quarry Audio exceprt Procession Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/airwaves.html 1975 USA audio/Monk-1975-Quarry-Procession.mp3 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2026 images/works/Myers-1988-arcane.jpg Arcane Device: Engines of Myth In 1988, I received a tape from David Myers consisting of music made purely from the internal conflicts of machines; sounds made from no sound - no input, only output emerging from the unstoppable flow of electrons within and across machines plugged into one another the wrong way; these outputs then being controlled by David in real time using a mixing desk. The sounds were exquisite: ethereal, glassy, powerful, gritty, rich and strange by turns - and surprisingly varied. Clearly too, this was no surprised experiment but a mastered and subtle new instrument. This CD reissues that historic release, along with extra contemporaneous material. And now that input-less music has re-emerged in Japan - though with a totally different aesthetic - it is informative as well as fascinating to revisit this earlier, and very different, work. This is great music: shifting strange masses of unidentifiable sound moving in mesmeric and organic waves as - unhindered by any originary impulse - electricity sings. --Chris Cutler - 1988 USA audio/Myers-1988-arcane-clip_3.mp3 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2022 images/spacer.jpg Fetid Poets: Mass Storage of Miniscule Artifacts A collaboration with painter Alexander Ross, a really whacked-out cut-and-paste album using real instruments, samples of everything including the kitchen sink, and DLMs electronics. Fun. We think. Disc with Ross label artwork in Pulsewidth handpainted metal box. Signed and numbered in a limited edition of 200. - 1990 USA audio/Myers-1990-fetid-sample1.mp3 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2024 images/works/Myers-2001-resonant.jpg Resonant Coil Another departure, this time using guitar strings as the basis for most sounds--though you might not be able to tell. The music lies somewhere in the area between the Fripp and Eno material and more abstract sound field music. On many tracks feedbacking processors play the major role, and in a couple of cases there is no string input at all. This makes for a group of pieces which can vary between the quasi-melodic and atonal sound washes. In Pulsewidth handpainted metal box. Signed and numbered in a limited edition of 200. - 2001 USA audio/Myers-2001-resonant_clip_1.mp3 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2020 images/works/Myers-2006-muliplication.jpg multiplication of the arcs Produced live using only guitar, looping devices and processors. To my mind, this is where Robert Fripp should have gone after his classic Frippertronics, instead of his overproduced yet ill-defined soundscapes. No wailing solos here, but slowly evolving textures and atmospheres relying as much on electronic processing as on guitar. In Pulsewidth handpainted metal box. Signed and numbered in a limited edition of 200. - 2006 USA audio/Myers-2006-multiplication-tk5.mp3 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2021 images/works/Myers-2006-newton.jpg Newtons Rings Created on another briefly-existing electronic system employing live sample playback and modification, most sounds originating in feedback along with Tibetan singing bowls and other sources. A couple of aborted concert plans scrapped the performance ambition, and a shame, but this recording shows what couldve been. Ethereal washes and spacey pulsations, this is a good one if you dont need thumping beats. In Pulsewidth handpainted metal box. Signed and numbered in a limited edition of 200. - 2006 USA audio/Myers-2006-newton.mp3 136 Negativland 1980 1862 images/spacer.jpg U2/Negativland Not available in any store (legitimately, or at a normal price, anyway) as swift and immediate legal action on the part of U2s label and management decimated this release almost as soon as it hit stores. A total of 6951 copies (the official count) made it out for sale, of which about 1600 or so were 12 vinyl EPs and cassettes and perhaps 5300 were CDs, plus 692 promotional copies. No production or personnel credits are listed. LP label art features spy pilot Gary Powers, Sr. on side A and a bassett hound on side B (also on the CD issue). Bootleg CD copies do exist; it is relatively easy to spot counterfeits by the fuzzy, dupey-looking images screenprinted on the disc itself, and also by the UPC code on the back; if it is made up of dots instead of being solid, then it s a bootleg. There are also vinyl bootlegs of U2; some known versions include a 7 with a xeroxed sleeve originating in the U.S., a pink vinyl 10 out of Germany, and a recent compilation CD of various artists based around the U2 tracks (FU2 - STUPIDLAND). For an exhaustive overview of the entire U2 debacle, see Seeland 013 Fair Use: The Story of the Letter U and the Numeral 2. The famed recording is also downloadable from various web locations including this one. In 2001, a mysterious bootleg label called Seelard Records (sic) produced a reissue of the infamous U2 record, These Guys Are From England and Who Gives a Shit (see below), which, unlike other circulating bootleg versions, has much related material added - 1991 USA audio/Negativland-1991-u2.mp3 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1724 images/spacer.jpg fillip Commission 2002 USA audio/o-blatt_(keiko_uenishi)_filip_2003.mp3 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2003 images/spacer.jpg 5000 miles 5000 Miles is from a twelve hour collection of electronic music that I made in 1966 in a classical electronic music studio at the University of Toronto. The music was performed in real time using a bank of tube oscillators and tape delay. The oscillators were all set above the range of human frequency perception (above 30khz). Amplified resultant tones and complex feedback loops through the tape machines make the music. Processing devices and overdubbing were not used. [text and MP3 file from Pauline Oliveros page at www.mp3.com] - 1966 USA audio/Oliveros-1966-5000_miles_excerpt.mp3 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1922 images/spacer.jpg Deep Listening With the Deep Listening Band (Pauline Oliveros, David Gamper, Stuart Dempster) The warden approached us as we prepared to descend 14 feet down into the 186 foot diameter cistern that once held 2 million gallons of water. The warden reproached us for parking a van on the dirt covered ceiling. Pot holes suggested that perhaps the ceiling was not so stable. Once we had made our decent and after my eyes had adjusted to the dim cavern, I realized almost at once that the warden had probably never been inside: the cavernous cylinder is made of reenforced concrete with more pillars per square yard than a skyscraper. The water tank, built in 1970 on an army base, was probably designed to withstand heavy bombing. Our van was the equivalent of a mosquito on a housetop. The remarkable thing about the acoustic space is the long reverb, which could approach 45 seconds, and the lack of slap echoes and distinct early reflections that are often characteristic of large cathedrals; only pure, smooth reverb, the type that can be simulated electronically but is thought to be unrealistic and fantastical. The space is real, and unique. A large cathedral will return slap echoes and uneven resonance characteristics. The cistern showed a very smooth frequency response and no echoes, only a smooth reverberation, the amplitude of which appears to begin at the same decibel level as the source. Consequently, it is impossible to tell where the performer stops and the reverberation takes over. One additional aspect of the reverberation field that does not seem to record easily and which makes simulation very difficult, is that it slowly moved from the sound source along the walls until it enveloped the listener: a most remarkable and beautiful phenomena. Track List 1. Lear 24:48 2. Suiren 9:51 3. Ione 17:30 4. Nike 10:36 Total: 63:18 or accordion, voice, conch shell, metal pieces, trombone, didjeridu, garden hose, whistling, metal pipes 1989 USA audio/Oliveros-1989-Lear.mp3 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1967 images/spacer.jpg The King of Denmark Realzed by Max Neuhaus. This recording should be played at very low volume - so that you almost dont hear it. solo percussion 1963 USA audio/Feldman-1964-denmark.wav 23 John Oswald 1953 2082 images/spacer.jpg Mystery Tapes What records would i take along to a desert island? If one sacrifices oneself to the process of the journalistic interview, this hypothetical quandary is likely to be presented. Ive been asked this question many times. My impulsive and very honest answer is that i would first of all take the records i myself have created, plus one or two of the ones ive produced ( the list is short - Alto Sax, Plunderphonic, Elektrax, Discosphere, Plexure, Grayfolded, Gordon Monahans This Piano Thing, a couple of Mystery Tapes and Musicworks cassette magazines which i edited [...]. My list is obviously a monument of egotism, but there is also a reasonable argument which makes this selection inevitable. My recorded releases are made entirely to fulfill my own personal listening desires. I ve often stated that these recordings were made to fill the most annoying gaps in my record collection. By assuming the stance of the listener in producing these things i can at-the-best-of-times come up with something that i don t hear as my-music but rather as music-exactly-as-i-want-to-listen-to-it. Experience has indicated that these things that i like are also things that others like, which is the reason i will sometimes make more than one copy of a recording. Missing from the list are almost all of the recordings on which i play live or improvise, including those which i may have produced or edited. In fact, as much as i can rationally justify their existence, i hope that these items will land on some desert island other than the one i m inhabiting. These recordings give me the same uneasy feeling that most people seem to have listening to tapes of their own speaking voices. The exception to this queasiness is my 1980 solo album Alto Sax which i inexplicably like very much. There s another angle to my desert island listening desires, which goes back to my pre-teen years; long before i made my first record. At that time i felt there were too many extra-musical influences on my impressionable youthful mind. Record covers revealed either attractive or goofy looking individuals in their most groovy attire; these records were categorized in stores mostly according to the race, gender and musical education of these individuals. Publications that focused on a certain age group or race were full of opinions about the quality or social importance or the timeliness of this music. I thought that the following solution would provide a more pure and satisfying listening experience: Upon being banished to the hi-fi equipped desert island that i d been hearing about, i would begin to receive shipments of specially prepared records, sent by an individual or consortium who had a love of a broad variety of music. These records would come in blank jackets and all the information on the disc labels would be whited out. All i would have to go on is what i could hear. It would be in some cases impossible to decipher how old the music was, or what color the musicians were or what they liked to wear. I would subscribe to no music magazines. This would be my ideal desert island listening experience. Years later i got involved in Mystery Tapes which was an attempt to replicate this idea without having to be exiled, and also Pitch, which are concerts of live and recorded music taking place in absolute darkness, thereby also alleviating appearances from the musical experience. - 1980 USA audio/Oswald-John_Mystery-Tapes_X1-Version_01.mp3 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1893 images/works/Ostertag-1999-pantychrist.jpg PantyChrist Noise meets Noise meets Cabaret Tokyo meets San Francisco meets NYC meets Venus Godzilla meets John Cage meets Princess Grace To say that this has made me radically rethink my use of the word queer is an understatement. -- Q.U.E.E.R. zine Odd and genius. Like nothing before or after, I promise. -- TORSO Part of you will have to be frightened, part of you hopefully will be enlightened, and part of youmay be dumbfounded. -- Faster Than Sheep - 1999 USA audio/ostertag-pantychrist06_Giddy_Up_Cowboy.wav 136 Negativland 1980 1871 images/works/Negativland-1997-truth.gif TRUTH IN ADVERTISING Truth In Advertising is taken from a longer piece, ADVERTISING SECRETS, as commissioned by New American Radio. Greatest Taste Around is a slightly different mix than the version on the DISPEPSI CD. Taste In Mind is an outtake track from that CD, although the sleeve note erroneously lists it as available on DISPEPSI. No personnel credits. - 1997 USA audio/Negativland-Truth_In_Advertising.wav 136 Negativland 1980 1872 images/works/Negativland-1987-escape.gif ESCAPE FROM NOISE LP edition originally issued with a 20-page booklet featuring article reprints, reviews and photographs from 1979-1987 (the printing negatives for the book are now lost) and a Car Bomb bumper sticker. Originally issued on black vinyl although unauthorized colored vinyl pressings exist. The Penguin version was issued on vinyl only in Greece (now out of print) and was distributed by CBS!!! In 1999 Seeland reissued ESCAPE FROM NOISE in a reworked package designed for the CD format. Negativland always intended the original EFN artwork to be for the LP format only, and were never happy with Don Joyces original painted cover image reduced to such small size on the first CD issue. The new version features that artwork full size as the front cover, with the remainder of the artwork reformatted throughout the package by ace designer Dan Lynch (http://www.sp3d.com). The new version of EFN is NOT remastered or remixed in any way, save for the addition of some CD mastering tomfoolery, nor is there ANY extra material added. Doors slam/People yell/Children scream/Sirens whine/Trucks rumble and roar/And rock music blares, as Negativland asks the musical question Is there any escape from noise? Escape from Noise is a concept album about noise, but its more than a sound effects record for the semiotics set. Many of the tracks feature obliquely satirical vignettes; on others, collages of found sounds are laid over mechanistic backing tracks. You can trace Negativlands lineage back through Revolution No. 9, the Mothers of Invention and Stockhausen s musique concrete. The seventeen cuts average about two minutes long, and they teem with little snapshots of sound - no wonder this profoundly weird and funny anti-record took four years to make. There are tracks that refer to such political hot potatoes as nuclear power, handguns and the Soviet threat, but mostly Escape from Noise deals with consumerism and pop culture. It starts off with a Big Brotherish announcer intoning, The cut that follows is the product of newly developed compositional techniques based on state-of-the-art marketing-analysis technology. The song turns out to be a robotic rhythm crack littered with cartoon sound effects from the depths of our Saturday-morning collective unconscious. In Michael Jackson, a TV-preacher type recites an exhaustive litany of million-selling rock groups whom he then damns to hell for making rock music directed specifically against children. There is a certain sonic typecasting of the bizarre lineup of guest artists - Jerry Garcia plays chimes. and makes mouth sounds; Jello Biafra flushes a toilet. Other guests are Mark Mothersbaugh of Devo, avant-garde guitarist Henry Kaiser and the Residents, who contribute hoots and clanging. Other credited instruments include bomb parts, tiny metal banjo, Regular Booper, shortwave, halfspeed violin, leaf blower and processed animals. Perhaps it s best not to speculate about what would happen if you listened to this California mind zap on your Walkman. -Michael Azerrad PULSE! MAGAZINE April, 1988 Escape From Noise, the fourth LP from Oakland, Calif.-based Negativland, has already had its share of crises and controversies. Three years in the making, it came close to destruction at one point when a fire broke out below the studio where it was being mixed. Then there was the Dear Abby controversy after its release; and then, most tragically, the event in Minnesota. According to Richard Lyons of the group, a boy in Rochester, Minnesota, is reported to have killed his parents after an argument with them over his listening to Christianity Is Stupid, a track on the new SST album. In addition to invoking images of the Ozzy Osbourne teen suicide case, the connection is itself an unfortunate reason for propelling the group to national attention. Even stranger is the Dear Abby debate, in which Lyons says that his Nesbitt s Lime Soda Song has become the grounds for a heated controversy in print over whether bees are stupid enough to fly into a bottled beverage. Swiping bits and pieces of a wide assortment of material into its tracks, Negativland uses everything from old 60s voice-overs to preachers sermons to synthesized dribblings in its audio collages. Mostly I spend more time in thrift stores than anyone, says Lyons. I like to collect a lot of old records, spoken word records and we all collect tapes. Don (Joyce) spends more time recording stuff off TV and radio. Negativland will be taking its act on the road very soon - pending further controversies - with a mini tour of the U.S. The group will be joined by an array of cart machines, keyboards, guitars, effects and extra special props, including a fundamentalist preacher named Pastor Dick who has worked with the group for several years on its recordings. He puts the audience where we want them, says Lyons. -Beth Fertig VILLAGE VOICE June 7, 1988 With just one song, Oakland jokesters Negativland vie with AC/DC for the title of Most Dangerous Band in the World. Last October they release Escape From Noise, a record of tape splicing, sound effects, and doctored public service announcements. It features Christianity Is Stupid, which repeats an out-of-context fragment from a raving preacher: Christianity is stupid, Communism is good. Come January in Rochester, Minnesota, 16-year-old David Brom is charged with the ax murder of his mom, dad, sister and brother. Police say the murders followed an argument between Brom and his dad about the song. Preparing for a national tour, Negativland say they were visited by certain federal authorities" interested in the Rochester case, and told "don t leave town." They haven t. Offered a chance to play at this summer s New Music Seminar, the band decline. In May a Bay-area TV station runs a news segment on the murder, intimating that "Christianity Is Stupid" is Negativland s "Helter Skelter." The next day a rock shatters a window of the apartment where two band members live. What s going on? Negativland won t say which feds contacted them, because they don t want publicity, and don t want any more rock-throwers. But their vagueness makes one ponder if this is just publicity. "It would probably be us if it were a federal agency," says San Francisco FBI spokesman Chuck Latting, "but to the best of my knowledge we've not had contact with them." Negativland vocalist Richard Lyons says officials have authorized one Bay area gig, "providing we give equal time, allow entertainers and chosen representatives of the Christian faith to appear. And we have people out here eager to do so. They will be here to represent their faith in message and song." The band's talking to promoter Bill Graham. David Brom awaits trial. BAND'S PUZZLING LINK TO MURDER CASE By Joel Selvin San Francisco Chronicle Pop Music Critic June, 1988 Whatever it was that originally linked Oakland rock band Negativland with the gruesome Brom killings in Rochester, Minn., appears to have vanished into thin air Last month, band members claimed that certain unnamed federal authorities asked the band not to tour after the Minnesota ax murders of an entire family, after 16-year-old David Brom supposedly argued with his staunchy Roman Catholic father about a Negativland song, "Christianity Is Stupid," then murdered his parents, brother, and sister. But what is really going on remains unclear. The Village Voice contacted the San Francisco office of the FBI - the most likely federal agency to scrub the rock band's planned tour - and a spokesman denied ever contacting the group. Furthermore, the Olmstead County Prosecutor in charge of the Brom case had never even heard of any connection between the murders and any argument about any music - Negativland's or anybody else's. "There's only one person in a position to know," county attorney Ray Schmidt said. "And he's not talking." A spokesman for SST Records, the group's label, said the only information the company got about the situation came from the band. The band members contacted refused to answer any questions about where the connection between "Christianity Is Stupid" and the Brom killings may have originated, preferring to mail a written statement so they wouldn't be misquoted. "We are victims of the media," Mark Hofler (sic) of Negativland said. "As to our uncertain association with the Brom case," the prepared statement said, "we think that it's foolish and will comment on it no further. For a while, during interviews, we made comments to the press and found that we were so misstated to fit the writer's need to grab attention and the editor's need to abbreviate, that we will now make no more statements whatsoever. Sensationalism reigns." But how did the story first get out? If the prosecutor, who has first-hand access to all the evidence in the case, knows of no connection between the song and the supposed argument that led to the murders, who does? Who are these mysterious "certain federal authorities" the band said asked them not to leave town? Could the band itself have been the initial source of the link between these brutal murders and their own music in some misguided attempt to gain publicity? Band members won't say either way. But tacked onto the band's written statement was a vague announcement of plans to hold a public performance - to include "the piece that sparked the controversy," an audio montage that features some unknown preacher raving, out of context, "Christianity is stupid. Communism is good" - accompanied by a representative of the Calvary Evangelical Fellowship, so the controversy can have "a full and open forum." It's slated for late August/early September at some as-yet unannounced location. - 1987 USA audio/negativeland-Escape_from_Noise-17-The_Way_of_It.wav 136 Negativland 1980 1866 images/works/Negativland-1998-pastor_dick.gif Pastor Dick Rains On Your Hit Parade Over the past thirty years, I have been inspired by the work of such great evangelists as Bob Larson, Hilly Marmon, and Jack (and Rexella) Van Impe. From generation to generation, their bold condemnation of rock music has sent a strong message to young and old alike. From the Beatles to the Beastie Boys, from Woodstock to Whitesnake, these dedicated men of God have risked their lives and careers taking on the commercial music industry and its blatant (and successful) attempt to manipulate and control the lives of modern-day youth. I have always wondered though, why so little attention has been focused on the kind of music these kids parents are listening to. Of course Mom and Pops intolerance of heavy metal, alternative, and gangsta rap are justified, but are blasphemy and immorality any less harmful when set to a softer beat? Are we to accept perverse and ungodly messages simply because they seem harmless when presented in a good times, great oldies or listen at work format? Should that which is against Gods principles be deemed credible just because it is piped into every supermarket and department store in America? Negativland have generously given me the opportunity to break new ground and to free those who have been sucked in and held captive by the adult contemporary scene. So turn off your radio and pick your selection from the easy listening library in my jukebox to find out the truth behind the lush instrumentation and banal cliches you unconciously tap your toes to each and every day. - 1998 USA audio/Negativeland-Pastor_Dick.wav 136 Negativland 1980 1870 images/works/Negativland-1997-dispepsi.jpg DISPEPSI All of the cola commercials that were appropriated, transformed, and reused in this recording attempted to assault us in our homes without permission. Other sources reused include: talk radio, MOMMIE DEAREST, tabloid TV, Pepsi and Shirlie, documentary TV, Bryan Ferry, the news, Ice-T, public service announcements, Asha Bhosle, MC Lyte, The Clio Awards, traditional Burmese music, the OJ Simpson Trial, motivational marketing tapes by advertising executives. Fearing trademark problems (as advised by five volunteer lawyers), the DISPEPSI title does not appear anywhere on or inside the release. A sticker on the original pressings of the disc instructed buyers to phone a word of mouth line to learn the actual title. Three months after the release of DISPEPSI, however, PepsiCo officially stated that it had no intention of ever taking legal action against Negativland for trademark or copyright infringement, so Negativland began using the actual title in press releases and on this website. CD packaged with One World Advertising fold-out. No personnel listings. - 1997 USA audio/negativeland-pepsi.wav 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2070 images/spacer.jpg Danger Music Number Seventeen - 1962 USA audio/Higgins-Danger_Music_Number_Seventeen.wav 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1923 images/works/Oliveros-deep-listening-band.jpg The Deep Listening Band The Deep Listening Band (DLB) arrived in Chicago late Sunday and early Monday (11 and 12 April 1992) just as the town was being evacuated from the great tunnel flood. What is it about the DLB that relates so well to water? The DLB was formed by accident 8 October 1988 while recording its award winning Deep Listening CD for New Albion Records in a two million gallon cistern with a reverberation time of 45 seconds on an old military base (Fort Worden) 70 miles northwest of Seattle. Just a few months later the DLB was recording Troglodytes Delight for ¿What Next? Records (reissued in 1998 on O. O. Discs) in an old limestone quarry (Tarpaper Cave) near Rosendale, New York which had lovely dripping water sounds and Valhalla-like mists. About a year and a half after that the DLB was once again in the cistern to record The Ready Made Boomerang CD released in January 1992, also on New Albion. This upstart Deep Listening Band worships in a cistern chapel (and) explores the mysterious spaces between notes, where all is sweet dissonance and beading microtones according to Marc Weidenbaum in the April 1992 issue of Pulse! In December of 1991 the Deep Listening Band went to perform in Jameos del Agua, a marvelous concert space built in a lava cave, containing a pond, on Lanzarote, the northernmost Canary Island. By this time keyboardist David Gamper had been with the DLB for a year joining trombonist, Stuart Dempster, accordionist Pauline Oliveros and vocalist/computer wizard Panaiotis. The DLB is a composer collective--usually improvising in the moment, and experimenting with all kinds of instruments and electronics: Dempster on conch shells, didjeridus and garden hose; Gamper on overtone flutes, and found instruments, and continuing to develop the Expanded Instrument System (EIS); Oliveros on voice, bells, and conch shells. The DLB has regularly invited guests to perform with it. Dancer/vocalist Julie Lyon (Balliett) Rose, vocalist Thomasa Eckert, percussionists Fritz Hauser and George Marsh, writer Ione, performance artist Linda Montano, and clarinetist William O. Smith form only a small part of the guest list. Whether performing in San Francisco at Life On the Water (October 1990); in Austin with the Sharir Dance Company (March 1990) or the Ellen Fullman Long String Instrument (1994); in Brussels, Oslo, and Stockholm (April 1991); in Lanzarote (December 1991); Tokyo (December 1992) in a hall with over 700 loudspeakers in the walls and ceiling; rattling our Pots and Pans in New Yorks The Kitchen (January 1995); or performing in the World Financial Center Winter Garden (February 1998), the DLB stands ready to sink to new depths. The DLB doesnt play just anywhere! Certainly an unexpected depth was reached with events leading up to Panaiotis resignation in June 1993; the DLB had to reinvent itself. While this was going on, and unbeknownst to the DLB, a group at the Alternative Festival in Moscow led by Anton Bugatov played along with our Troglodyte s Delight CD in our first virtual concert; one could say they were DLB guests! Barely six months after the personnel change the DLB played a monumental (Ione s description) benefit Non-Stop Flight concert in Kingston, New York in January 1994 inviting some 13 guest performers (modeled after the five hour Marathon in Japan)--the DLBB (Deep Listening Big Band)! Work then took place with composer Ellen Fullman and her Long String Instrument (LSI) in three separate week long residencies in Austin, Texas during January, February, and November 1994 culminating in several fantastic energizing performances. Fullman represents the fourth of ten DLB commissions (other composers are Thomas Buckner, David Gamper, Joe Giardullo, Fritz Hauser, Linda Montano, Joe McPhee, Panaiotis, Pauline Oliveros, and Baikida Carroll). The DLB released two CDs during 1995. Sanctuary, recorded in Kingston, New York s lovely old Trinity United Methodist Church (TUMC) on Mode Records, features Non-Stop Flight mentioned above, along with the Expanded Instrument System* (EIS) and TUMC s unique Tracker organ. Tosca Salad represents a two year DLB history, from June 1993 to May 1995. This CD sampler introduced the Deep Listening* label and presents twelve excerpts from concerts and recording sessions including Ten Ears Celebration in honor of the tenth anniversary of the Pauline Oliveros Foundation. Two more CDs have been released: Suspended Music (1997) features the DLB with Ellen Fullman s Long String Instrument in two DLB commissions: Fullman s TexasTravelTexture and Pauline Oliveros Epigraphs in the Time of AIDS. This CD also introduced the Seattle label, Periplum. Non Stop Flight (1998), released on Music and Arts, is an excerpted recording of a concert at Mills College dedicated to the memory of David Tudor: 4 Hours and 33 minutes, a trope on Cage s 4 33, with many Bay Area guests. Several CDs are in the works. One close at hand is Deep Time, featuring Fritz Hauser as a DLB commissioned composer and performer. The September 1998 performance in Low Library rotunda at Columbia University with Ellen Fullman begins Deep Listening Band Decade, a year long celebration of the DLB s first ten years. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.pofinc.org/DLBhisto.html - 1992 USA audio/Oliveros-DEEP_LISTENING_BAND.wav 121 Dan Senn 1953 2145 images/works/Senn-2005-spaceband International Space Band Project I was asked to propose a concept for a series of workshops at the new Museum of Glass in Tacoma, WA, which would tie into the work of John Cage, one of three artists contributing to the Museums inaugural exhibition. Having been greatly influenced by him as a student, I considered a translation of the I Ching into sound using a graphic notation I had developed for a public school residency. I had used it to notate complex sound textures for performance by untrained musicians (the graphics had been drawn by art classes and performed by music classes) and I felt it had potential for translating hexagrams into sound. The idea was to seek judgments from the I Ching using yarrow sticks for appropriate sounds and music rather than for decisions about life. A question could be formed like What sounds would be useful for these people in this space and at this time resulting in a set of hexagrams and an associated set of graphic symbols. A performer would consult he book, produce one or more hexagrams, or any number of players could do likewise and produce additional hexagrams related to the same query. These would be performed to any agreed upon strategy, even where the divination process was a part of the presentation itself, to form compositions of great meaning and beauty. So I opted to move in this direction; to standardize the notation some; to develop a system for translating the I Ching into this notation; and, to do all of this in time to present it at a workshop at the new Museum of Glass. And it was a daunting project, more difficult than expected, but the workshop happenedAccessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 2005 USA audio/Senn-2005-spaceband.wav video/Senn-2005-spaceband.mpg 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1661 images/works/Ultrared-1997-structural.jpg Structural Adjustments This project (1997 - 1999) began as an inquiry into the impact of neoliberal economic policies on low-income residents in Los Angeles, specifically, the residents of public housing in East LA’s Pico Aliso and Aliso Village. Working with the Union de Vecinos, an organization of public housing residents fighting for just and democratic housing policy, Ultra-red have produced projects such as the four hour radio program, “Gateway to Los Angeles” for the Nottingham, England festival NOWninety8. Sound Housing in San Francisco Bay Guardian (January 28, 2000) JANUARY 28, 2000 http://www.sfbg.com/AandE/Frequencies/39.html by Josh Kun When urban designers explain the cities they study, they usually talk in visual terms. Kevin Lynchs 1960 Image of the City -- a classic of the genre that has Bostons crooked congestions battle it out with decentralized Los Angeles sprawl -- measures the quality of city planning and urban layout in terms of its imageability, the extent to which cities are legible to the people who navigate their streets. The more imageable a city is to its residents, the better. Good cities should be good homes: egalitarian, democratic maps of living that give us all a sense of where we are in the world. The Los Angeles sound-art duo Ultra-Red are urban theorists equally concerned with egalitarian imageability, but they dont read cities in traditional ways. They don t see cities as zoned districts or geometric grids -- they hear them as sound maps where public space and public housing are being forced into regrettable silences. Their latest project, Structural Adjustments (Mille Plateaux), is a terrifying document of urban renewal and community redevelopment that zeroes in on the LA Housing Authority s proposed demolition and promised reconstruction of the Pico Aliso and Aliso Village housing projects in East LA, a move that would affect more than 1200 Latino households. Although the primary sound material dips back to 1996, Structural Adjustments 2000 release gives it extra weight in light of Seattle s WTO riots -- an aftershock reminder that free-tradism and globalization steamroll local lives in the balance. Ultra-Red combine tweaked and twisted layers of sound samples from the Aliso projects self-appointed lobbyist group of mothers, fathers, and children, Uni—n de Vecinos (recorded on-site at protests, city-council meetings, rallies, and demonstrations), with icy, forbidding whirs of electro-circuitry. To their credit, Ultra-Red never manipulate the voices of the Aliso residents beyond the point of intelligibility and never exploit them for the sake of electronic wowing. From Ana Hernández s Spanish-language city-council testimony on the track a Pico Aliso (hemos bastante) to the multimedia project occupation of Architecture versus Housing, Structural is an activist project first, a musical experience second, with its haunting sonic compositions put into the service of progressive social critique. On Canción de la posada, you hear looped Spanish chants of I don t want gold or silver, the only thing I want is a home gradually sequenced into a melody line ready for a four-on-the-floor rhythm crunch that never comes. On Weasel Pop, you have plenty of time to register that the chimes you hear belong to an ice-cream truck -- that reliable artifact of a functional neighborhood -- before it s chopped up over jump-up beats. Ultra-Red s concern for the real-time materialism of their sound sources is especially surprising when you consider that Structural is available through Belgium s Mille Plateaux, a high-minded, idea-driven label that has long pushed the theoretical and intellectual importance of sound art without much follow-through on the front of everyday praxis. Structural also bucks another trend: the two minutes of concrete drilling that open the album immediately separate it from electronica s recent fetish for apolitical architectural utopias. Caipirinha s Architettura series, for example, asks avant-garde electronic composers to design soundscapes for major completed building structures: London s Waterloo Station, Japan s Museum of Fruit, and, in their next installation, the buildings of Brasília. Ultra-Red finesse a dystopic anti-Architettura project that focuses on the government-sponsored destruction of residential architecture, not its realization. And they do so not with music to fit a man-made space like stylized aural wallpaper, but with music to mirror man-made spatial disappearance through violent gurgles, viscous clogs, and the voices of the people meant to disappear along with it. This systematic destruction of public space was a major concern in City of Quartz, Mike Davis's landmark exposé of LA as the ultimate laboratory for late-20th-century urban implosion. Davis proposed the anti-myth of noir as the counterpart to the myth of California sunshine. And he wasn't talking about private dicks searching Chinatown for murdered heiresses; he was talking about N.W.A and Blade Runner, art that talks back to capitalist development by scouring its underbelly: police states, homeless underclasses, and enforced geographical segregation. Structural Adjustments would be perfect as a soundtrack to City of Quartz. It is, to borrow an idea from Davis, the embodiment of electro-noir. But be warned, there's little aesthetic pleasure in listening to it. I can only suppose this is part of Ultra-Red's point. The sound of people fighting for their right to dwell should never be easy listening. re/developing the new urbanism 1997 USA audio/Ultrared-1997-Structural.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1662 images/works/Ultrared-1998-value.jpg Value System Beginning in 1998, Ultra-red launched an on-going investigation into the relationship between self-identified global electronica and the context of these developments within global capitalism. Each dispatch in this series features site recordings from specific locations within North America the totality of which form an imperialist archipelago. Drifting across the continent from Wall Street to the Tijuana Border, from the School of the Americas to the World Bank, Ultra-red takes its place in the growing opposition to tyrannical myths of benign globalization. anti-imperialism and boombox politics 1998 USA audio/Ultrared-1998-value.wav 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2032 images/works/Dockstader-1961.jpg Apocalypse Apocalypse followed Luna: I wanted to do something heavier, thicker in texture, more unruly and alarming - a concrete Deis Irae. The slowed (creaking)doors and the cat-cry toy are central to it: they provided the threat and despair I wanted (the cat-cry toy was a little round box with a picture of a cat on it which, when you turned it upside down, emitted a thin, pathetic little cry - slowed[on tape], it became, I thought, heart-wrenching). The passage of Gregorian chant, in Part Two, was used as a vocalization of the door sounds - Im always looking for sounds of different timbres that express the same emotion. The inclusion of Hitler (tape-echoed into gibberish) in the last part is from my radio childhood, when I heard his broadcasts in the late thirties: I didnt understand a word, but the terrifying sound of it (made stranger by the shortwave phasing) stayed with me. The sonic boom(s) were almost the only sounds I had that had originally been recorded in stereo: the sound materials in all my work were, originally, almost all monaural, recorded all over the place in a time before portable stereo tape recorders (the live cat in Part Four sang one night outside our apartment window in the Village: I hung a mic out the window for most of the night, recording his arias). Sound Sources First Part * orchestral chimes * voice * generator * sonic boom (jet) * pie tin * piano Second Part * various doors * generator * Gregorian chant Third Part * cat-cry (toy) * chimes * drum * voice * oilwell * piano Fourth Part * generator * bamboo flute * chimes * hollow tube * a live cat * piano * jets * cymbal * voice (Adolph Hitlers) * drum Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1961 USA audio/Dockstader-1961-Apocalypse-Part2.wav 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 2077 images/works/Neuhaus-xxxx-RadioNet.jpg Radio Net he formed a nationwide network with 190 radio stations. - 1977 USA audio/Neuhaus-Max_Radio-Net_Part-1_1977.wav 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1971 images/spacer.jpg Piano Piece Accessed 15.11.06 from http://homepage.mac.com/misha_david/MishMusic/iMovieTheater67.html - 1955 USA video/Feldman-1955-pianopiece.mpg 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1970 images/spacer.jpg Piano Three Hands Accessed 15.11.06 from http://homepage.mac.com/misha_david/MishMusic/iMovieTheater137.html - 1957 USA video/Feldman-1957-3hand.mpg 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1972 images/spacer.jpg Vertical Thoughts 4 Accessed 15.11.06 from http://homepage.mac.com/misha_david/MishMusic/iMovieTheater70.html - 1963 USA video/Feldman-1963-vertical_thought4.mpg 53 Meredith Monk 1942 2094 images/works/Monk-1981-ellisisland.jpg Ellis Island Between 1892 and 1927, almost 16 million people came to Ellis Island attempting to immigrate to the United States. For the 280,000 who were turned back, Ellis Island become the Isle of Tears. Meredith Monk and Bob Rosen chose this site as the setting for a historical/psychological ghost story about our ancestors. Ellis Island blends documentary, experimental, fiction and dance modes in what Monk describes as a mosaic of sounds and images woven together into formal musical design. Tableaux vivants and a photo-documentary stillness collapse the passing of time in haunting scenes of immigrants and their families moving through the clinics, classrooms, and waiting rooms that make up this landscape of memory, pain, and hope. Though it is inspired by historical fact, the work is not a documentary. Though it uses professional actors, it has no dialogue and no storyline in the ordinary sense. It does, however, try to suggest something of the atmosphere and mystery of a ghost story, the ghosts in this case being our ancestors. —Meredith Monk and Bob Rosen, San Francisco International Video Festival 1982 . Accessed 20.11.06 from http://www.vdb.org/ - 1981 USA video/Monk_ELLIS_ISLAND.mpg 121 Dan Senn 1953 2148 images/works/Senn-2000-catacomb.jpg Catacomb Memories The title, Catacomb Memories, suggests that this installation is about memories of a burial place, but this is true only to a certain extent. In solving aesthetic problems, I consistantly begin from an action-based and languageless sense which is stimulated by play and imagination and a feeling for what the exhibition space is calling for. Therefore, for this installation, while keeping in mind the required medium, I began by imagining a darkened space; then the sight, sound and motion of what would become the Paper Tube Canopy Lyre; then the sight, sound and motion of the flowing sheets of fax paper speaker strips emanating, at a low resolution, the sounds of the human voice; and finally, the luminous projections in the space above which would redundantly cast a glow over the installation itself. At this point, with the macro-structure in place, I began casting about for a right-sounding sound source, an integrated video source, and a system to develop two scores which would be played simultaneously: a subaudio pulse score to drive the pendulums of the Canopy Lyre; and, a voice distribution score which would logically and sensibly spread, in time and space, the spoken and sung materials. It was only after determining the larger structure that the Catacombs material entered the picture, and while I was aware of its social volatility from the outset, it was chosen primarily because it offered an effect which was beautiful to me. So, while the exterior of this installation may be a poignant commentary on the social attitudes prevalent in the western world of the 1930s, all of which is assisted by a well-calculated drumming, recurrent voices, songs and images, and these may indeed trump the medium and structure itself, it is important to note that the meaning and metaphor here is mostly your own, quite appropriate, and belongs, only after a considerable distance, to me. Given below are the main elements to this installation: a Paper Tube Canopy Lyre, fax paper speaker strips, video projections, spoken texts and pre-1940 popular American songs. The Paper Tube Canopy Lyre is a variation on my first Canopy Lyre which was installed in an old growth forest and extended between tree trunks and over a small rushing brook. The original featured metal resonators fastened on piano wires which were struck by pine beaters, called pendulums, set in motion by the stream below. As the running water vibrated the connecting lines, the beaters would rock back and forth at a rate determined by the stream motion and the off-balancing of the pendulums. For this indoor version, the metal resonators and stream have been replaced by resonant paper cylinders and modifiied speakers, called pumps, playing a score consisting of sub-audio sine waves stored on audio CDs. The fax paper speaker strips are suspended from piezo transducers used to broadcast the sound of spoken text and songs. A different text, or series of texts, is printed on each length of fax paper which corresponds to the text which is heard over that particular length of paper. Each strip is duplicated elsewhere. Because the strips are sensitive to the air currents, the viewers, as they move though the installation, become agents in one of the installations kinetic aspects. A score which distributes the voices throughout the installation in time and space is stored on cassettes. The texts, which are amplified over the speaker strips, are spoken by seven people who were part of a failed commercial enterprise called the Catacombs of Yucatanãa attempt at commercializing a limestone cave used by Native Americans as a burial ground prior to European settlement. The Catacombs , located on a bluff overlooking a valley filled with dairy farmers, was in operation in 1934-35 and consisted of the cave, a dance hall and some small overnight cabins, but because it awakened the dreams of so many local people during the difficult time of the Great Depression, it exists to this day within the folklore of the region. In 1995, on a grant from the McKnight Foundation of Minnesota, I created a sound and video installation called the Catacombs of Yucatan Sound and Video installation which consisted of my sculptural instruments, videos, and video interviews placed within the cave, and event which attracted many local farmers and small town people. The songs, which are also amplified over the speaker strips, are sung by a dairy farmer who recorded these for his daughter in the mid-1980s on a cheap cassette machine in a barn just 250 meters below the location of the Catacombs.... The singer, named Stanley Hahn, was unaware of the pause-record button causing his otherwise capable voice to weaken over the three hour, virtually non-stop, recording time. Most of the songs are turn-of-the-century American popular tunes leading up to the period of the 1930s and Great Depression. The videos, which are projected in the space above the Canopy Lyre and speaker strips, are of two types: one is an abstraction of the faces of those whos voices are heard over the speaker strips; the others are rhythmic and surface mappings of two overnight cabins which were once part of the Catacombs... enterprise removed to other locations in the late 1930s. Special thanks to Helen Jameson, Oscar Dotseth, Paul Groteboer, Myrtle Jameson (the elder), Myrtle Jameson (the younger), Marilyn Hahn, Stanley Hahn, Anna Staupe and Gladena Reierson for lending their voices to this installation.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com kinetic sculptural instruments, with 40 channels of voices and projected video. 2000 USA video/Senn-2000-catacomb.mpg 121 Dan Senn 1953 2150 images/works/Senn-2001-son.jpg Son et Lumiere: Volunteer Park Archeologies with Ken Slusher. Son et Lumiere: Volunteer Park Archeologies will be held at the Volunteer Park Conservatorium in of March in 2001 and continue for three weeks. Video monitors and kinetic instruments placed amidst plants throughout the Conservatorium will continuously play a composition for voice, percussion, and moving audience. Spoken sounds will consist of plant and gardening experts divulging pre-chemical secrets of gardening, canning, seed gathering, and related life stories. These will be presented over 20 color and monochrome video monitors and act as a visual-spoken counterpoint to the light beating of Dan Senns pendulum-based sculptural instruments. Interviews will be collected at the homes of regional gardeners in the fall of 2000. The installation will coincide with the opening of the Gardens of Art exhibit at the nearby Asian Art Museum and developed with assistance from the V. P. Conservatorium and the Friends of the Conservatorium. Admission to the exhibition will be free. |. MOTIVATIONS .| A goal of this project is to provide experimental art within contexts uniquely accessible to new audiences. As long time gardeners, both artists are interested and comfortable documenting the stories of gardening experts, but there is an ulterior motive; one which is based on the conviction that new, and risky art, if considerately placed, is especially understandable to those who work with their hands. And this defines one of our target audiences. By holding this exhibition cooperatively with the Conservatorium, the regular Conservatory guests will experience the new work, but it will also attract audiences interested the stories, or just in those being interviewed, and/or those interested in the sound, video and aesthetic aspects. Through a broader appeal, we expect the installation to be of mutual benefit to the Conservatory, community and to art world itself. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 2001 USA video/Senn-2001-SonEtLumiere.mpg 112 John and James Whitney 1917 1736 images/works/Whitney-1975-Arabesque.jpg Arabesque It was the climax to a creative period where such films as the Matrix series were completed. For some Arabesque is considered the seminal computer film Set to the music of Manoochelher Sadeghi, the film ran 7 minutes. It is an example of the artist perfecting his art. The whirling, exotic flow of the music is in perfect synthesis with the quasi- psychedelic blooming of colored forms. John Whitney had balanced science with aesthetics, and defined the computer as a legitimate medium for art. Films like Catalog and Arabesque used sequences that were like words which were later combined together in the optical printer into compositions. The technique is somewhat similar to the composer (Schoenberg) working with a musical tone row. funded by a grant from the National Endowment for the Arts, and IBM sponsorship (1965 - 69) starting at the 1975 USA video/Whitney-1975-arabesque.mpg 112 John and James Whitney 1917 1735 images/works/Whitney-1980-DigitalHarm.jpg Digital Harmony The 80s would see an expansion of Whitneys exploration of digital harmony. By now he was composing his own music, searching for, as he writes, a special relationship between musical and visual design. (Whitney, 1991). Whitney was defining a new kind of composer: One with the ability to conceive ideas both musically and visually. Whether quick or slow, action, as well as harmony, determines much of the shape of my own audio-visual work today. Action itself has an impact on emotions. Fluid, orderly action generates or resolves tensions much in the manner that orderly sequences of resonant tonal harmony have an impact on emotion and feeling... (Whitney, 1991). The late 1980s would see numerous John Whitney works, combinations of original music and visuals. From Spirals in 1988, to Moondrum, a Native-American influenced series of works completed in the span of 1989-1995, Whitney was now using a special composing program developed in association with programmer Jerry Reed called the RDTD, that enabled the artist to create musical design intertwined with color design tone-for-tone, played against action-for-action (Whitney, 1996). - 1980 USA video/Whitney-digital_harmony.mpg 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2090 images/works/Nauman-1969-lip.jpg Lip Sync With the camera held upside down and focused in a close-up of the artists mouth, Naumans lips and tongue articulate the words lip sync as the audio track shifts in and out of sync with the video. The disjunction created between what is seen and heard keeps the viewer on edge, struggling to attach the sound of the words with the out-of-kilter movements of Naumans mouth. ZKM Videosammlung. Accessed 20.11.06 from http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/lip-sync/ - 1969 USA video/Nauman-1969-lip.mpg 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1660 images/works/Ultrared-1995-SecondNature.gif Second Nature From urban health to urban pastoralism, Ultra-reds second public space occupation, Second Nature (1995 - 1998), pursued an investigation into queer public sex in Los Angeles’ Griffith Park. Installations at Los Angeles’ Center for Photographic Study and Foundation for Artists’ Resources have charted a progression in Ultra-red’s work from the advocacy of the Sex Panic! political movement through to a queer class analysis. queer desire and the urban pastoral 1995 USA 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1663 images/works/Ultrared-1997-social.jpg Social Factory Over the years, Ultra-red members have worked with a variety of labor organizations - trade union and autonomous. The direct involvement by Ultra-red members in specific labor campaigns compelled the group to initiate the Social Factory series (1997 - present). This series of actions was designed to 1) re-evaluate our own theory and practice around organizing for working class power and, 2) excavate the silence around material conditions in the formalist austerity of much electronic music. sound / body / labor 1997 USA 138 Ultra-Red 1994 1664 images/spacer.jpg School of Echoes From Ultra-reds earliest days, the group has pursued audio art projects that stage an exchange between conceptual art and social practice. In 2001 this interrogation entered into the formal space of education. Beginning with a year-long residency with the HeArt Project, Ultra-red tested its methodology of acoustic popular education in classrooms in Echo Park and Central Los Angeles. The experience proved incredibly rewarding both for students and for Ultra-reds own thinking about process and pedagogy. School of Echoes is a long-term project of Ultra-reds to develop a training institute for organizers, artists and youth in an effort to explore the practice of acoustic reflection within social change. In addition to training, School of Echoes features radical curriculum development, and interventions into education spaces. Overall, the theme of School of Echoes is neither a specific educational content nor an ideological dogma. Rather, the goal of the project is the practice of popular education within the realm of conceptual and experimental art as a foundation for stimulating an exchange between organizing and art. Specific attention is given to sound art practices for their privileging of perceptual affect over ocular epistemology. For more information on the School of Echoes, contact the Ultra-red Education Secretary at edu@ultrared.org pedagogy of the ear 2001 USA 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 1665 images/spacer.jpg Noise reduction on Back Porch it consists of two pieces that were created through a series of studio setups using my own field recordings, pre-existing recordings that I made of various objects such as a can opener, a radiator and an old squeaking chair, tidbits of recordings that I generated collaboratively with other artists in Chicago, (Olivia Block and Tod Szeczyk), bits from “the cutting room floor” from my many sessions at Chicago’s Experimental Sound Studio as a recording engineer, and a series of objects and materials that I brought into the studio with me, including parts of my own invented instruments. - 2003 USA 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 1668 images/spacer.jpg Gongalong A cd compilation of Seattle based experimental musicians and sound artists. - 2001 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1687 images/spacer.jpg Sign Angle Side clarinet, harp, cello, guitar 1970 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1688 images/spacer.jpg Summer Network live electronics, feedback 1973 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1689 images/spacer.jpg Silhouette live electronics 1977 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1690 images/spacer.jpg Dimensional Tide, Vertical Neighborhood live computer music 1982 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1691 images/spacer.jpg Next Tone, Please live computer music 1983 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1692 images/works/Bischoff-1985-Horizon.jpg Artificial Horizon Bischoffs ARTIFICIAL HORIZON...is moving and evocative. I was especially attracted to AUDIO WAVE. It is music as idiomatic to the computer as a Paganini piece is to the violin. Erling Wold, COMPUTER MUSIC JOURNAL, Winter 1991 live computer and tape 1985 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1693 images/spacer.jpg The Curve Behind the Line live computer music 1987 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1695 images/spacer.jpg The Industrial Revolution 1989 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1696 images/spacer.jpg The Glass Hand 1991 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1697 images/spacer.jpg Drift 1993 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1698 images/spacer.jpg Surface 11-5-2 1995 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1699 images/spacer.jpg Striped Cloth for a dance by Evangel King 1998 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1701 images/spacer.jpg Graviton 2000 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 1705 images/spacer.jpg Sound Archive This project follows a work Stephen Vitiello created for the Dia Center for the Arts that identifies environmental based sound archives on the web. - 2001 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 1703 images/spacer.jpg Local Color 2003 USA 16 Stephen Vitiello 1964 1706 images/spacer.jpg Fantastic Prayers Web Project from 1995. CD-ROM 2000 - 1995 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1707 images/works/Colley-2004-6feedback.jpg 6 Feedback Channels six piezo transducers hang above, and barely touch, six speakers of different sizes. each speaker emits the signal of its piezo input creating feedback. three oscillating fans move the air, randomly affecting the resultant sound. collaged from field recordings made on site 5/21/02 - 2004 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 1708 images/works/Hudak-xxxx-Highway.jpg Highway work from this master of reductive minimalism involving a sound of exceedingly banal character: traffic. Yet instead of concentrating upon its ineffable drone or sustained qualities, Hudak has extracted from his recordings made on an overpass a transient sound which is then stretched, broken apart, and bubbles in sublime fashion across the stereo field in a vacuum of pure silence. The result is nothing short of spectacular and affecting -- a calm meditation juxtaposed in almost ironic opposition to the furious rumble and freneticism implied by its source. check year 2002 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1711 images/works/Colley-xxxx-No.jpg No This is a document of an installation piece involving two loops running modified courses on two reel to reels; while the loops warble pleasantly in and out of synch, the sounds of the machines alone will give you a delectable claustrophobia, making you feel at home in a barn full of slowly ailing mechanical bulls. Hand signed edition of 233 copies... - 2005 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1712 images/works/Colley-xxxx-everyonegets.jpg Everyone Gets What They Deserve His fourth critically acclaimed full-length CD. A pioneer in sound event constructions, Crawl Unit (Joe Colley) has been releasing material since 1992 on labels around the world, including Drone, Manifold, G.R.O.S.S., Ant-Zen, Chocolate Monk and Self-Abuse, among others. Crawl Unit has also appeared on over a dozen compilation recordings, composed sound for dance and performed live nationally and abroad. Crawl Units last CD The Future in reverse made it into our top 10 list of CDs from last year, and this CD will easily make it into this years list as well. Six tracks, totaling 67 minutes long, mixing together analog electronic drones, environmental recordings, and who knows what else, expertly mixed together into a compelling, and mind altering listening experience.-Self Abuse Records Colley is a self-taught sound artist from Sacramento, where he has slowly been building an extensive (if underappreciated) catalogue of dissonant rumbles and threatening drones out of lo-fi electronics (piezo microphones, malfunctioning speaker cones, buzzing wires). I admit a skepticism about Colley and the industrial bent of his earliest work. Yet, he, more than a lot of California noise artists, has stepped beyond the noise for noise purism for an expressive and at times gentle broad band of electro-acoustic drones that have demonstrated the potential to parallel the awe-inspiring absolute concrete work of Francisco Lopez. Everybody Gets What They Deserve is Colley s fourth album which begins with demonstrations of the aforementioned lo-fi electronics and ends with an assortment of Hafler Trio-esque media collage cut ups.-Aquarius Records I have been following Crawl Unit for some time, and I think they keep on growing with every new release. They (is it just he?) have captured their own territory in sound, which altogether is not something utterly new, but Crawl Unit built on a consistent repertoire. The six lengthy pieces on this CD sort of built around drones. Not those of pressing keys down on a synth or an e-bow on a guitar, but through sampling the everyday phenomena. Added are rumblings, crackling of any kind. A squeaking door, the crackle of broken electronic toys, the water running through the central heating system. Very nice one again!-Vital Weekly - 1999 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1714 images/works/Colley-2006-Psychic.jpg Psychic Stress Soundtracks THE WIRE (UK) Failure, self-loathing and abject monstrosity continue unabated as the primary themes for Joe Colleys electro-shock minimalism. as with his previous, equally impressive Desperate Attempts At Beauty, he shifts through a seemingly endless supply of antiquated electric gear and forces these dilapidated machines to grind, crush, whirl and twist under conditions they were not originally designed for. On Psychic Stress Soundtracks, Colley astutely transcribes the machines smouldering march to oblivion, granting them the emphatic capacity for pain and the recognition of existential despair. The ozone smell of melting circuity lingers above the nervous Geiger counter clicks and toxic hums of his eelectric dynamos. Colley is a gifted, if sometimes under-appreciated composer whose successes rely upon hte manifestation of the paradox of building something extraordinary out of junk. Jim Haynes VITAL.(NL) For those who gave up too soon , it says on the cover, and I wonder who they are, as Joe Colley doesn t tell us. Over the years, Colley came from a background in industrial music under the banner of Crawl Unit and his own Povertech label, but since more recent times, he solely uses his own name. Maybe those who gave up too soon as those who couldn t stand his Psychic Stress Soundtracks ? Music made to work on the senses aren t a new thing since John Duncan s Stress Chamber or Mark Bain s similar container. But on a CD one might be a bit lost as to the psychic effects. Colley offers five pieces of extreme sound frequencies, with very high end and low end sounds, chopped up into small rhythms and argumented with larger chunks of more ongoing sounds and crackles of toys being smashed with a contactmicrophone. It s a very physical soundtrack, as the music goes from soft to quite loud all the time. Maybe Colley s soundtrack is meant to be used at Guatanamo Bay (which, as I recently saw on TV uses Subhuman by Throbbing Gristle in their training program - that wouldn't crack me)? Played through headphones on a loud volume and on repeat for a couple of hours, this would maybe crack the faint at heart. Maybe Colley makes a comment on that? His music is definitely the missing link between die-hard noise and a much more intelligent approach to sound and that alone makes this into a well-enjoyable release. Excellent noise - especially when not played under duress. (FdW) TOUCHING EXTREMES.(IT) If you make the mistake of remaining trapped in a corner, Joe Colley's diffusions of poisoning vapors will remorselessly peel your skin. A tangible tension permeates the air during the territorial predominance of concentrated drones which make an instant impression on the brain, facilitated by an enormous power of propagation that's often comparable to some of the intense nerve-shattering pulses of Daniel Menche. From time to time we are surprised by a violent discharge that constitutes just a link to more engrossing segments in which emerging from the background of the unconscious becomes a pretty uneasy task. Hypnotic waves of hammering spirals destroy every point of reference, leaving an indelible trace upon the overall sonic complexion; this interaction with space brings the sounds to transform their structure incessantly, reassessing their dynamics and reconstructing their broken shells. (Massimo Ricci) BLASTITUDE (US) The newest CD by Joe Colley, and to give you the summation in Nabakovian style: it's elegant and should be purchased at your earliest convenience. Now, how I reached that assessment. Describing Joe's work has never been a simple task for me; on one level, this disc has works which overall might loosely be classified as drones, but there's consistently a handful of elements permeating fore- and background, giving each piece a direction that 1) frees it from stark genre delineation and 2) gives each piece greater individual life. Both factors contribute to his works being intriguing and engaging. I would prefer, for this review, to steer clear of “it sounds like…” because that cheapens the excitement of experiencing the sound and moreover reduces his sound to something that can be described by slapping together some adjectives and nouns, which simply is not fair. Anyway. Although my overall impression is the pieces on this disc have a more composed feel -- as opposed to rawer research documents -- it's also inaccurate to say this disc is a “return to form.” Both styles (research vs. composed, and he has more than these two, fear not) have their place, but the former is probably the one I enjoy more. This is because while I find Joe's goals / intentions -- communicating with sound / translating a state or idea into an aural experience -- a constant thread in each release, my sense is he’s also aiming to reach those goals in a different manner with each release. And I'm speaking of more than a thorough examination of “technique,” for lack of a better word. I envision Joe with a small notepad full of notes on various sound observations he's made and then thinking -- real, qualitative thinking here, not merely noodling (although noodling has its place) -- about how each sound not only conveys or captures an idea but how sounds working together -- either sliding smooth like glass or grating like rusted barbed wire -- convey a (sometime different) idea than the separate elements. Moreover, I find these are not ideas needing explanation; Joe's work often has an extremely personal feel (something perhaps difficult to even want to attempt transmitting live [hence, in my speculation, his infrequent live performances]), ideas that are perhaps best developed when he's able to explore them in a controlled environment (studio conditions). The delicacy and directness of his audio output (not to mention the more “obvious” aspects of the titles of the recordings) gives me the sense that he’s working for something greater than the sum of his audio output, but his sound works is as close as he’s going to get to breakthrough -- or as comfortable as he feels like getting through a public exercise / exorcising as an audio release. To jump back to Joe’s “styles,” though, I'm simultaneously not convinced of this need for studio works; the often analytical sterility of some of his conceptual pieces (field recordings, a DAT machine dying, static from a TV, a record player being used to play another object, the sound of clay absorbing water) works fantastic as well. It's this unification of opposing ideas -- and many more, as I've alluded to before, which make Joe's work stand out among the myriad sound artists in existence today. On this disc, I would describe the overall sound of any given piece in the following way (which I believe will not contradict my earlier desire to not “describe” the sounds): take several layers of thin ice, the topmost being the thinnest and the bottom-most the thickest, and place them a few inches from each other suspended by thin wires. In each piece of ice embed a few objects, running on batteries. Each object makes a sound, affected by 1) the batteries as they slowly die, 2) the vibration of the ice, 3) the vibration of the wires, 4) the vibration and vibration frequency of the other object(s) in the ice. Eventually the thinnest ice melts away and the objects fall to the next level below. The process and interaction of sounds begins anew, yet permutated; the ice continues to melt until all objects have collapsed through the last piece of ice and all batteries have expired. Joe's work is beautifully complex, beautifully simple; it is determined both by chance and by a highly discerning ear. Often, seemingly divergent elements are brought together in Joe's works to resolve ideas -- the resolution of which is only of concern to him. As a listener, you are fortunate enough to hear the fruit of his labor and peek aurally into an amazing place. Blake Edwards - 2005 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1715 images/spacer.jpg Triptych for Paranoia Calibration Audio content includes, approximately: an accelerated ping pong game filtered through a shortwave radio station; tones tipping on a seesaw; a wavering heartbeat; turntable needle skrtich; high tone feedback and distortion; and nice harmonies of feedback. - 2006 USA 146 Joe Colley 1976 1719 images/works/colley-2002-vienna.jpg Desperate Attempts At Beauty Tracklisting: 1 Icewater.05.02 (0:19) 2 January Broken Stasis (3:06) 3 Burn Memory (Test For Headphone Rattle) (5:33) 4 Claysound.07.02 (11:47) 5 Claysound.10.02 (5:27) 6 Headache (Diagnostic Testpulse For Blown PA) (5:20) 7 Lost, Or At Least Realizing That Very Soon None Of This Will Matter (12:32) 8 Untitled (13:01) - 2003 USA 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1723 images/spacer.jpg coupier two laptops and multi-channel sound system 2002 USA 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1730 images/spacer.jpg Lappatites Group consisting of Kaffe Matthews / Ikue Mori / Zeena Parkins/ Marina Rosenfeld / o.blaat - 2001 USA 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1731 images/spacer.jpg unnamed w/ laser pointers and flash sensors + I-cube digitizing system 2001 USA 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1732 images/spacer.jpg Perfect If On for Peter Coffins installation Perfect If On music with plants and greenhouse 2002 USA 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 1733 images/spacer.jpg pitchbrite with Christine Bard using handmade contact microphones with customized tapboard sound system 1997 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 1737 images/spacer.jpg Radius-Differential Theta Differential Whitney was striving to invent a synthesizer for the future. Developed with Dr Jack Citron, the Whitney-Reed RDTD (Radius-Differential Theta Differential) was the tool with which John Whitney was able to able to redefine audio-visual composition. For Whitney it was the beginning of the future of his vision of digital harmony, one which he left for future artists to continue. Ive struggled to define my vision. The union of color and tone is a very special gift of computer technologies. - 1988 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 1738 images/spacer.jpg Catalogue 7 minute, full color exploration of visual effects set to the music of Ornette Coleman. - 1961 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1752 images/spacer.jpg MUSIC 1 which was quickly replaced by MUSIC II running on an IBM 704 and written in assembler code was the first real computer synthesis programme - 1957 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1753 images/spacer.jpg MUSIC III written in 1959 for the new generation of IBM transistorised 7094 machines which were much faster and easier to use than the older models. The MUSIC series software went through a stage of elvolution folowing the deleopment of the IBM computer whhich ended in 1968 with MUSIC V written in FORTRAN and running on the IBM 360 machines. - 1959 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1754 images/spacer.jpg MUSIC V picked up and developed by various other programmers such as Barry vercoe at MIT who designed MUSIC 360 and MUSIC 10 by John Chowning and James Moorer at Stanford University. - 1968 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1755 images/works/Matthews_Max-1970-groove.gif The GROOVE System Mathews pioneered GROOVE (Generated Real-time Output Operations on Voltage-controlled Equipment), the first fully developed hybrid system for music synthesis, utilising a HoneywellDDP-224 computer with a simple cathode ray tube display, disk and tape storgae devices. The synthesiser generated sounds via an interface for analogue devices and two 12 bit digital to analogue convertors. Input deices consisted of a qwerty keyboard a 24 note keyboard, four rotary knobs and a three dimensional rotary joystick. Mathews saw the function of the GROOVE system as being a compositional tool which the composer/conductor manipulates in real time: The composer does not play every note in a (traditional) score, instead he influences (hopefully controls) the way in which the instrumentalists play the notes. The computer performer should not attempt to define the entire sound in real time. Instead the computer should retain a score and the performer should influence the way in which the score is played..... the mode of conducting consist of turning knobs and pressing keys rather than waving a stick, but this is a minor detail.......The programme is basically a system for creating storing, retrieving and editing functions of time. It allows the composition of time functions byt turning knobs and pressing keys in real time: it sotores the functions on the disk file, it retrieves the stored functions (the score), combines them with the input functions (the conductor) in order to generate control functions which drive the analogue synthesiser and it provides for facile editing of functions via control of the programme time... The GROOVE System at the Bell Telephone Labs , c1970 The GROOVE system remained in operation until the end of the seventies when Honeywell withdrew form the computer market.Max Mathews (Now professor emeritus at Stanford) is still actively involved in digital music performance. His radio baton hyperinstrument allows him to conduct a computer orchestra by simply waving a wand over an electromagnetic field. The father of computer music predicts that by 2010, almost all music will be made electronically, by digital circuits. Generated Real-time Output Operations on Voltage-controlled Equipment 1970 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 2010 images/spacer.jpg Disseminating Performance Space This work was presented as part of the Beyond Music Sound Festival, a comprehensive sound festival with performances and installations. In response to this festival I was interested in focusing on the performance space itself where the performances would be taking place. The performance space at Beyond Baroque functions as the central point around which the Beyond Music Sound Festival takes place. It is the space of social gathering, presentation, and reception. More so, it is the space in which Music is performed. Microphones are placed inside the performance space and connected to speakers mounted inside architectural models representing the performance space itself. These models-speakers are then mounted at various points inside and outside the building--along walls, on doors, in the bookshop, on a tree, etc.--creating distribution points for the occurrences of the space. Through this process the performance space is extended beyond its own physical parameters to external points. Placing the performance space outside itself I am interested in disrupting the centrality of this space, and in turn, extending its position toward a broader public and architectural space.http://www.sara.uea.ac.uk/?artistandid=3 - 2000 USA 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 1783 images/works/Barsotti-xxxx-instrument-bassa.jpg Various Instruments - 1994 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1861 images/spacer.jpg Teletour In Negativland we understand that those who create culture for distribution by the corporate dream machine have no effect on how that machine operates. Even when work is criticizing the machine that is consuming the work, you will not notice even a hiccup in response. In fact, such work is often welcomed because it proves the machine is the pillar of free expression in a democratic society that it claims to be. And because it does, I guess it is. In Negativland, we accept confusion as an unavoidable result of the media environment we all exist in. All this mixed wariness about the hierarchical mechanisms of public exposure has become infused into the work of Negativland on many levels. We think how something reaches you is as significant as what it is that reaches you. We are as interested in creating formats as we are in filling them. A good example of our kind of low-tech alternative to establishment channels of exposure is the Teletour. In 1988, Negativland performed the first series of broadcast telephone concerts known as a Teletour. Within a period of two weeks, we performed about 20 one-hour concerts from our own studio at home. Each of these was transmitted by our phone, equipped with a special fidelity-enhancement device, to different radio stations and broadcast live. Thus, we were able to appear live on the radio in about 20 cities, all the way from Hawaii to England, without leaving home. The simple elegance of this idea was enthusiastically received by the stations and their audiences. The Teletour motto is From Our House to Yours, and it sums up all the attractions of bypassing the usual formulas for touring. Although we continue to perform live in clubs and other venues, the Teletour alternative to the beaten path of live touring is both refreshing and appropriate to our music and our attitude. The unique environment of personal spaces that radio reaches into is well suited to the kinds of thought levels and associations we like to evoke. There is something very appealing about an indiscriminate radio signal that radiates 360 degrees across all kinds of landscapes to catch the unsuspecting ears of a random population. It allows for elements of real surprise to occur that are hardly possible among the small and often jaded flocks that frequent the live performance scenes. A radio audience represents a much larger crosssection of our population and might be considered closer to reality as we know it. The Teletour allows us to travel incredible distances and appear in widely separated locations within a very short time, often playing in several different time zones in the same evening. The broadcasts also reach far more people in the places we transmit to than we possibly could by playing clubs there. Add to this the pleasure of touring without the tangled grind of traveling too far too fast. We avoid lost, stolen, and damaged equipment, bad accommodations, fast food, and bad-tempered club personnel. And we dont spend money, so we are not so concemed about not making any. The Teletour rules are simple. Negativland plays for free with the receiving radio station paying for the long-distance phone call only. We play for approximately one hour and the receiving station must broadcast this live over their on-air phone line. The special spark of a live performance is important to us and we dont allow taping for delayed broadcast. We incorporate the station s ID into our show so that the concert continues uninterrupted. We also provide participating stations with Teletour posters in advance that they can copy and distribute to promote the broadcast. Accessed 12.11.06 from http://negativland.com/audiogadgets.html - 1988 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1863 images/spacer.jpg No Business NO BUSINESS is not only a term Negativlands accountant can identify with, but also a tenaciously pure attempt to make new music out of old, or to make old music new, whatever the critics decide this dubious case may be. Critically acclaimed by those same critics in Newsweek, NY Times, Washington Post, Urb, Spin, Blender, Rolling Stone, etc., and with their work now being taught in college courses nation wide, NO BUSINESS may be a race with Walt Dizzy to commit legal suicide, or it may be the most thoughtful novelty record youve ever heard. But either way, Negativland passes through your consciousness once again, this time with nothing original at all! NO BUSINESS is all about stealing music, file-sharing, the supposed collapse of the music industry and a nice piece of pie. Taking famous and not so famous music from the whole array of show business, Negativland recomposes it all to make a project of thoroughly un-original music and dialog they hope to copyright themselves. Hey, if you dont know what these guys sound like by now, here s the deal on this thing: they clipped out, cut up, and re-imagineered all the found sound they could get into their computer, and out came NO BUSINESS. It s in a deluxe 5 x 11 inch die cut sleeve that comes with a laff-a-minute CD tribute to stealing and jamming popular culture, and a 56 page essay about the cultural public domain which isn t one bit funny, just for contrast. And then, just when you re getting all serious, there s a trademarked Copyright Whoopee Cushion included in every package, as well as a Universally Computer Compatible Video Short™. This video, which uses one of Negativland s old chestnuts of criminal music, Gimme The Mermaid, was made working with a now former Disney animator using Disney s own computers to create it and render it after hours when they weren t looking! - 2005 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1864 images/spacer.jpg Negativlandland In celebrating their 25th anniversary, the “culture jamming” and collage group Negativland parodies the theme park, catapulting us into deconstructed attractions of the gallery as entertainment destination in the exhibition, Negativlandland. Viewers will find appropriations of Disney ventures – such as a reconfigured Lincoln from the Hall of Presidents, and a video remix of the Little Mermaid, merged with the angry telephone recording of a Disney studio executive. Anecdotes about the media and entertainment industries are expressed in such work as the discovery of “Howland Island,” and ideas of approaching stores such as Petco as an art supplies depot. Other work includes a set of limited edition prints from Negativland’s 2002 “Death Sentences” project. Also on view will be an unauthorized special edition of a U2 vs. Negativland ipod (version 2G), created by Francis Hwang. Hwang produced this modified ipod in commemoration of the 1991 lawsuit filed by U2s record label against Negativland and SST for the release of their album U2. The first edition of this ipod was originally offered for sale on ebay in December of 2004, and was removed from the auction website six days after Apple Computer claimed that Hwang was violating Apples intellectual property rights. Curated by Lea Rekow: Lea Rekow is the Founding Director of Gigantic ArtSpace. - 2005 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1865 images/works/Negativland-2004-mashin.jpg The Mashin of the Christ This April a hacker broke through Negativlands UMN mainframe firewall and stole the final version of Negativlands top-sacred for-internal-use-only Mashin of the Christ video project. Negativland prayed that their in-house project would not make it into the hands of the unsuspecting public, but we all know how hard it can be to stop those peer to peer criminals from illegally sharing the property of others. And what exactly did these hackers steal from Negativland?? The Mashin of the Christ was/is Negativland s top-secret-not-for-viewing video response to the number one film in America. Negativland decrypted, downloaded and mashed up the most violent religious film ever made along with over 27 other Hollywood portrayals of Jesus to create their own vision of the last moments of Christ s life... all in four minutes and 14 seconds. Is Christianity still stupid? Is Communism still good? Negativland hoped that no one would ever find out for sure. But that hope was dashed on Easter Sunday, 2004, when the video project was stolen from Negativland s hard drive, and then, just last week, released onto P2P networks worldwide. Negativland s friends and lawyers who had seen The Mashin of the Christ had strongly advised against a public release ever occuring (the anti-circumvention provision of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act says that doing this sort of decryption to make collage is illegal), but since God is said to see all secrets, only the public is left to be surprised by this unauthorized birth from Negativland. Voracious pirating of this work has spread across the Net and in the last few days high-resolution versions of Mashin have even been appearing on P2P networks disguised as a complete copy of The Passion of the Christ. Until personal or legal threats suggest otherwise, a link to the P2P networks where this video can be found is on Negativland s website.The Mashin of the Christ was created using a combination of decrypted footage ripped from DVDs rented from Netflix and Blockbuster, found 16mm film footage, original CGI, films obtained from peer-to-peer file-sharing networks, the found vocals of the Rev. Estus W. Pirkle, and original music composed and played by Negativland. VISUAL AND AUDIO SOURCES USED TO MAKE THE MASHIN OF THE CHRIST : From the Manger to the Cross (1912, Sidney Olcott) Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ (1925, J.J. Cohn, Fred Niblo, Charles Brabin, Rex Ingram) The King of Kings (1927, Cecil B. DeMille) The Robe (1953, Henry Koster) Ben-Hur: A Tale of Christ (1959, William Wyler) King of Kings (1961, Nicholas Ray) Barabbas (1962, Richard Fleischer) Shake Up In The Kremlin (1963, King Features) The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964, Pier Paolo Pasolini) Greatest Story Ever Told (1965, George Stevens) Home Front 1917-1919: War Transforms American Life (1966, Encylopaedia Britannica Educational Corp.) A Clockwork Orange (1971, Stanley Kubrick) If Footmen Tire You, What Will Horses Do? (1971, Rev. Estus W. Pirkle) The Ruling Class (1972, Peter Medak) The Holy Mountain (1973, Alejandro Jodorowsky) Jesus Christ Superstar (1973, Norman Jewison) Jesus of Nazareth (1977, Franco Zeffirelli) Leonid Brezhnev: The Rise to the Top (1977, Hearst Metrotone News) Jesus (1979, John Krish and Peter Sykes) La Vida de Nuestro Senor Jesucristo (1986, Rafael Gil) Christianity Is Stupid (1987, Negativland) Jesus and His Times (1987, Kaari Ward and Readers Digest) Children s Bible Story: The Story of Jesus - The Resurrection (1988, director unknown) The Last Temptation of Christ (1988, Martin Scorsese) The Easter Story (1989, Don Lusk) Jesus (1999, Roger Young) The Life of Jesus the Revolutionary (1999, Robert Marcarelli) Mary, Mother of Jesus (1999, Kevin Connor) Jesus Christ Superstar 2000 (2000, Gale Edwards and Nick Morris) The Miracle Maker (2000, Derek W. Hayes and Stanislav Sokolov) Live Out Loud (2001, Steven Curtis Chapman) The Story of Jesus for Children (2002, director unknown) The Passion of the Christ (2004, Mel Gibson) - 2004 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1867 images/spacer.jpg Over the Edge When calling into OVER THE EDGE we normally recommend that folks wear their headphones and use their telephone like a microphone. But since you will be listening to it over the web, there may be a time delay that will make it difficult to interact with our show live. If that is the case, then listen to the mix on your telephone - youll here the entire broadcast mix as it is going out live on the radio over most of northern and central California! - 1998 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1868 images/works/Negativland-1989-helter.jpg HELTER STUPID This is the record which documented our absurd ax-murder hoax, a little prank involving real-life tragedy and wholly unsubstantiated facts, on side one, and side two contains everything you once needed to know about radio’s selling of the past in a future which hadn’t happened yet, but is now old news. Upon its release, Negativland raised the bar on themselves by setting some provocative new standards for complex audio-collage work, and weve redesigned the package from scratch for the CD format with Dan Lynch. check year 1989 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1869 images/works/Negativland-2002-death.gif DEATHSENTENCES OF THE POLISHED AND STRUCTURALLY WEAK Negativlands newest conceptual project is a very different move into a very different found art direction than the anti-corporate, anti-copyright creations theyre most known for. This release charts new territory for Negativland in many ways. Packaged inside of a large die-cut automotive courtesy envelope, this book is a poignant, voyeuristic, disturbing, and occasionally funny glimpse into lives which may be very different from your own...or eerily similar. The CD is a meticulously-layered, ever-shifting electro-acoustic soundscape created to accompany the book. No bass lines, no melody, no dialogue, no singing, no beat . check year 2002 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1873 images/spacer.jpg FAIR USE: THE STORY OF THE LETTER U AND THE NUMERAL 2 270-page book detailing U2/Letter U and the Numeral 2 lawsuits, reprinting aforementioned magazine virtually in its entirety in addition to hundreds of more pages of material. No personnel credits. Included in an appendix are essays by L. Ray Patterson, Jason Marcus, John Oswald, Alan Korn, and Walter Alter. Later printings have slight changes in credits and other places. The third printing is actually of superior contrast and overall printing quality than previous editions. - 1995 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1874 images/works/Negativland-1999-abc.gif THE ABCS OF ANARCHISM Sources used in making this recording include:Drums, synthesizers, guitars, bass, trumpet, singing, BBC TV, BBC radio, PBS, Doris Lessing, Teletubbies, The Ramones, World Wrestling Federation, Cookie Monster, Ice Cube, Swimming With Sharks, Beastie Boys, Hampshire College E3 Audio Archive, James Brown, Spice Girls, The Who, CB radio, M*A*S*H Soundtrack, Elvis Costello, Noam Chomsky, Talking Heads, Sex Pistols, Wild Style, Memphis Public Television, Grandmaster Flash sampling from Chic, Meet Me In St. Louis, water, Water Plant ad agency discussion tape, Mr. Squeaky Carrot, They Drive By Night, Life With Father, Auntie Mame, unknown advertising demo tape, the Country Bunny Childrens Boutique located in Laurelwood across from Oak Court Mall, and some whiskyvodkalagercider. Composed, performed, produced, recorded, mixed, edited, manipulated, and appropriated by Negativland and Chumbawamba Art direction and design by Negativland and Peter Huestis. Thanks to Vicki Bennett and People Like Us. Some of the lyrics on track one are from Alexander Berkmans book ABC of Anarchism . Liner notes contain a childrens story featuring the Rolypolies (cartoony characters which mysteriously resemble those of a popular British childrens show of the time). No personnel listing. - 1999 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1875 images/spacer.jpg NEGATIVLAND - NO OTHER POSSIBILITY 1000 copies sold VHS FORMAT 1989 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1876 images/spacer.jpg THE AD AND THE EGO Video documentary by Harold Boihem. A critical and comprehensive look at the effects of advertising with original soundtrack/sound design by Negativland. A soundtrack CD is NOT available, contrary to credits of film. VHS FORMAT/NTSC and PAL (ALSO AVAILABLE IN 16mm) 1997 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1877 images/spacer.jpg GUNS! - 1990 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1878 images/spacer.jpg ADVERTISING SECRETS - 1991 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1879 images/spacer.jpg CHRISTMAS SPIRIT - UFOs For Christmas - 1996 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1880 images/spacer.jpg SONIC OUTLAWS by Craig Baldwin on appropriation and culture jamming; focuses on Negativlands U2 scandal. Available on video. - 1995 USA 136 Negativland 1980 1881 images/works/Negativland-1980-negalbum.gif NEGATIVLAND This album comes from the very suburban area of Concord California, about 40 miles east of San Francisco. All of the covers are hand-made by group members Richard Lyons and Mark Hosler, who have jointly completed at least 900 as of this writing. No two are alike. Mine looks like this- Outside cover: (front) a stenciled logo for the group that is completely covered by a black paper square sporting two photos cut out of magazines, one depicting six peach halves decoratively served up for dessert, the other a black and white photo of a distressed woman flanked by the words Bitter, Miserable, Afraid, Cold, Lonely, Unforgiving, Heartbroken. The back cover also has some stencil work that is overlaid first by a square panel of striped wallpaper, to which are attached a small rectangle of fabric and an 8 x 10 panel providing the credits for the LP. Inside I find a copy of a Coffee-Toffee Torte recipe backed by a dialogue between two folks discussing baking methodology. Next is an 8 x 10 logotype for the group depicting a man in pajamas with arms stretching to his ankles topped by the word Negativland. Even the record label itself, with its black and white illustrations of industrial America, is a departure from the norm. The name Negativland could be thought of as a symbol for the land from which this music spews forth. This is suburban stream of consciousness, much in the vein of Mnemonists, but a bit more structured musically. This audio world is somewhat like the visual world of television, where scenes of guerrilla warfare or starvation are arbitrarily mixed with bra commercials and public service announcements for Gulf Oil. In this world, the juxtaposition of unrelated sounds is not only possible, it is a necessary and natural phenomenon. Thus, we hear some clunky folk-stylings on the guitar combined with the sounds of a kitchen timer, vacuum cleaner, grinder, and whatever else. This is a sound environment in which TV and radio spots have as much necessary prescence as the songs that come and go from this group. Typically, the group combines a few conventional band instruments with extraneous environmental sounds(the environment usually being a living room). This is a call for freedom from the asinine embodiments of life in the American material world. There are no obvious patterns to the LP; its more or less a continuous venture, meant to be heard in its entirety(or perhaps while the TV is on). Here a garage band, there a bizarre triptych of subconscious allusions and cosmic bloopers. It is thoroughly enjoyable, non-pedantic, non-political, and always interesting. Their ability to avoid cliched structures permits the queerness of suburban experience---which is itself an existential clichŽ of its own--to peak loud and clear. The album was recorded in the groups bedroom studio using 4-track reel-to-reel equipment, at 7 1/2 I.P.S -Thom Holmes, Recordings Magazine CD and LP 1980 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1882 images/works/Ostertag-2002-DJofthemonth.jpg DJ of the Month - Solo Volume Two Long-awaited follow-up to Mr. Ostertags first solo CD release (Like a Melody, No Bitterness, also on Seeland). Once again, this notorious digital-hatchet-man of San Francisco has unleashed a mind-melting, CD-player-laser-shorting-out masterpiece of manipulation. DJ of the Month is a 40:48 non-stop cavalcade of severely manipulated sound sources, radically altered beyond all recognition in a truly sonic tornado. Bobs liner notes recommend that the listener skip it altogether if he/she does not have an uninterrupted 40:48 listening environment available, and we couldnt agree more. This is meditation on burning coals, thoughtful reflection as window panes fall on you from collapsing buildings above. And the front cover is signed by John Ashcroft!!! Accessed 12.11.06 from http://negativland.com/nmol/seeland.html#ostertagdj - 2002 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1883 images/works/Ostertag-1997-amelodynobitterness.jpg Like a Melody, No Bitterness As beautiful as the aural pastiches of Eno or Enya...if either of those musicians chewed ground glass. Like a Melody, No Bitterness is San Francisco based sampling pioneer Bob Ostertags first ever recording of solo improvisations. Hear Bob blow the conventional sound world to bits and throw the fragments right back in your face. A fluttering, swirling, burbling maelstrom of SOUND, this CD is like nothing we have ever heard. His previous collaborators include avant garders John Zorn and Fred Frith, dyke punk star Lynn Breedlove, rock star Mike Patton, drag diva Justin Bond, the Kronos Quartet, Anthony Braxton and more. As with all of Ostertags work, the operative term here is intense. Accessed 12.11.06 from http://negativland.com/nmol/seeland.html#ostertag - 1997 USA 23 John Oswald 1953 1884 images/works/Oswald-xxxx-69.jpg 69 PLUNDERPHONICS 96 plunderphonics is a cultural paradox, one of the only truly underground musical phenomena to emerge in the latter quarter of the 20th century (This art is more radical in its social and political associations than the introduction of the electric guitar), yet featuring some of the worlds most recognizable music imbedded in novel constellations of sonic subversity by John Oswald. Mr. Oswald flew past the level of mere sampling. He has taken sampling fifty times beyond what weve come to expect. This ambitious package contains 60 memorable tracks, from the Swinging Sixties to the Numb Nineties, on two hyper-dense discs covering the gamut of progressive musical endeavour, where punk meets classical, schmaltz marries metal, jazz divorces rap and electronica kills world. Plunderphonics is recreational savagery... A consistently brilliant record. Each title features an instantly recognizable musical icon transformed into an electroquoted Frankenstein or Hyde with a plunderphoney moniker such as Anthrax Squeeze Factory, Sinéad OConnick Jr., Beastie Shop Beach, or Bing Stingspreen. Often visceral, occasionally poignant, sometimes funny, never predictable and always challenging, the set is an entire record collection packed into this compact book form, including an extensively annotated retrospective account by reproducer Oswald, lavishly illustrated with full color collages. For the moment John Oswald is a solo movement, the most exciting school of one in music. Oswald has been restricted from releasing this music so SEELAND has stepped in and borrowed this package and made it available to you. Profits will be invested in the future of plunderphonics. This is SEELAND 515. - 2001 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1885 images/works/Ostertag-1981-gettingahead.jpg Getting a Head Seeland announces the re-issue of Bob Ostertags Getting A Head, an underground classic of tape manipulation from before the days of samplers. Best known for his work with computers, here a young Ostertag plays an instrument consisting of a highly unstable and peculiar recording system, which uses helium balloons to hold up tape loops between three tape recorders made to malfunction in a variety of ways. The record marks one of the first, and to this day one of the only, times that tape manipulation techniques developed by the first generation of electronic composers for use in the studio were adapted for live performance and improvisation. Ostertag uses this rather sculptural and bizarre contraption to manipulate the brilliant guitar playing of Fred Frith, and the elusive percussion work of Charles K. Noyes. Originally released 21 years ago as an LP, the 1,000-copy run quickly disappeared into the abyss of the collectors item. One Side one of Getting A Head, the sounds move in short, almost breathless little impulses, always lively and alert. You know that Frith and Ostertag are listening to each other with strong, even crazed concentration (sometimes with manic glee too), never just fooling around or digging deeper ruts. Side Two is peaceful. The search for new sounds moves much more slowly, evolving in long, supple arcs made of smaller, more weirdly twisted parts; and in between theres enough time between the beginning of one event and the end of the next to enjoy some curiosity about what might be coming next. The high, insistently lyrical final episode is especially lovely. -- Gregory Sandow, Village Voice, January 7, 1981 Getting A Head is kissing cousins to Lou Reeds Metal Machine Music. True we have a tape loop here, but don t confuse this with Robert Fripp s small, intelligent, mobile unit. There are a lot more surprises here, and there is a vital interaction between the people running the decks and playing the instruments. Also, sides one and two are radically different, lacking the sameness of Fripp s work and adding a good deal more hazard . The result is a worthwhile balance of beautiful sounds and sensitive noise. -- OP Magazine, 1981 At its most intense, it assumes the proportions of electronic music, yet there are no synthesizer controls in site. Cascades of splintered guitar notes form the basis of a hyperactive and concentrated duet, both Frith and Ostertag drawing from an inexhaustible supply of musical and technical ideas. -- City Limits (London) November 5 limited CD in screened metal tin with inserts 1981 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1886 images/works/Ostertag-1982-voice.gif Voice of America An exciting release, originally issued in 1982, documenting a brilliant live performance by Ostertag with Fred Frith and Phil Minton. This is number three in a series of limited editions co-released on Ostertags My Very Own Record Label, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. In Bobs words: It was the beginning of the 1980s and from my apartment on the Lower East Side of NYC, the world seemed to be going crazy. Ronald Reagan was being sworn in as President of the United States, something that no longer shocks us now but at the time was nearly unthinkable. The hostages who had been held in the US Embassy in Tehran were coming home to a tumultuous welcome that would unleash a malignant wave of patriotism to sustain the country through the wars of the coming decade: El Salvador, Nicaragua, Angola, Mozambique, Grenada, Panama, the Persian Gulf, and more. I had just returned from my first trip to Nicaragua, and was experiencing severe readjustment trauma. I turned on the TV and started taping. All you got that weekend was Reagan s inauguration, the hostages return, game shows, and American football s Super Bowl, a once-a-year extravaganza showcasing everything that is macho and ugly in the culture. Fred Frith had just come to NYC and I had a concert with him that night. Without discussing it with Fred, I took my V tapes, as well as others I had brought back from Central America, and played them through my synthesizer during the gig. The result was Voice of America Part 1. I was happy enough with the results that I worked on developing my cassette set-up further. This was before the days of samplers, or even affordable digital delays. I assembled a series of cheap cassette recorders, each modified to malfunction in a particular way. I also had a stack of looped cassettes of various lengths from telephone answering machines which I used to do live sampling, then manipulated by playing them back on the screwed-up tape decks. A few months later Fred and I were in London for a concert. Moments before going on, my synthesizer was destroyed in a technical mishap. I was left with my cassette set-up and a contact mic I either kept between my teeth or used to amplify various toys. Fred had brought only a piece of wood with a few screws at either end and guitar strings strung between them. With my synthesizer still smoking, we hastily recruited Phil Minton out of his seat in the audience and without any time for discussion began the set that became Voice of America Part 2. That was my last concert for nearly a decade. I left music entirely and became a full-time writer and organizer around Central American issues. Fred settled in NYC and began an extremely fertile ten-year interaction with the music scene there. As the 1980s wore on, rappers and others developed a whole new form of music out of sampled fragments of politically charged media clips. But this was before that. It was the beginning of the 1980 s and from my apartment on the Lower East Side of NYC, the world seemed to be going crazy. Perhaps the oddest music I ve ever heard, it s also more the sound of lives lived, and lives lost, than any music I ve ever heard. -- Music and Sound Output Limited hand-made CD-R edition by Bob Ostertag in screened metal tin with inserts 1982 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1887 images/works/Ostertag-1982-voice.gif Sooner or Later A most unusual and disturbing release by noted San Francisco sound-reprocessor Bob Ostertag. The sounds on this disc are based upon the actual recordings of a young boy burying his slain father in El Salvador, as well as snippets from master guitarist Fred Frith. As a piece of audio-verite, SOONER OR LATER is an uncomfortable listen, based upon Ostertags extended stays in El Salvador over a period of ten years. Originally released in 1991 (on Switzerlands RecRec label), reissued as a domestic release for the first time. To quote Bob: The choice of sound is not incidental... during (the time in El Salvador) I saw a lot of death. And in that culture, which is both Catholic and highly politicized, death gets surrounded with all kinds of trappings that are intended to make it heroic and purposeful. Death is often explained as god s will, or else as irrelevant, since all the victims live on in the struggle . It is all glorious and heroic. But some 70,000 people have died there. Most died because they were in the wrong place at the wrong time. They didn t want to. There was no plan. There was no glory. ... if there is beauty, we must find it in what is really there: the boy, the shovel, the fly. If we look closely, despite the unbearable sadness, we will discover it. Judge for yourself. This release is the first limited edition CD from Ostertag s My Very Own Record Label with Seeland, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. - 1991 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1888 images/works/Ostertag-1991-attention.gif Attention Span Attention Span is a blistering super-cutup project, featuring John Zorn and Fred Frith, as captured on tape and manipulated by Ostertag. This release is the fourth limited edition CD from Ostertags My Very Own Record Label with Seeland, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. In Bobs words: This recording is the direct precursor to Say No More. Here I also began with solo recordings, one by John Zorn and the other by Fred Frith. But instead of performing improvisations they merely recorded an inventory of the sounds they make. The cd is divided into halves. Slam Dunk is a series of 26 extremely short solos which I performed using only the sounds of Johns sax. In Sleepless I use Fred s source material, but instead of playing solo I brought him back into the studio and we played duos, but with me only using his own guitar sounds. The development of digital sampling in creative musical directions is currently constrained by legal restrictions often imposed by huge corporations who view music more as property than creative process. In this project, I was thus fortunate to have Fred and John s collaboration, who gave me complete freedom in my use of their material. John and Fred play highly personalized, idiosyncratic music. I have not only used their sounds as my building blocks, but have also tried to shape these two pieces in ways that pay respective tribute to their musics as a whole. Bob Ostertag is a pioneer in the world of electronic music. His experiments make most of today s synthesizer and computer music seem like kindergarten child s play. -- Oakland Tribune on Attention Span, March 31, 1991 CDR, limited hand-made CD-R edition by Bob Ostertag in screened metal tin with inserts 1991 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1889 images/works/Ostertag-1991-burnslikefire.jpg Burns Like Fire Originally issued on RecRec in 1991, this is number five in a series of limited editions co-released on Ostertags My Very Own Record Label, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. In Bobs words: In October 1991 gays and lesbians rioted in San Francisco when the Governor of California vetoed a gay rights law that had been ten years in the making. The California State Office building was set on fire. I, of course, took my tape recorder. The Kronos String Quartet had commissioned me to write a piece for them, and I decided to transcribe the sounds of the riot for string quartet. I asked writer/artist/film-maker David Wojnarowicz to collaborate on the project by reading one of his texts. David was already sick with AIDS, and we waited for a time when his health would allow us to do the project. Finally, poet Sara Miles wrote the libretto for the string quartet, All the Rage. Soon after, David died. His death triggered a spontaneous demonstration in the streets of New York Citys Lower East Side. For my part, I decided to make a solo companion piece to All the Rage that I would dedicate to David. So this is Burns Like Fire, and this is for David. I have mixed the riot audio with other sources: gospel and country and western. I chose the gospel because of its spirituality and CandW because it is a place in mainstream culture where men are allowed to fall apart and cry. With entrance into Ostertag s world comes a severe attitude adjustment. You have to curb your brain, dump your common sense judgments, and peel away the calluses that have built up over the vulnerable core of your senses. Listening becomes cultural time travel at warp speed. Time, however, jumps off its linear tracks. You have to accept both the simultaneity of your feelings and your hapless inability to control them. -- San Francisco Bay Guardian CDR, limited hand-made CD-R edition by Bob Ostertag in screened metal tin with inserts 1991 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1891 images/works/Ostertag-1996-saynomore34.jpg Say No More CDs 3 and 4 Originally released as two separate CDs, Verbatim (1996) and Verbatim, Flesh and Blood (1999; still available as a separate single CD through Seeland), this double-CD set is number seven in a series of limited editions co-released on Ostertags My Very Own Record Label, packaged in a sturdy metal tin. It features the virtual participation of Gerry Hemingway, Mark Dresser and Phil Minton and is the logical followup to Say No More, CDs 1and2. In Bobs words: I put the live recording back into the computer, blew it into bits once again, and assembled a new composition, Verbatim, out of the debris. The group premiered the live version of Verbatim at the Taktlos Festival in March 1996 in Switzerland, which was released on CD in 1996. Finally, I created a score of Verbatim, and the live group toured it extensively and recorded the concert version, Verbatim, Flesh and Blood, in Gent, Belgium in January 1998. This is the last CD in the series, the culmination of seven years of work. My interests in this project were several. First, it allowed me to apply the compositional techniques common to musique concrete (sculpting and shaping a composition in the actual audio medium) to the work of composing for live ensemble. Second, I was interested in creating a new sort of bi-directional flow between composer and instrumentalist, in which the result of ones work immediately becomes the raw material of the other s. Finally, I wanted to use technology to alter the relationship between the instrumentalists and their own music. Each musician was asked to learn parts derived directly from his own improvisations. In effect I was sitting each player down in front of a mirror image of his own music. But the mirror was curved into prisms and lenses which were the results of the transformations I had made in the process of creating the band from the original solos. Thoroughly attuned to life in the mid-90s, [Say No More] is more than an experiment and much more than merely sensational. Astonishingly, the music never seems artificial. With acute sensitivity, Ostertag catches the strengths of his partners and lifts them up to a new level, magnifying the skill and intensity of these extraordinary virtuosos. The border between live improvisation and computerized manipulation blurs and if finally made irrelevant by the music which results. -- Jazzthetik (Germany) A trip into another dimension of music, and into a world as full of clashes and conflict as the one in which we live. -- Forum (Germany) 2-CD SET, limited hand-made CD-R edition by Bob Ostertag in screened metal tin with inserts 1996 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1892 images/works/Ostertag-2003-betweenscienceandgarbage.jpg Living Cinema Presents Between Science and Garbage. Living Cinema is an open-ended project which has tried to reflect the changing world in which it was created. The current phase, which we call Between Science and Garbage, began in San Francisco in 1999 during a residency at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts. This was when San Francisco was attracting unprecedented wealth from around the world through financial speculation in internet technology, yet homelessness was rising at the same time. The themes of food (both wholesome and garbage) and technology (todays being science, yesterdays being garbage) come from this period. The work took a major turn when we performed a concert at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis just days after September 11, 2001. It was at this point that the weight of world events became so heavy that it was impossible to keep them out of the project. For example, what we had intended as a rain of people and garbage was now interpreted as a rain of falling bodies and debris from the World Trade Center. Flour, which we had thought of as snow on ruins, was universally understood as Anthrax. And so on. Since we could not keep world events out of the piece, we decided to throw open the door and let them in. The airplane and exploding space shuttle were added. An oil tanker broke apart off the Spanish coast while we were touring in Europe, and its image was added. The Red Brigades killed a policeman on a train in Italy, and this was also added, as was a train of US military supplies bound for Iraq which passed through Slovenia while we were performing in Ljubljana. And we started using the front page of the days newspaper from whatever city we were in as the first image in the show (some of which are seen at the start of the DVD). There is really no appropriate way to end these notes. The winds of world history, far from subsiding, continue to gather force and the forecast is ever more dark. Living Cinema will continue to be tossed and turned in the tempest, along with everything else. The present work is just a snapshot (actually, a video clip) of a critical period in the gathering storm. We hope it helps give meaning to others who feel as overwhelmed as we do. -- Pierre Hébert and Bob Ostertag, September, 2003 Recording of live cinema performance 2003 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1894 images/works/Ostertag-1996-twins.jpg Twins! With Otomo Yoshihide (dj). Resampled twins of parent tracks by Herb Robertson, Chris Cutler, and Yagi Michiyo. [Creativeman 0030] Not so much a collaboration as 2 parallel but intersecting cds by Ostertag and Japanese turntable master Otomo Yoshihide. First parent tracks were solicited from drummer Chris Cutler (Henry Cow, Art Bears, etc.), NYC trumpet madcap Herb Robertson, and Tokyo-based koto virtuoso Yagi Michiyo. Ostertag and Otomo then each made a twin resampled composition from the parent. A very strange recording which made several writers best cds of 1996 lists. - 1996 USA 61 Bob Ostertag 1957 1895 images/works/Ostertag-2001-burdocks.jpg Burdocks For half a century legendary scholar Christian Wolff has created a very personal musical response to John Cages challenging experiments and three of his most distinctive compositions receive inspiring performances here by a collection of San Francisco and New Yorks best and most imaginative performers. Fred Frith, Joan Jeanrenaud, Bob Ostertag, Miya Masaoka and Stephen Drury are just a few of the remarkable players percussion virtuoso William Winant has brought together to pay tribute to the fascinating work of this conceptual visionary, who performs at the piano with an all-star ensemble on his most famous composition Burdocks - 2001 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1924 images/spacer.jpg The Expanded Instrument System The Expanded Instrument System (EIS as in ice for short) is a continually developing electronic sound processing environment designed to provide improvising musicians control over various interesting parameters of sound transformation. At present these parameters include delay time, delay feedback, pitch transformation through delay time modulation, ambiance, and spatial placement. Specifically, foot pedals and switches are interpreted and routed to control Lexicon PCM 42 digital delays, Lexicon reverb units, MIDI controlled mixers and gain stages, and a Reson8 DSP processor. Outputs are distributed to speakers around the performance space.Both potentials and pitfalls reside in the use of computer control. Being able to control so many parameters means discovering which ones are musically useful, as well as developing the techniques to fully use them. Perhaps the final challenge is to respond to the inevitable wish list of new features that familiarity produces. Time and money constraints have helped slow development and integration of new resources to a manageable level. We try to incorporate new possibilities incrementally, adding new resources and control parameters gradually to allow plenty of rehearsal time to develop a performance practice. Adding the Expanded Instrument System to the practice of Deep Listening and free improvisation must not get in the way of the music. - 1998 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1925 images/works/Oliveros-1997-SuspendedMusic.jpg Suspended Music Includes Pauline Oliveros Epigraphs in the Time of Aids with the Deep Listening Band and Ellen Fullmans Long String Instrument. Recorded at the Candy Factory in Austin TX. - (Periplum P0010 1997). Best of the year 1997 Sarah Cahill, Berkeley Express - Berkeley CA (1995) - 1997 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1927 images/works/Oliveros-1985-lion.jpg Lions Eye/Lions Tale The intention to combine both pieces in order to expand the tempo range of the Gamelan was first realized in May of 1989 in performances by the Berkeley Gamelan in Oakland and San Francisco, California under the direction of Daniel Schmidt. This version of Lions Eye is recorded on this disc. The duration of Lions Eye is forty-five minutes. Lions Tale (1989) is composed of layered polymetrical, polyrhythmical patterns. The patterns are played at speeds ranging up to 1800 per minute. The composer designed patterns are generated by the computer program. Lion s Tale may be created in a new version every time the program is run. Lion s Tale also exists in a MIDI version for a keyboard performer. Commission 1985 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1928 images/works/Oliveros-1997-primodial.jpg Primordial Lift - Full Version Primordial/Lift is based on information concerning the shift in the resonant frequency of the earth from 7.8hz to 13hz given in Awakening to the Zero Point by Gregg Braden, Radio Bookstore Press (1997). According to Braden, the resonant frequency of the earth was measured as 7.8hz in 1960 and by 1994 the measurement was at 8.6hz and it will rise to 13hz by 2010. At the same time the magnetic fields of the earth are diminishing in strength towards zero point. By the time that 13hz is established as the resonant frequency the magnetic fields will reverse their polarity - North will become South and vice versa. The acceleration from 7.8hz to 13hz of the earths resonant frequency is represented in Primordial/Lift by a low frequency oscillator. Pauline Oliveros - accordian and electronics, voice; Andrew Deutsch - electronics and toy piano; Tony Conrad - electric violin and ring modulator; Anne Bourne - cello and voice; Alexandria Gelencser - electric cello; David Grubbs - harmonium; Scott Olson - low frequency oscillator. - 1998 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1929 images/works/Oliveros-1991-fritz.jpg Fritz Hauser - Deep Time Pauline Oliveros, accordion and Expanded Instrument System; David Gamper, Expanded Instrument System electronics, misc. small instruments; Urs Leimgruber, soprano and tenor saxophones; Fritz Hauser, percussion. Fritz Hausers tape features recordings of sounding stones (manufactured by Arthur Schneiter) and various watches and clocks (thanks to the Bucher family in Switzerland for permission to record that family clock!). The performers improvise with the tape. On October 26, 1994 Pauline Oliveros, David Gamper, Urs Leimgruber and Fritz Hauser recorded 2 versions of DEEP TIME. Both of these 32 minute recordings are included here. Fritz Hauser is a drummer and composer from Basel, Switzerland. He has developed his sound language in varied ways. From solo concerts, in diverse ensembles, through multi-media projects (theater dance film radio) and many recordings, he has contributed to the development of the drumset from a mere timekeeper to an instrument in its own right. Composer/performer David Gamper is especially concerned with music performance electronics. He received a BA in mathematics in 1967 from Bowdoin College, and returned there in 1969 to study composition with Elliott Schwartz and establish their electronic music studio. He then went on to the University of California at San Diego where he studied composition with Pauline Oliveros and Roger Reynolds and received his MA in music. Since moving to New York in 1989 he has been working primarily with Pauline Oliveros. He is director of development for the Expanded Instrument System (a project of the Deep Listening Institute) and performs and records around the world with Oliveros and as a member of Deep Listening Band. Urs Leimgruber has been active for many years in the areas of contemporary improvisation, composition, jazz and new music. One of his earliest associations was as a member of the electric jazz/free music group Om with Christy Doran, Fredy Study and Bobbi Burri, and he later formed the Reflexionen quartet with Don Friedman and Bobby Burri in New York. His own projects have included Ensemble Bleu , Xylem , e_a.sonata 02 with the ARTE saxophone quartet, as well as a long association with Fritz Hauser: as a duo with the ongoing Music for saxophone and percussion; in the Leimgruber/Roidinger/Hauser trio; a trio with Joëlle Léandre; and a trio with Marilyn Crispell. More recently he formed quartet noir with Marilyn Crispell, Joëlle Léandre and Fritz Hauser and a trio with Jacques Demierre and Barre Phillips. tape composition commission 1991 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1930 images/works/Oliveros-1987-tara.jpg Taras Room - Two Meditations on Transition and Change Both pieces are intended to aid the listener in times of spiritual change, but are just fine for everyday use as well. Highly recommended. Charles S. Russell, Ear Magazine The two works on this cd - Taras Room and The Beauty of Sorrow were composed and performed by Pauline Oliveros and recorded in May 1987. Previously only available as a cassette and long out of print, Deep Listening is proud to make these wonderful pieces available on cd. - 1987 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1932 images/works/Oliveros-196x-NOmo.jpg No Mo Bog Road, along with other of Oliveros Bog series which was inspired by a frog pond behind her studio on campus, was created with the Buchla Electronic Music Box in 1967 at the Mills Tape Music Center (now the Center for Contemporary Music). tone generators, noise, and tape delay 1965 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1934 images/works/Oliveros-196x-Electronicworks.jpg Electronic Works Includes I of IV, big mother is watching you, and bye bye butterfly. All three electronic works from the mid-sixties. - 1965 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1935 images/works/Oliveros-1966-AlienBog.jpg AlienBog/Beautiful Soop takes us back to the beginnings of her innovative journey, which she described in The Wire as There was only one place I was interested in going with what I needed to express and that was inside. The release of Alien Bog (1967 - 33:15) and Beautiful Soop (1966 - 27:49) on this remarkable historical compact disc from Pogus Productions provides a valuable resource for composers and scholars searching for the roots of American electroacoustic creativity. Until its release, the earliest Oliveros works available were her Bye Bye Butterfly (1965) and I of IV (1966), both of which utilize similar technology to the pieces presented in this new recording. Created with Don Buchlas 100 series analog synthesizer built for the Mills College Tape Music center (founded in 1966 by Oliveros) and a self-developed tape delay system, both Alien Bog and Beautiful Soop illustrate facets of the composers aesthetic which continue in her music today. For Alien Bog, Oliveros used the Buchla to synthetically evoke and amplify the natural sonic ambience of a frog pond existing outside the window of the original Mills College studios. In a quote from Oliveros found within the cd program notes, she remarks upon the influence of the frogs music upon her work, acknowledging the early manifestation of the environmental awareness characterizing her entire catalog of compositions. Beautiful Soop, an interesting mix of synthesized sounds and quotes from Lewis Carroll poetry and other sources, provides an excellent example of the composer s fascination and effective experimentation with tape delay techniques and the careful placing of musical information within the stereo space. After more than thirty years the practice and perfection of the aesthetic principles and concerns first outlined in these pieces continues in the new work of the Deep Listening Band and illustrates Oliveros strength as a technically savvy composer who has not lost sight of her creative purpose. An excerpt of Alien Bog was released on Music From Mills - a recording produced by David Rosenboom - in 1986. However, this new cd marks the work s first full-length presentation as well as the premiere release of Beautiful Soop. Though taken from the original tapes, the recordings are of excellent fidelity with only a few hisses and clicks evident in Beautiful Soop. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www-fofa.concordia.ca/cec/econtact/Women%20in%20ea/oliverosCD.html Buchla Box synthesizer 1966 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1936 images/works/Oliveros-1992-POAmericanVoices.jpg Pauline Oliveros and American Voices First recordings of In Memoriam Mr. Whitney, an acoustic performance with the American Music Theater Group - Neely Bruce, Director - and Oliveros on solo accordion in just intonation, and St. George and the Dragon for solo accordion. - 1992 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1937 images/works/Oliveros-1988-rootscd.gif The Roots of the Moment Accordion in just intonation in an interactive electronic environment created by Peter Ward. - 1988 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1938 images/works/Oliveros-2000-sonic.gif Goodbye 20th Century Sonic Youths double CD release, features Pauline Oliveros Six for New Time for Sonic Youth with lyrics by IONE along with other compositions by 20th century modern masters John Cage, Yoko Ono, Cornelius Cardew, Steve Reich, Takehisa Kosugi, Nicolas Slonimsky, George Maciunas, James Tenney, and Christian Wolff. - 2000 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1939 images/works/Oliveros-1996-nonstop.gif Non Stop Flight On September 16th, 1996, Deep Listening Band performed at Mills College in a four hour and thirty-three minute marathon composed by Pauline and dedicated to David Tudor. Other participants included the Abel-Steinberg-Winant Trio, The Hub, and many guest artists. Excerpts from this performance include a recreation of David Tudors premier performance of John Cages 433. Deep Listening Band recorded live 1996 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 1940 images/works/Oliveros-1990-troglodytes.gif Troglodytes Delight The Deep Listening Band with guests Fritz Hauser and Julie Lyon Balliette explore the sound properties of the Tarpaper Cave in Rosendale, New York, in a special underground series of sessions which followed a concert in the cave. Pieces include Quarry Query, Cannery Row, After Dinner With The Trogs, among others. Alongside awe, a common thread that links this band of intrepid sound pioneers is that of respect - for each others musicals minds - and...for their environment...a respect for the sacred aspect of space. Peter Blum (1990) - 1990 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1963 images/spacer.jpg Daisy Bell /Bicycle Built for Two [ Harry Dacre, arr. Max V. Mathews ] When Dacre, an English popular composer, first came to the United States, he brought with him a bicycle, for which he was charged duty. His friend, the songwriter William Jerome, remarked lightly: Its lucky you didnt bring a bicycle built for two, otherwise you d have to pay double duty. Dacre was so taken with the phrase bicycle built for two that he decide to use it in a song, which he titled Daisy Bell. There was a real Daisy who inspired the song— the Countess of Warwick, Frances Brooke, one of the mose desirable women of those times, and one of the wealthiest. Daisy was her nickname. For a while she was the mistress of the Prince of Wales (subsequently Edward VII, king of England, 1901-10). In her lifetime, she became a vegetarian, championed women s education and stood as a Labour (leftist/socialist) candidate. She was eventually married to John Boyd Dunlop, the founder of the rubber company. Mathews arrangement of Daisy Bell is nearly as old time for us now as Dacre s tune was in 1961. Since then, the computer has become a virtuosic singer; 1994 s castrato from the movie Farinelli was a singing computer— as no one today is interested in undergoing the requisite snip to have that lovely singing voice. And we can t forget today s popular music is kept tune by singing computers, pitch correctors which sing with the pop star s own voice. Mathews singing computer is based on the work of John Kelly of Bell Laboratories and others. Arthur C. Clark heard the computer-synthesized song when he visited the labs, and had Hal the computer sing it in 2001, A Space Odyssey— while Hal was being disconnected. —ja, from David Ewen, Fizzgig, and J. R. Pierce . Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.sfsound.org/tape/Mathews.html - 1961 USA 144 Max Mathews 1926 1964 images/spacer.jpg The Second Law The second law of thermodynamics (the law of entropy) was formulated in the middle of the nineteenth century following observations that, like the fall or flow of a stream that turns a mill wheel, it is the fall or flow of heat from higher to lower temperatures that motivates a steam engine. One way the law can be stated is: Energy spontaneously tends to flow only from being concentrated in one place to becoming diffused and spread out. Whenever an energy distribution is out of equilibrium a potential or thermodynamic force exists that the world acts spontaneously to dissipate or minimize. Entropy is the measure of diffusion or disorder, so the second law states that in all natural processes, the entropy of the world always increases. The second law has inspired many entropic visions in the last century, which is not too surprising— two devastating world wars, the invention of nuclear warfare. W.B. Yeats states the law when he writes things fall apart in his poem about the dawning of the first of the world wars, The Second Coming. When referring to information theory, the notion of entropy is related to the noisiness of a system. Mathews doesn t dwell on the apocalyptic implications of the the law of entropy, but instead plays with noise in his The Second Law. About it J.R. Pierce writes: This composition makes extensive use of random noise. The noise is used with a variety of bandwidths (the frequency limits of a given sound pattern) to achieve effects ranging from noise of definite pitch to pitchless noise. Contrasted against the noise is a tone with vibrato. —ja from F. L. Lambert . Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.sfsound.org/tape/Mathews.html - 1961 USA 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1968 images/spacer.jpg Instruments III - 1977 USA 130 Morton Feldman 1926 1975 images/spacer.jpg For John Cage - 1983 USA 100 Brandon LaBelle 1969 2012 images/spacer.jpg This is a Sidewalk This performance was based upon the action of making a recording as part of the performance itself. This consisted of setting up a live-video feed, from the street outside and into the performance space. During the initial stage of the event I left the performance space carrying a wooden board. Taking this board I then dragged it along the outside sidewalk, recording the action through a contact microphone that was attached to the board. This action was visually projected inside to the audience, though only at those points where I crossed in front of the camera. During this time the audience was listening to a recording I had made earlier in the day essentially of sound-check: specifically talking to the organizers of the event how to set up the equipment, and explaining exactly what kinds of things my performance would consist of. After this outside action was complete I came back into the space and placed the board on top of two large speakers, and replayed the new recording through the speakers, and subsequently the wooden board. This then was amplified through contact microphones attached to the wooden board and played through the PA system. This in effect created a series of actions displaced over time and space. Accehttp://www.sara.uea.ac.uk/?artistandid=3ssed 15.11.06 from - 2001 USA 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2018 images/spacer.jpg Fetish with Kim Cascone - 1989 USA 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2023 images/works/Myers-2001-cel.jpg Cel A different side to David Lee Myers music. The majority of sounds are from Feedback sources, simple 1 millisecond electrical spikes, and filter thumps, with additional processing. These are used as samples which are loaded into computer sequencers with live playing capabilities. Very rhythmic but mostly undanceable clicks, pops, and ticks to get you twitching. Limited edition of 200, signed and numbered in handpainted metal box. - 2001 USA 93 David Lee Myers 1949 2025 images/works/Myers-2001-ouro.jpg Ourobouros The first album of solo Feedback Music since 1993. The same sort of feedback matrix as used in previous outings is employed, but each mixer line is true stereo to make fuller use of todays stereo effects processors. Four effectors are used, and minimal input from a non-sampling rhythm generator on occasion. The sounds can be very ethereal, or evoke insect and small animal noises, or can be reminiscent of real instruments. Most tracks are recorded live with only slight computer editing afterward, a few constructed on computer from Feedback source material. Ranks among the very best of contemporary computer music recordings I ve heard in recent years... Myers ability to sustain the tension between strangeness and familiarity is impressive, and his music on this CD is quietly and consistently compelling. --Bill Tilland, Motion Reviews simply superb---more effortless brilliance from the Darwin of electromagnetic lifeforms. --Mark Dery, author of Escape Velocity CD in Pulsewidth handpainted metal box. Signed and numbered in a limited edition of 200. - 2001 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2031 images/works/Dockstader-1961-eightpieces.jpg Eight Electronic pieces original sleeve notes [1961] The old battles over the use of the term music in electronic music have given place to new ones over the term electronic. Electronics are now generally accepted as a means to musical ends. But just what is electronic and what is not is hotly argued by the composers now working in the technique. The Germans and Dutch have been insisting on the purity of their electronic music by using only oscillators as sound sources. To the French, such insistence on purity is a typically Germanic fanaticism; they prefer natural sound sources (concrete). The Americans have generally taken a middle ground, and this promises to be the most fruitful – a combination of oscillator and natural sources. The eight pieces in this album represent this combination. The fine Poème Él7egrave;ctronique of Edgar Varèse is a combination in his Kontaktes. So the combination technique suggests it may become the international style in electronic music, as the serial technique of composition has in orchestral music. Why combination? Each source of sound has its limits and advantages: pure oscillator sounds are usually dry, harsh, sharp, limited in timbre and without much harmonic complexity – they can, however, be controlled much more easily than natural sounds and can produce any tune the composer wants. Natural sounds have their own tunes and are difficult to control, but they have a great range of timbre – just a dropped plate has all kinds of harmonics to explore. To realise these harmonics, however, a natural sound must usually be transposed electronically into a concrete sound. This process abstracts the sound enough to make it usable in a piece of music. Music that uses only these transposed sounds is called Musique Concrète from the French, who claim to have invented it – although the first work in this technique was done in Russia long ago in the adventurous days of Formalism, before such activities were banned as not being in the public interest. This concretization of sound involves slowing down or speeding up the recorded sound through several generations of tape, filtering it, adding various kinds of echo - a process that often takes the bite out of it, so it lacks the cleanness and impact, the presence of pure oscillator sounds which can be used directly from the oscillator with little or no doctoring. Music must have both range and definition, and in a sustained electronic piece, both of these sources are needed. Each source has its own general sound, a perspective that becomes monotonous if unrelieved. Oscillator sound is usually small and close up – a string quartet sound - while concrete sound is usually large and distant, a little veiled. A simple example of both is to be found in the first part of the eighth piece on this record: the gong which starts the piece is a natural sound - a concretized saucepan hit – while the tempo series laid over it is electronic. In this case, the two different perspectives have been blended somewhat with added echo. Echo doesn t affect concrete sound much – such sounds have their own acoustics built in – but it does soften the sharpness and flatness of electronic sound, giving it a little room to sound in. An example of this effect is the little oscillator tune which starts the first piece – without echo it would sound flat and dead. Thus, the electronic composer has to provide his own hall along with his own orchestra. In listening to this music, it is usually impossible, and most pointless, to sort out the sources as electronic or concrete. It is their use, their arrangement, upon which the success of these pieces as music depends. Varèse calls his electronic work Organized Sound, and the term indicates the importance of organization in this new music. The composer is confronted with a potential orchestra of thousands of instruments, and control is a major struggle. Building a piece is like improvising with a huge orchestra, recording as you go. Something starts, develops, and you re never sure of where it s going or how, even if, it will end. In the early pieces on this record (numbered in order of composition, one to six) I simply set two or three tapes of sounds going at once – chance combinations, accidental themes, chaos – all were recorded. Then I sat down and edited the half-hour result into three or four or five minutes, into something that seemed to be a piece. This process led to a gradual disenchantment with the novelty of my sounds, and this disenchantment led to greater control from the start. A sound had to work into the piece under way, or it would be excluded before it got in. So, the seventh piece is much less cut up than the sixth was, and the eighth was not cut into at all, except to join the sounds and passages into a time relationship. I had 12,000 feet of taped sounds when I started my first piece; I now have four times that amount to work with. Existing as they do, at random on reels of tape, they are little more than a unique sound-effects collection. Only organization: selecting, mixing, cutting – can turn them into music. Electronic music must be listened to, finally, not for the novelty of its sounds, but for the sense of its composition – its ideas. The novelty will wear off in time for the listener as it did for the composer. If it doesn t, the piece has failed the listener as music, or he has failed the piece. If the novelty of a jet plane in a piece of music continues to be its chief interest for a listener, he has shut himself in with people who play the Pines of Rome' only for the nightingale in it. These new sounds are exciting, but they shouldn't obscure what the composer is trying to do with them. A composer working in this new way is taking chances, if he's any good. A composer who plays a traditional toccata on a square-wave oscillator, using it as a substitute for an organ, is taking no chances; much electronic music today is simply using new instruments to play old musical ideas, using the novelty of the new sound to make the piece 'modern.' But a composer who deals with wind, riflefire, water, jets, is flirting with chaos; the excitement of his music lies in his control of this near-chaos, as the excitement of Stravinsky's 'Sacre' is held in his control of an orchestra that constantly strains toward chaos. These new sounds demand new ideas from the composer willing to wade into unknown regions. It is appreciation of chances taken and results gained that the listener must try for. It seems unlikely to me that electronic music will ever replace the traditional orchestra, as come critics and composers have feared. Even when it has been designed to supplement the orchestra, it suffers in comparison with the live sounds, and the combination is usually cumbersome: the orchestra plays, then sits in resentful silence while a loud-speaker roars and whispers fuzzily. But the speaker can't roar as loudly or whisper as quietly as can the orchestra, and until tape recording and reproducing is improved dramatically, resulting in much wider dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio, electronic music can't match, much less replace, the clear voice of the orchestra. Electronic music is recorded music – it exists only in a recording. The cuts on this record are not performances that have been recorded – they are the performances; you perform the piece when you play it on the phonograph. No recording of more than a few instruments can compare with the real thing. Electronic music can compare favorably only with other recorded music. The few successful combinations of electronic and live music have involved only a few live instruments, playing with, not in between, the taped sounds. Perhaps the future of recording – the use of thermo-plastics instead of magnetics, for instance – will change all this, but until then the orchestra has nothing to fear from electronic music. The traditional orchestra still holds worlds of new sound for the composer willing to explore it. Webern's 'Six Pieces for Large Orchestras' has been around for over fifty years as an example of such new exploration, yet few composers have even tried to duplicate the adventurousness of this work. Perhaps the orchestra itself is responsible for its fears of obsolescence. A large orchestra is a conservative body; it is governed and administrated. New works submitted to it by unknown composers must pass a long gauntlet of administrators before acceptance for performance – a discouraging process for young composers who want to work on a large scale. Most of the new music being performed today is chamber music, sometimes involving only a solo percussionist. So, too, it is difficult for the new composer, whose ideas are unorthodox, to get his work recorded. Record companies, with a few brave exceptions, release only oft-performed works: the catalogue lists eleven collections of Kreisler, two of Varèse, one of Webern. Electronic music offers a way out of this stalemate: the new composer can compose – record – perform (one process) works of large scale and unorthodox ideas. He becomes administrator and conductor; the performance will match exactly his concept, and there are no worries about other interpretations. All that stands in the way to realisation is the technical aspect. But this is a mountainous difficulty for most composers; put them in a room with a lot of machines and they only want to get out. But the machines can be learned in a much shorter time than it took the composer to learn the techniques of traditional music. The composer who wants to do an electronic piece must either become also a good technician, or have the assistance of a creative technician – and there are more of these around than most composers think. Many of the best mixers and tape editors in recording studios are also musicians who read and know music. And the composer who begins his work with a technician can, if he will learn as they go along, soon be doing his own mixing and editing. This new man – the composer-technician – is in the best position to realize the full potential of electronic music, and the control so necessary to the work. Europe has been quicker to realise aid to composers who want to work in electronics than has America. Electronic works are often commissioned by radio stations and record companies, who supply their facilities and technical assistance to realise the commissioned piece. NWDR and Deutsche Grammaphon in Germany, Philips in Holland, RTF in France – all have been assisting composers with electronic works for years. But in America this kind of aid is difficult, if not impossible, to come by. With the only electronic center – that at Columbia University – limited in its ability to accommodate more than a selected few composers, the independent composer must turn to record companies and radio stations for facilities – and these have shown no interest in such sponsorship. Yet here they have a unique opportunity to originate new music for air or disc. In the same way an orchestra commissions new works for live performance in its hall, they can commission works for their station or record label, works that would exist in no other way – and as aid, they can offer use of facilities they already have. In my own case, I had use of the facilities of the Gotham Recording Corporation in New York City, and as composers acknowledge more traditional grants and aids, I would like to acknowledge the aid this studio has given me toward realising these eight pieces. Tod Dockstader, July 30, 1961. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1961 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2033 images/works/Dockstader-1961b.jpg Luna Park Luna Park was my first new piece in stereo. I used some of the techniques Id learned doing Travelling Music: tape-echo antiphony, delay between channels, placement, and panning. By now, the organization of the sounds was very important to me: Luna is a very simple piece: three movements - fast/slow/fast - using few sound materials (people remember the laughter; one station broadcast it as Dockstaders Laughing Music - but there isnt actually that much laughter in it). I wanted it to be silly and sad and simple. The title comes from the old Luna Park at Coney Island, named for Miss Luna Dundy of Des Moines, sister of one of the park s founders. The park burned down in the 1940s, and, by the time I saw it, all that remained was a vast, rutted parking lot. Sound Sources First Part * Sped laughter of two people * little bells * one generator Second Part * Piano sped and slowed * bamboo flute * marimba (dropped) * metal bowl (bell) * something called a bell-tree (an Asian instrument, I believe) * water * more laughter Third Part * The Third Part used one generator (all the notes were played with a razor blade and splicing tape, then the tape was sped, overdubbed, and inverted) Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1961 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2034 images/works/Dockstader-196x-drone-water-2frags Drone Drone started one way and went another way (like the Telemetry Tapes did, three years later). I had collected recordings of racing cars in motion, because I liked the droning sound they made, the Doppler-effect of pitch change (without timbral change) as they passed the microphone. To find an equivalent sound that would be playable - more controllable - I recorded a lot of sustained tones on an acoustic guitar, Dopplering them with tape speed changes. But, in use it all became, for me, boring. It was the sort of sound that later became the material for minimalist music. So, in the process of working on it, the cars just drove away, though some of the guitar survived, along with the title. The musical impetus for the piece was Japanese court music, Gagaku, which Id heard a lot of and liked. I tried to combine that sort of sound with some violence - the violence I felt that was lurking, almost unheard, under the restraints of Gagaku. So the piece goes back and forth between drone and demolition, a kind of desert demolition derby. Sound Sources * two generators * water (in motion) * guitar (played and hit) * coil spring * white noise (from FM) * piano (struck) * toy flute(penny whistle) Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1962 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2035 images/works/Dockstader-1966.jpg Water Music Water Music began with the sound of water; there is little else in the piece. Ive described organizes sound as the technique using everything and the kitchen sink; this is the piece that uses the sink - a kind of kitchen La Mer. i suspected these sound sources were capable of complex organization - in short, of making a kind of music. And yet the processes of mechanical and electronic abstraction they went through during organization did not rob them of their essential quality: a sometimes delicate, sometimes ponderous, wetness. There are six short parts, each one of varying degrees of density, acceleration, loudness. Some are lyrical, some violent - both, I feel, are qualities of water. The parts do not form movements - the movement is within each part. The whole work is an exploration of one sound, the nature of which lent itself to a kind of counterpoint. To augment the initial sound sources, Ive added other similar sounds. Water Music had its premiere on WXQR in June 1963. At the end of the broadcast, the announcer stated that, since electronic music wasnt going anywhere, the broadcast would be the last of its kind. They d also played Stockhausen s Gesang der Junglinge - so I went out in good company. Sound Sources * water * toy gong-rattles * Indian finger bells * sheet of metal * two test generators (rewired for instability) * two water glasses * a Coke bottle * a metal garbage can (to hold the water) * a nail Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1963 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2036 images/works/Dockstader-1964-quatermass.jpg Quatermass Quatermass was intended, from the start, to be a very dense, massive, even threatening, work of high levels and high energy. It was my antidote to the preceding Water Music - a work of small details, delicate textures, and some playfulness. The title was chosen because the word sounded right for the work. It happened to be the name of Professor Bernard Quatermass, star character of a 1950s BBC-TV science fiction serial and two B films (The Creeping Unknown [1956] and Enemy from Space [1957]); at the time, I hadnt seen them. The basic sound source in Quatermass is a balloon (By stretching the neck of an inflated balloon, you can change the pitch of the escaping air, it becomes a double-reed instrument). As with all my pieces, work began with collecting what I call cells (Schaeffer called them soundobjects): hours and hours of quarter inch tape recordings of whatever interested me, the original sound transmuted with (what are now called) classical tape-studio techniques. By the time I did Quatermass, I guess I had a library of around 300,000 feet of tape (125 hours at 15ips.). From this mass, I would select cells that seemed like they might work together into a piece, and then turn them into stereo (with more classical techniques of tape-delay and tape-echo between channels, panning, reverberation, and placement). For Quatermass, I had, for the first time, use of a three-track recorder (the third track filled the center hole in early stereo recording), which allowed me to do more complex tape-echo rhythms than before (heard in Tango and Flight) and thicker sound-masses - the wall of sound I wanted for the piece. To mix all this together, I had a six-channel mixer (tubes), one mono, one 2-track, and the 3-track machines as feeds into a quarter-inch, 2-track recorder. That was it (the most elaborate setup I ever had) - no layering, just one-pass mixing to the master tape. All this was tube equipment with no noise reduction (I reduced tape hiss by using, for the first time, a free box of experimental low-noise tape from 3M and forcing the oxide with high levels of recording). The final (and longest) stage was to edit the mixes into the five movements (this was where the Moons were born). Id guess the forty-six minutes of Quatermass were wrenched out of probably a dozen hours of mixed tape. Song and Lament does indeed have a song and lament. Tango , although it doesnt start like a tango, becomes something like a tango, and Parade is sort of a pompous, John Philip Sousa crashing about. Flight continues the source ideas of Tango on a darker level, and the final part, Second Song, is a long working-out of the energies, and an attempt at balancing the weights of the first four parts; it uses the same sound materials, with the addition of a second song figure, a kind of inversion of the first. The gong that ushered in the first song ushers out the second. Sound Sources Song and Lament * A gong * several balloons * a toy cat-cry (or maybe it was a slowed cow-cry) * two (unstable) test generators Tango * The generators * the balloons * lots of tape-echo to create the rhythm Parade * A cymbal * rolls of adhesive tape in different widths * elevator motors and white noise (taken from FM radio) Flight * A hollow pipe * a vacuum cleaner hose * a bamboo flute * the balloons. Second Song * Almost all the above, plus chimes (Two Moons use these same materials). Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1963 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2037 images/works/Dockstader-1966b.jpg Two Moons of Quatermass Two Moons of Quatermass were spin-offs from Quatermass: they were flung out, in the long process of editing, as outs. Later, after Quatermass was done, I went back and edited them into the Two Moons. They separated themselves from the main work because; the first Moon was too languid to work with Quatermass, and the second Moon was more playfully chaotic than Quatermass.Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1963 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2038 images/works/Dockstader-1966c.jpg Four Telemetry Tapes Four Telemetry Tapes are the last pieces of truly organized sound that I did - though theyre almost entirely electronic:three rewired audio test generators, played by twisting dials and knobs. The original idea came from recordings of early satellites, starting with Sputnik: the messages they sent back to earth, telemetry, were, to my ears, in the form of loops, slowly and subtly changing over transmission times. I constructed a lot of these loops, and started to mix them - and managed to create an early form of what became New Age music: restful, but, to me, dull. So, as I had with Drone, I threw out the score (but kept the title) and began to improvise, trying to find out how far I could push those three generators. The loops would have been much easier, as it turned out: almost every note had to be cut into shape, on tape: attacks, sustains, decays - my envelopes were hand-made with a razor blade and a steel straight-edge, and so much splicing tape that the original tape is often entirely white. The tapes were finished just about the time that the first personal synthesizers became available, along with sequencers - and all that work was instantly made obsolete. But it was fun to do, fun to push those primitive means so far into what became the immediate future. Sound Sources * Except for three notes on a guitar, the sound sources were entirely three test generators, rewired into instability. The fast tone-strings in the second Tape were made by cutting quarter-inch tape into miniscule pieces and splicing them together - so I might have twenty or forty splices in a foot of tape. The third Tape is, primarily, two generators set to beat against each other. The fourth Tape is a form of loops (which was the telemetry idea I began with) and is about everything I could get those three, poor generators to do (one died during the composition).Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1965 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2039 images/works/Dockstader-1966-omniphony.jpg Omniphony Omniphony is a pioneering work in musical composition. Never before have modern recording techniques been used to shape the content and form of instrumental music, nor have the elements and techniques of electronic with those of instrumental composition. Previously, works for tape and orchestra such as Varèses Déserts and Stockhausens Kontakte, were designed for concert hall performance, the tape playing simultaneously with the orchestral performance. The techniques of electronic composition that produced the tape were not applied to the orchestra and the acoustics of the concert hall prevented the orchestra and taped sounds from being blended perfectly. However, in Omniphony, the range, timbre, dynamics, and natural durations of the orchestral sounds have been expanded through electronic means and therefore have a new and common ambiance with the non-orchestral sounds. The work was completed in May, 1967 but was begun over four years earlier. Two composers conceived, wrote and executed the work, their talents being inextricably bound together in its composition. In 1963, Tod Dockstader composed a set of taped sounds which he called cells. They were both natural sounds (those that move the air, e.g. bells, wind, voice, etc.) and electronically generated sounds (modulation that goes directly to tape, as from oscillators, recording circuitry, etc.). James Reichert then familiarised himself with the cells, and composed a series of instrumental parts which were based upon the sound intentions of Dockstaders cells. But they could not proceed any further without recording the instrumental parts. Three years and many foundations later, the recording of these inparts was commissioned by Owl Records. The session took place in March 1966 at the Gotham Recording Corporation studios in New York City. After the orchestral recording, those inparts originally composed for the purpose were transmuted through the facilities of the independent Electronic Music Center at Trumansburg, New York, using R.A.Moog music processing equipment. Specifically, this transmutation meant changing the sound of the inparts by expanding or compressing instrumental ranges and dynamics, and by adding to, or reducing, the natural harmonics of the instrumental sounds. Now, Omniphony consisted of over 100,000 feet of tape, all of which was then edited and organised into four classifications: pure instrumental sounds, electronically transmuted instrumental sounds, natural sounds, and pure electronically generated sounds. Next came the mixing of these sounds, and again the facilities of the Gotham Recording Corporation were used. This last phase was the most important of all because it would be then, and only then, that Dockstader and Reichert would know if their adventurous concepts would materialise into a valid musical work of major proportions, or just an experimental curiosity for hi-fi buffs. A year later they finished the re-composition. This recording of Omniphony is the premiere and only performance of their work.Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1966 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2040 images/works/Myers-2000-Pond.jpg Pond with David Lee Myers (Arcane Device) - 2004 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2041 images/works/Myers-xxxx-Bijou.jpg Bijou with David Lee Myers (Arcane Device) - 2005 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2042 images/works/Dockstader-2005-Aerial.gif Aerial #1 Ive written before of my interest in shortwave radio, in the notes to the Quatermass CD. Also, in the notes to the Omniphony CD (which has my first Aerial mix, Past Prelude in it), I mentioned The Aerial Etudes , which was my working title for what became the three CDs you have. And, at the end of an interview with Chris Cutler (which can be found in the Unofficial TD Website ), the piece I mentioned was starting to work on at the time became Aerial . When I was very young, people got most of their entertainment from radio. They called it playing the radio , as if it were a musical instrument. That s what I ve tried to do in this piece. The mixing of the work began in 1990. Before that, I d been collecting the sound-materials from an old shortwave radio I had. I worked at night because that s when the best reception occurs; during the day, short-wave sounds are limited and scarce - at least the kind I was listening for: the kind that occur when there are so many stations on the air, they over-ride each other and something strange emerges from the conflict. Because shortwave AM radio is of the lowest possible fidelity (little better than a telephone), I recorded on ordinary audio-cassettes. It was also for economy, because I knew I'd have to do a lot of recording to capture the momentary events I was looking for. Periodically, I would transfer the best (most potentially useful) of these recordings to quarter inch tape, turning them into 'hi-fi stereo' as I did, with a variety of techniques. Slowly, eventually, I made a library of 72 reels of tape and 35 DAT cassettes, for a total of about 90 hours of sound. Each track was given a descriptive name, and catalogued. I found that many of the tracks, though they were 'electronic' by nature, sounded not unlike the sounds I've used before in my work: bells, voices, drums, strings, trains, water, wind... And, in the mixing, I went for that physical sound. I began mixing in October of 1994. For this, I had two old Ampex 2-track tape machines and two, newer, DAT decks - giving me the possibility of eight tracks of feed. (This is the same amount I had for my 'Quatermass' and 'Apocalypse' LPs.) Everything was sent, analogue, to a third DAT: my first digital pieces (or parts of pieces). Eventually, I had 580 2-track mixes, on 16 DATs, and I was facing transferring the best of these back to analog tape, for final, physical editing - the old razor-and-splicing-tape technique, which was all I knew. About this time, a few people encouraged me to look into using a computer for this work. I'd never used one, but I saw it would allow me to keep my mixes digital - no more transfer losses. So, at the end of 2001, I got a computer and an editing program for it, and spent what seemed a long time learning it. I began selecting mixes and loading them into the computer in late March, 2002. Out of the 580, I selected 90 'best' mixes - eventually reduced to 59, the ones on the CDs. I found the computer program I was using allowed me to deepen and expand the surprisingly 'acoustic' sound of many of the mixes: even 'choirs' e,erged, shouting voices, calliopes, detonations, whispers. So that the sound, as before in my work, dictated the form of each piece. Finally, in assembling the CDs, I followed David Myers' suggestion to allow each piece to flow into the next - making a continuous journey to the end. Tod Dockstader, 14 September 2003Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 2005 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2043 images/spacer.jpg Aerial #2 - 2005 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2044 images/works/Dockstader-196x-luna-apoc-travelling.jpg Travelling Music Travelling Music was originally composed as a monaural piece (Electronic Piece No.8), It was, in effect, my Poème Electronique, after Varèse, and my first piece to be strictly organized with a few sound materials (instead of throwing everything in and stirring briskly, as Id done prior to this). When I got the use of a two-track recorder, I used this piece, instead of doing a new work, so I could concentrate on teaching myself the techniques of placing sound in space (between speakers) and moving it through space - hence the title (Jackie Gleason, in his black-and-white TV days, used always to ask the pit-band conductor for a little travelling music to help him move across the stage). Sound Sources * Gong * switch arc (multiplied into antiphonal rhythms with tape-echo) * one test generator * jet plane * metal plate * metal bowl * voice * hollow tube * adhesive tape .Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/compositions.php?page=1Accessed 15.11.06 from http://dockstader.info/ - 1960 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2045 images/spacer.jpg Animated Khartoum - 1970 USA 50 Marcel Duchamp 1887 3963 images/spacer.jpg Interview 1961 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2058 images/spacer.jpg For Electronic Dogs/Structuralist Filmmaking/Drums - 1981 USA 82 John Cage 1912 2066 images/spacer.jpg Fontana Mix - Feed, Nov. 6, 1967 Fontana Mix - Feed, Nov. 6, 1967, realized by Max Neuhaus (9 mins. 57 secs) from Aspen No. 5+6.. Accessed 15.11.06 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/cage.html - 1967 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2071 images/spacer.jpg DANGER MUSIC #2 Hat. Rags. Paper. Heave. Shave Performed by Alison Knowles and Nelson/Electric Chaircut - 1961 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2076 images/spacer.jpg Rhythmic Stamping (Four Rhythms in Preparation for Video Tape Problems) - 1969 USA 10 Max Neuhaus 1939 2079 images/works/Neuhaus-1990-Audium.jpg Audium Radio Net was done in 1977, and shortly after finishing it I began to develop an international project which I called "Audium". I was interested in including people with different native tongues in this nonverbal dialogue. I also wanted to go further in removing myself from the actual process of the broadcasts - this idea of implementing these virtual spaces in a completely autonomous system. There were also some other new ideas which I will come to. I think of an electronic system as a special kind of statement of idea. Writing something in words on a piece of paper or making a drawing are static statements of idea. If you program an idea into a computer system, though, you not only have the written statement of the idea but the system also realizes the idea - dynamic statement of idea. I wanted to implement "Audium" in a system which would not only state the idea but execute it as well. All the previous systems had been built with analog circuitry because that was the only technology available. Here, I wanted the freedom of moving into the digital world. Unfortunately in 1980 the digital sound world was not there. I did find a very strange company in Massachusetts who made a digital signal-processing box that weighed a couple of hundred pounds; they were very curious who I was because their only other customer was the US Navy. Theoretically one could have done something with it; but it would have been starting from scratch, a decade of writing assembly-code routines. So throughout the eighties I concentrated on other things. In the beginning of the nineties I noticed that the means to realize many of my digital dreams were sitting in boxes in the music store as sound-processing and synthesis devices. There were also some computer languages around to control them in ways beyond what their manufacturers intended and envisaged. In 1990 I began collecting research material for a work called "Audium Model". The most difficult thing about realizing large new ideas is explaining what they are to those who will provide the support to realize them. You can talk about it and write about it, but if it is a genuinely new idea there are by definition no references. You are asking them to imagine what you are imagining by hinting at it in a foreign tongue. In addition to being a work in its own right, "Audium Model" is also the first step in the aesthetic research for "Audium" and a realization of its fundamental concepts. It consists of a special double phone booth for two people: two rooms, each with one transparent wall with a door in it. Inside each room is a telephone handset mounted on the wall. To model the conditions of a phone call, the booths are arranged so that the occupants can't see each other. The handsets connect them through a third party - the computer system which comprises the work. The aural result of the sound activities between these three parties emanates from speakers outside the booths. So we have the elements of "Audium": the telephone hand-sets represent any telephone, the electronic system is the moderator, and the speakers outside the booths are the broadcast. The electronic system has two roles. One, it engages in a sound dialogue with each of the occupants of the booths and, two, it acts as the instrument which they play on with their voices. This general form of the work has been fixed. I am now in the process of research which will define the rest of it. The block diagram shows the current state of my ideas about the flows of information and sound. You can see that there is an arrow going back from the work into the ear piece of each person's telephone. This is a new idea for the broadcast works - what I am calling an active score - a dialogue between each person and the work. When we speak we have to listen constantly to the sound we are making and adjust our sound-producing muscles so that it matches the phoneme we are trying to pronounce. If we could not hear ourselves, we could no longer speak accurately; we need this constant feedback even though we have been doing it all our lives. I want to add another layer to this feedback. In spite of science's general aversion to studying the language of inflection, there have been a number researchers who have been interested in the question over the last fifty years. Most have been motivated by a quest to quantify emotion, many with the goals of lie detection and business advantage. As a result of all this, the basic acoustic parameters of intonation have emerged. Quantifying their meaning is another question, but of course that is not what I am interested in doing here. The dialogue between the work and the persons in the booths will be in the language of inflection. The work will 'recognize' a person's vocal phrases by inflection and continually respond by generating sound for his ear piece - a special sound feed-back which is built for each person as he vocalizes. I hope it will be a means of breaking away from the stereotyped ideas of what music is and can guide them out of their self-consciousness and past their preconceptions. The acoustic parameters of inflection are of course patterns of fundamental frequency, amplitude, formant and spectrum. So far I have built and am working with a system which can extract some of these parameters in real time from two people simultaneously. I have also implemented a neural network algorithm which allows one-pass categorization and mapping of analog vectors also in real time.1 It can be used to generalize - to make decisions through inference and extrapolation - and it learns immediately. It is not like a back propagation neural net which has to be taught for a few hours; it only takes this one ten milliseconds to find or learn a category. These are the components I will use to build the work's sense of each person's vocal activity and its sound response for the active scores. The other part of the work, again an instrument that can be played by the voice, will generate the work's output sound. It will also use this sense of the person's vocal activity to adjust itself while being played. Currently I am experimenting with some imaginary string spaces - digital implementations of six separate strings whose characteristics can be modulated in real time. Because I have all this information about frequency and amplitude coming in, I can not only apply a voice-sound to activate the string; but I can also get the string to listen and respond to what it is being touched with. I like the idea of being able to pluck or stroke a listening string with your tongue from a distance of 10,000 miles over a telephone. Of course the realization of one "Audium Model" does not model the multilingual nature of "Audium". After the first realization the next step would be to implement several 'Audium Models' in different language groups and interconnect them; this is fairly straight forward once the first "Audium Model" is made. This network of interconnected "Audium Models", as an international installation, is the real model of 'Audium' itself. An additional idea for these broadcast works which I became convinced of after "Radio Net" and I hope will be implemented with 'Audium' is the one of a radio installation. All of the works so far have been radio events, because that is the nature of radio in most people's minds: it has events - radio shows. But one could also make a radio installation. Although a radio event certainly gets attention and encourages people to enter into it, at the same time it makes it difficult to do so as it generates congestion. In "Radio Net", 10,000 won and got their calls through. This probably means that 100,000 tried and weren't successful. There is no way to install enough lines to respond to a call-in request of this kind over the radio; the more lines you add the more people are encouraged to call in. The radio event also discourages the development of a group dialogue; everyone knows they have only a certain amount of time and wants to get their say in. But if it's always there you can call in at any time, and you can stay in as long as you want; it allows a natural long term evolution of this new kind of sound dialogue. It becomes an entity - a virtual place. Do I sense shivers of panic running up the spine of radio administration? Of course it is very expensive to run a radio station, and to dedicate it to one idea is unheard of. Or is it? In fact many radio stations are dedicated to one idea - rock, news, sports, etc. "Audium" is another idea of programming; and one hopes its live and unpredictable nature, its continuous evolution, and its international character will combine to make it quite a bit more interesting than many others. I hear them whispering "But the band is so crowded; there aren't enough frequencies to allow another station for such a strange idea". Right now the AM band and many of its transmitters are being abandoned - deserted for the world of FM. "Audium" could live quite happily in all that empty territory, emanating from a few of those unwanted transmitters. It would be considerably less expensive than other forms of programming. The major cost of a radio station is not the broadcasting equipment, nor the electricity to run it. It is the making of radio shows. "Audium" doesn't require staff; it is simply an electronic system with one side connected to the phone network and the other to the transmitter. 'Audium' programs itself, or more accurately it is programmed by the people who will use it. Accessed 12.08.2009 from http://www.kunstradio.at/ZEITGLEICH/CATALOG/ENGLISH/neuhaus2c-e.html - 1994 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2086 images/spacer.jpg Clown Torture Naumans Clown Torture is a shattering spectacle of color, motion, and sound. Displayed at high volume, the audio level of the five simultaneously occurring videos is an assault on the senses. Heard long before its viewed, one must bravely enter into an enclosed, darkened room in order to see where all the noise is coming from. Once inside, two pairs of stacked monitors and two wall projections come into view. Immediately one senses that something is awry, as only two of the four televisions are oriented right side up. With one monitor turned upside-down and the other placed on its side, the images become abstracted and disorienting. The videos playing on the monitors record clowns in unnerving or difficult situations. In one sequence, a clown screams at an unseen antagonist. In another, a clown repeats the elliptical story Pete and Repeat were sitting on a fence. Pete fell off; who was left? Repeat. Pete and Repeat were sitting on a fence. Recited with a variety of expressions (happy, scared, mad, etc.), the clown cant help but hide a growing frustration at not being able to finish the story or have it make sense. Two videos show clowns trying balance objects - goldfish bowls and buckets of water - with little success. The final video resembles a scene from a closed-circuit security camera, only it s a disconcerting image of a clown using a public toilet. Nauman s Clown Torture makes its artifice obvious, from the caked makeup of the clowns faces to the many power cords that run across the ceiling, walls, and floor. With activity occurring from nearly every angle, the viewer - like the clown - is the subject of experimentation and interrogation. While it s easy to tell that these clowns are only acting-out traumas, it is nevertheless difficult to watch and purposefully so. Clown Torture makes the viewer question his or her own participation in the events on screen. Alluding to difficult subjects such as insanity, political torture, and surveillance, the work makes complex connections between theater, media, and apathy The makeup, hair, and costume of each clown act as a disguise for the actor or person underneath. Anonymous victims and inciters of brutality and pranks, these scared and scary clowns seem simultaneously real and unreal. Accessed 20.11.06 from http://www.pbs.org/art21/artists/nauman/card2.html Four color video monitors, four speakers, four videotape players, two video projectors, four videotapes (color, sound), dimensions variable. 1987 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2088 images/works/Nauman-2005-100fish.jpg One Hundred Fish Fountain One Hundred Fish Fountain is comprised of 97 fish, cast in bronze, which hang by wires from a suspended metal grid. Water, from a large basin on the floor, is pumped through clear tubing to the fish and sprays out of the their bodies in all directions from hundreds of randomly punctured holes. The fountain runs on a scheduled timer so that the viewer witnesses the jolting sound and movement as the fish fill with water as well as the silence when the pumps are turned off followed by the water slowly trickling out of each fish. In a second gallery are two fountains entitled 3 Heads Fountain (3 Andrews) and 3 Heads Fountain (Juliet, Andrew, Rinde) each of which consists of three epoxy resin and fiberglass heads wired together with water spraying from the many holes. Within each of the fountains there is a sense of violence and violation. The fish are removed from their natural habitat, cast in bronze and punctured with holes. The harsh treatment of these fish is reminiscent of Naumans skinned animal series from the late 1980s. The intense noise of the water splashing in the basin, paired with the visual enormity of the 97 fish and the thickness of the humid air creates a multi-sensory experience that is both aggressive and overpowering. The sight of the fish connected to water pumps, almost like an IV, is surreal and beautiful at the same time. This analogy in terms of an IV and hose is made even more apparent with the severed head fountains where it is as if vital liquid is being pumped into the heads only to escape once again through the punctured holes. When stopped, the dripping water has a powerful reference to the human condition and a feeling of loss. The heads were first seen in Naumans work in 1989. The idea of the fountain dates back to his early work of the 1960s such as Self-Portrait as a Fountain and more recently in the early 1990s with a fountain made of cast bronze foxes. The reference of the fish dates back to Naumans early film piece from 1966 Fishing for an Asian Carp but also refers to personal memories of the artist growing up in the Midwest and fishing with his father on Lake Michigan. From this, came his choice of using only fresh water fish from the lake: salmon; whitefish; bass and catfish. Accessed 20.11.06 from http://www.donaldyoung.com/nauman/nauman_pr.html - 2005 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2091 images/spacer.jpg Raw Material – BRRR Nauman compresses experience into intense bursts of electronic image and sound. Images of the artists face are shown on two TV monitors, with a similar image projected onto an adjacent wall. Unlike the talking heads seen on TV, these faces have little to tell us, as they repeatedly blurt, in a nonsensical gesture, the simple monosyllable Brrr . Accessed 20.11.06 from http://www.medienkunstnetz.de/works/raw-material/ - 1990 USA 39 Carl Micheal von Hausswolff 1956 2097 images/spacer.jpg Hawks check location 2005 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2104 images/spacer.jpg Two Songs for Tape-Bow violin - 1977 USA 36 Steve Roden 1964 2106 images/spacer.jpg Soundwalk - 2005 USA 94 John Hudak 1958 2139 images/works/Hudak-2006-pieces.jpg Pieces of Winter w/ Stephan Mathieu. A small album for sure. simple and clean, spacious mixes with generous silence in between tracks. obviously a winter album, but the title holds some influence there. some tracks are so digital, but the source recordings radiate an easy warmth. both these artists tend towards a straightforward, unadorned approach to digital processing, which is certainly in evidence here. The album begins with Hudaks contact-mic-under-ice-whilst-it-snows field recording, continues through collaborative tracks, and ends with Mathieus warm composition of manipulated pump organ and ocarina. The collaborative tracks are very digital and spare, maybe cold but that is pushing the metaphor real hard, yeah? - 2006 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2140 images/works/Senn-2007-pairs.jpg Many Pairs Sounding An installation of sixteen micro-tuned tubes with paper mallet tops driven by sub-audio tones. Developed in Prague for an installation titled The Odradek Complex, this installation uses 8 pairs of Tube Tops to create a choir of intertwined overtones which continuously make and remake the sonic landscape. Because of their Odradek-like features (Kafkas mysterious, impish-like character), these sculptural and kinetic instruments are easily anthropomorphized into a chattering ensemble of vocalists, an effect enhanced by utterances and tones emanating from the base of the tubes. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 2007 USA 90 Ron Kuivila 1955 2144 images/spacer.jpg Parsable created a space in which the movements of visitors were tracked by a surveillance camera mounted high overhead and registered by a set of servo-controlled sunglasses that followed any nearby activity. Motions were also translated into sound via a set of pivoting ultrasound sensors and their signals modified in part by the video feed from the surveillance camera. Elsewhere bare wires sparked intermittently and wall-mounted sheets of foil shuffled at random. Visitors were held in limbo as the tenor of the piece shifted around them from an engaging you-dont-have-to-be-a-star-to-be-in-my-show ambiance to an uneasy feeling of being caught in the crosshairs of an unknown technological assailant. The performance version of the piece in which Kuivila activated various parts of the installation and performed on an auxiliary set of custom electronics was notable for its rapidly changing audio contours and the high technical and conceptual quality of his relentlessly hacked sounds. Recalling both the aural textures and compositional strategies of David Tudor (the piece was, in part, an homage to the soon-to-be-late composer), the performance demonstrated a clear sense both of the history that informed it (specifically the pre-computer era of electronic music) and of the marks that that history has left on contemporary sound practice - even as that practice spirals and morphs into new guises. Accessed 6.12.2006 from http://www.roving.net/texts/sc96eis.html - 1996 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2146 images/works/Osbourne-1996-soundculture.jpg SoundCulture 96 SoundCulture 96, the third in a series of trans-Pacific sonic art festivals, took place in the San Francisco Bay Area during the first part of April of this year. The festival included 17 exhibitions, 10 panels, and 55 performances and other events held at 33 sites throughout the region. Co-presented by 32 arts and culture organizations and including the work of 228 artists from the US, Canada, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand, SoundCulture 96 was easily the largest sound art event ever held in the United States. Focused on the creative use of sound outside of the field of music by practitioners based in the Pacific region, the festival included representations of a number of differing areas of sound practice: sound sculpture and installation, radio and telephonic works, performance, acoustic ecology, noise, cultural theory in relation to sound, appropriation, high- and low-tech activities, educational events for kids, homemade sound instruments, sound works for public space, sound for film, and so on. As the director of the festival and one of the participating artists I dispensed with objectivity about SoundCulture 96 long ago; this is an overview of the event from someone who knows far more about it than is good for anyones health. Covered here are some of the broader themes that emerged from the festival illustrated by a few of the many events that occurred over the course of eleven days last April. One aspect of the festival that received much comment was the wide diversity of kinds of work represented. What has been common knowledge to practitioners in the field was made clear to even casual observers here: sonic art work by its nature doesnt fit well into established categories of art or artistic practice, hence artists working with sound employ a wide variety of strategies in using it. While advances in sound work have often been facilitated by technological progress and the development of sound art can be read as a mini-history of electronic innovation, these advances have left a rich trail of methods and practices of harnessing sound, and many of these were in evidence in the festival. While Ron Kuivila worked with the latest in surveillance cameras, crackling wires, and custom digital signal processing and Negativland employed a cryptic array of subversive electronics in conjunction with a pair of techno DJs, Julaine Stephenson rewired a washing machine to play clean a 7 vinyl disk and Phil Dadson drew sound out of hand-operated stones, some of which dated back to the Paleolithic era. And where Ian Pollack and Janet Silks Museum of the Future was driven by computer and heard over telephone lines, Kazue Mizushima s Eve of the Future employed silk thread and paper cups to deploy a vast array of string telephones across an outdoor lawn space in which she performed by stroking, scraping and occasionally breaking the threads. This wide array of kinds of work was matched by the variety of circumstances in which the work was found. It was possible to venture to find SoundCulture events in museums, universities, non-profit and commercial galleries, performance spaces, warehouses, on a beach, on radio waves, in a shopping mall, in a harbor, in a cinema, on a public transit bus, on the internet, and in nightclubs. Video still From Richard Lerman s Sonoran Desert Ants (1995) Given that the geographic scope of SoundCulture is centered on the Pacific s Ring of Fire, it was no surprise that fire showed up literally and metaphorically in a number of works. Scot Jenerik gave an energetic and reductive performance in which he pummeled a pair of flaming wood and metal structures wired for sound. Tony MacGregor and Virginia Madsen s Cantata of Fire broadcast on KPFA looked at the audio culture of the siege at Waco, Texas and the fire that concluded it. In Richard Lerman s Changing States, a tiny flame was used to heat metal strips attached to contact microphones. As the metal deformed in slow and unpredictable ways under the heat, its eerie transformations were heard greatly amplified. Evoking at once the micro-world of the grain of metal and the macro-reality of plate tectonics, the piece served as an allegory for the process of generating sound itself: sound like fire is simply an artifact of the transfer of one form of energy into another, expended in an instant and then gone. Later in the evening, Lerman showed a videotape of a swarm of desert ants crawling over a pair of microphones. The high gain on the recording devices again reversed the micro and macro, and as these tiny creatures produced enormous sounds their energetic activities seemed to be asking us to consider how much these microphones were in service of our intentions and how much we instead worked to fulfill theirs. Kazue Mizishima performing Eve of the Future in San Rafael. Several events highlighted the functions of sound as it plays out in a social landscape. Don Wherry s Harbor Symphony, played on the horns of a number of boats moored in the Port of Oakland, kicked off the festival with a noontime performance for an intrigued audience of tourists, office workers, and SoundCulture participants. Kazue Mizushima s outdoor performance brought automobile traffic on a nearby road to a crawl, and Kathy Kennedy s piece gently undid a shopping mall. Ann Wettrich s Aviary Commute took over an unsuspecting mass transit bus with a flock of performers equipped with tape players and recordings of bird calls. While most of the audience of regular commuters took it in stride, the imposition of these sounds into this mobile public space apparently upset the normal order of authority: the bus driver repeatedly threatened to eject all the participants unless they turned off their recordings. Fortunately for all concerned, everyone arrived at their destination before the situation reached the breaking point. Later that day in an old and now-converted military building north of San Francisco which houses the Headlands Center for the Arts, a panel session on the subject of acoustic ecology touched on some of the issues raised in Wettrich s piece: control of social space, preservation of quiet, the harnessing of natural sounds for artistic and commercial purposes. Hildegard Westerkamp, one of the foremost figures in the field of soundscape studies, gave an eloquent talk on listening, sound, and silence in relation to personal, local, and global well-being that provided an encompassing view of the way soundscapes can be used to monitor engagement with and connection to our surroundings. Her talk provided a refreshing and well-considered perspective in an area that is often marked by simplistic cultural assumptions about our relation to nature; the spirited discussion that followed the panel presentation centered around these issues. Fortunately for all concerned, dinnertime arrived before the panelists and attendees became unduly spirited. The acoustic ecology event was only one of many panels on aural culture presented over the course of the festival. Other presentations focused on the relationships between sound and literature, the use of sound in scientific practice, legal issues around sound and copyright, sound in architecture and public space, and sound as it is used to identify social and cultural location. Kent Howie s Non-Native Species, was a comparison of the altered soundscape of San Francisco s Mission district due to a population of feral parakeets and the cultural changes brought about there by the growing Hispanic community. Negativland s Don Joyce discussed some of the legal and ethical issues surrounding the practice of audio appropriation and some of the well-publicized problems his group has encountered with the commercial recording industry. Architects John Randolph and Bruce Tomb talked about the utilization of sound in their large-scale works, Douglas Kahn traced the use of sound in William Burroughs writings, and Frances Dyson presented a detailed and thoughtful meditation on the psychological and cultural effects of sound recording. In the midst of much reconsidering, recasting, and recoding of auditory experience often in terms derived from visual culture, it was fascinating to find the reverse described in Michael Buckingham's research into visual imaging in underwater environments by using the behavior of sound as a model for data acquisition (Acoustic Daylight). While the occasionally opaque language used in some of the papers undoubtedly lost some listeners, the underlying ideas and issues being dealt with were rich with insight and invention. The fact that a detailed investigation of the sonic life of such a wide variety of cultural practices could be made speaks to the relevance of the sonic arts to current critical discourse and to the larger social fabric from which that discourse is derived. On another part of the audio continuum, the presence of noise artists was very apparent in SoundCulture. Several local warehouse spaces served as performance venues for high-volume and high-energy performances from Hijo Kadian, C.C.C.C., Crawl Unit, and others. Trading mostly in aural texture and sheer sonic impact, these events were either exhilarating or alienating - but rarely anywhere in between. These were the only performances in SoundCulture that contained the kind of numb macho posturing so often found in more standard musical or visual art contexts; its presence in these events served as a clear contrast to the relief at its absence elsewhere in the festival. While the noise events seemed at first to have little in common with nature sound and soundscape activities, their side-by-side placement in SoundCulture revealed more shared ground than might otherwise be assumed. The search for natural quiet and the pursuit of immersion in overwhelming sound are each a response to living in a machine-deafened culture, enough time spent in either area results in a change of consciousness, and the desire to lose oneself in a sonic environment is exactly the same. At several points during the festival, discussion among the participants turned to finding the components of the Pacific sensibility that informed the work presented in SoundCulture. Though no definite answers emerged, it seemed to have to do with existing on a number of physical and cultural margins, the presence of those margins being central to a particular geographic psychology (that the field of sound art also occupies a marginal space goes without saying). Whether found in the illusion of instant communication to the future or past across the international date line, the constant consciousness of the distance between here and somewhere not here, or the (fading) presence of a string of natural paradises along the Ring of Fire, the pleasures and tensions that are shared among Auckland, Sydney, Hong Kong, Kyoto, Vancouver, San Francisco, and the islands in between have to do with the concurrent experiences of splendor and impending displacement. In California the presence (and promise) of Silicon Valley and Hollywood isn't enough to completely mask the strain of infrastructure decay, rapid cultural and economic change, and - of course - seismic peril. The constant seduction of the next big thing combined with a very short collective memory here ensures that there is no end to the (re)building of highways for data, automobiles, and everything else: new space for old accidents. Paul DeMarinis' Chaotic Jump Rope (1996) A possible glimpse into this state of mind was offered in Paul DeMarinis' work, Chaotic Jump Rope, shown at the San Francisco Art Commission Gallery. In it, a latex tube is connected between the shafts of two small motors running off the same electric current. As the speed of the each motor varies slightly, the tube is sent into a shifting and alluringly unsteady oscillation as it tries to compensate for the difference in rpm's; the system only briefly succeeds in stabilizing before faltering again. The resulting fluctuations in motor speed are used to generate a series of tones that vary in tandem with changes in the rates of rotation. Pleasurable on both intellectual and sensory levels, hypnotizing and perpetually uncertain, the piece seems to contain much of the Pacific sensibility without settling in any one part of it: instability and intrinsic beauty, technological acuity and hazard, border space and physical force. These themes were further articulated in Wang Po Shu's installation, Hidden Music of the Golden Gate Bridge, in which a small gong tuned to one of the overtones of the natural resonant period of the bridge is placed to the north and in sight of the bridge itself. Currently undergoing a substantial seismic retrofit, the bridge will, in a few years, have an entirely different natural resonant period and, presumably, remain in place when the earth shifts beneath it. As it stands now, an earthquake of sufficient strength and correct periodicity - the pitch of the gong transposed down a half-dozen octaves - will vibrate the bridge right into the bay. Quietly illustrating the relative scales of the structural, geologic, and social resonances of the Golden Gate, the piece evokes both an unsettling reminder of the natural forces under our feet and a sense of uncertain technical advance mixed with approaching loss (the gong's tuning will be meaningless once the retrofit is done and, retrofitted or not, one day that bridge will fail). A trip to Oakland across a different bridge (one that partially collapsed several years ago) found a pair of Julaine Stephenson's repurposed home appliances at the Pro Arts Gallery. In TV Dinner Scratch-O-Matic a distressed fork serves as a stylus that bumps along a cooker lid set on a revolving microwave turntable producing a set of scrannel metallic tones as it goes. Across the room a washing machine-turned-turntable agitates a small vinyl record under a stylus, the futility of attempting to make the record clean again is heard through a speaker placed inside the machine's water hose. Elsewhere in the gallery, Tracey Cockrell's language based-sculpture and explores the slippage between words and meaning, sound and body. A series of molds taken from the inside of the artist's mouth as she pronounces various phonemes and arranged inside a velvet-lined case, the piece makes solid the shape of words as it alludes to a common and cryptic taxonomy of physical language. And Eiko DoEspirito-Santo's interactive audio installation designed for people of varying physical abilities was notable for its smart interfaces of polyps, pendulums, and pattable tables. Further into the East Bay, Ellen Band's installation at Walnut Creek's Bedford Gallery focused on subtle, psychoacoustic trickery: specially blended sheets of pink noise evoked either the intended auditory hallucinations or the occasional unintended physical distress in listeners. At the Catharine Clark Gallery (the only commercial space brave enough to join forces with SoundCulture), Jack Ox presented her stunning visual score derived from Kurt Schwitters' influential text-sound work Ursonate. A dynamic live performance of one section of the piece from a late-arriving Miguel Frasconi during the opening reception for the show demonstrated the continuing strength of the performance version as well as an unusually clear and powerful connection between sound and image found in the Ox's interpretation of the piece. It was later reported that at least one member of the audience there had some sort of life-changing epiphany during the performance (good luck, and keep those credit cards handy). The largest SoundCulture event in terms of audience size was Negativland's performance at the Trocadero, a San Francisco nightclub known for its weekly Bondage A Go-Go soirees. Drawing close to one thousand clubgoers and other nightcrawlers (the usual SoundCulture crowd was in short supply that evening, probably due to attending concurrent events), the group performed with the Hardkiss Brothers (a pair of turntable wizards) under a projected-image environment provided by filmmaker Craig Baldwin. Known for their free-form radio shows and theatrical gigs, this performance was somewhat subdued by comparison. Although all three elements of the evening's proceedings displayed an expected and voracious appetite for appropriation and culture-jamming, the Hardkiss Brothers' techno orientation never quite gelled with Negativland's grab-bag knobs-and-sliders approach - and neither of them could match the inventiveness of Baldwin's visuals. Perhaps it was an off night for the performers or maybe it was an experiment that looked better on paper than it sounded in the flesh, but the performance served as a reminder that, for all its currency, the cut-and-paste strategy only works as well as the brains and instinct controlling the scissors, mouse, or needle in the groove, and that a room full of appropriators doesn't necessarily make for a brotherhood of thieves. Ed Osborn's Parabolica (1996) at the Yerba Buean Center for the Arts, San Francisco. Ron Kuivila's installation, Parsable, shown at the LAB's funky and cavernous Mission district gallery, created a space in which the movements of visitors were tracked by a surveillance camera mounted high overhead and registered by a set of servo-controlled sunglasses that followed any nearby activity. Motions were also translated into sound via a set of pivoting ultrasound sensors and their signals modified in part by the video feed from the surveillance camera. Elsewhere bare wires sparked intermittently and wall-mounted sheets of foil shuffled at random. Visitors were held in limbo as the tenor of the piece shifted around them from an engaging you-don't-have-to-be-a-star-to-be-in-my-show ambiance to an uneasy feeling of being caught in the crosshairs of an unknown technological assailant. The performance version of the piece in which Kuivila activated various parts of the installation and performed on an auxiliary set of custom electronics was notable for its rapidly changing audio contours and the high technical and conceptual quality of his relentlessly hacked sounds. Recalling both the aural textures and compositional strategies of David Tudor (the piece was, in part, an homage to the soon-to-be-late composer), the performance demonstrated a clear sense both of the history that informed it (specifically the pre-computer era of electronic music) and of the marks that that history has left on contemporary sound practice - even as that practice spirals and morphs into new guises. Nigel Helyer's Silent Forest (1996) at the San Francisco Art Institute Among the many other noteworthy exhibits in the festival was Nigel Helyer's Silent Forest, shown at the San Francisco Art Institute. An installation comprised of beautiful sound horns modeled on the air raid sirens mounted on the Saigon opera house and glycerin-immersed bonsai arrangements, the piece drew parallels between the use of dioxin defoliants during the Vietnam conflict and the culturally defoliating history of French colonial rule there. Deployed in a set of carousel formations, the horns broadcast distended abstracts of opera music and were among the most visually striking elements of the entire festival. New Langton Arts presented PHFFFT, a large installation by Trimpin in which sound was generated by computer-controlled bursts of air through specially tuned pipes. The piece was both visually and sonically engaging but, given the context of the festival, it had surprisingly conservative musical aspirations. My own work, Parabolica, was shown at the Center for the Arts at Yerba Buena Gardens. In it, a model train engine circled a suspended, serpentine track while dragging a rolling speaker behind it. Constantly varying its course across many possible routes as it went, the train illustrated with its motion the statistical form of the bell curve as it broadcast sounds referring to individual determination, confidence, and certainty. The performance component of SoundCulture also had many rewards in it. Brenda Hutchinson's Every Dream Has Its Number elegantly blended a half-spoken, half-sung narrative about her mother's penchant for gambling with a delicate, audio-verite soundscore and fragments of melodies played on her Giant Music Box (an enormous version of the device often found under tiny twirling ballerinas and bears). By turns touching and painful (her mother was a handful, to say the least), the performance revealed an exceptionally rich, personal, and clearly articulated artistic vision that was free from the sentimentality that usually marks pieces built from such private histories. Local group Citizen Band presented a surprisingly stately performance using a blend of old and homemade electronics mixed with incidental parts for acoustic instruments. Employing a focused and unhurried approach, they rewarded close listening by shaping a slowly evolving mix of sound that was at once both languorous and grimy. New Zealand's Phil Dadson performed at New Langton Arts where (among other things) he managed to draw a wide variety of sounds out of manually-operated pairs of stones. A careful exercise in attentive listening and corporeal engagement with materials (literally) at hand, the performance brought to mind recurring truth that for all the wonderful gizmos found throughout the sound world (and certainly present in SoundCulture), it's difficult to top the skillful striking of one object into another. At the Pacific Film Archive, a series of events examining sound in film included (among other events) an evening of sound works by film makers played entirely in the dark, a lecture by Douglas Kahn on sound and audio art relating to film in the first half of the twentieth century, and an illustrated talk on the development of film sound by Robert Gitt of the UCLA Film and Television Archive. And a listening room located in the San Francisco Art Commission Gallery allowed visitors a chance to hear a wide variety of recorded sound work from around the Pacific (lots of comfortable chairs and big cushions were provided to enhance the auditory experience). Locally, the festival has resulted in an improved profile for the sonic arts among presenters and audiences; most of the events sold out completely and the exhibitions were uniformly well attended. In addition, the chance for so many organizations to work together (something normally difficult to arrange in these parts) was welcomed because the context of the festival provided a good chance to generate new audiences; in the current abysmal funding climate it may prove to be a workable (if labor intensive) model for future events of this size. Already in its wake have come a several smaller sound-oriented events, usually based around the audience-drawing noise end of the spectrum. The festival also generated the curious sight of a number of local visual artists and musicians quickly trying to recontextualize themselves as sound artists (an economically ill-advised move if ever there was one, though perhaps bouyed by the incessant offers of credit that arrive daily in the mailbox). Press coverage for the festival was uneven at best. All but ignored by the local dailies (no surprise there, although one large article appeared in the Bay Guardian, an entertainment-oriented weekly), SoundCulture 96 generated coverage in elsewhere in the United States and in Canada, Europe, and Japan. Reviews have also appeared in the nationally-distributed magazines Artforum, Sculpture, Art Papers, and P-Form; the West Coast's monthly visual arts trade paper, Artweek, devoted the August issue to sound art - a topic it has never covered before in such depth. The scope of the festival greatly belies the size of its resources. Working with a minuscule budget, no office, a volunteer staff, and a great deal of goodwill from everyone involved, SoundCulture 96 managed to flourish under extremely difficult conditions. However, with the small amount of funding that exists for the arts in the United States dwindling quickly, it is unlikely that an event of this size based around a lesser-known field like sound art will occur here again in the foreseeable future. Nonetheless, SoundCulture 96 provided a detailed and varied look at and a listen to some of the activity that is taking place in the fertile area of the sonic arts. It demonstrated the strength, influence, and viability of the field and served notice that in all its forms, sonic art warrants the same kind of attention normally reserved for more established art and culture practices. Ed Osborn Oakland (October, 1996) Previously published in Essays In Sound, Vol. 3, December, 1996 (Contemporary Sound Arts, Sydney, Australia) as Creaking Grounds: Tectonics and SoundCulture 96. An earlier version of the article appeared in Sound Arts, Vol. 8, Summer, 1996 (Xebec Corporation, Kobe, Japan). Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 1996 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2149 images/works/Senn-2002-bipolar.jpg Bipolar Bird Cage A simple interactive piece.| Two threaded rods with found resonators attached above and below are separated by a thin sound absorbant wire to create a natural stereo field. As patrons lift washers weighted with paper wings up the steel rods (Frances Senn, patron) and release them, the moths flutter downward creating rhythms that are amplified by the scrap resonators. Clicking rhythms are controlled by the turning of the rods and the off-balancing of the washers. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 2002 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2151 images/works/Senn-2000-three.jpg Three Girls From the Heart Multitrack video installation of three girls speaking candidly about their lives at age 14. Stories are timed and presented over three video monitors atop skirted pedestals. Texts of the stories are reprinted on twelve 12 foot lengths of fax paper and suspended along adjacent walls. The fax strips are also used as a resonant material from which the stories are heard (piezo transducers are used to drive sound into the paper). The videos were derived from a residency at Jason Lee Miiddle School in Tacoma, WA .Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 2000 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2152 images/spacer.jpg Two Cabins: Family Happiness A video, FM and live installation of family life as presented in a continuous stream of celebrations, live and recorded. As patrons approach the general area of cabins 5 and 6 at Camp Long, their FM radios will pick up the sound of birthday celebrations from a Birthday Cabin and Christmas celebrations from a Christmas Cabin. As they approach each cabin, and eventually peer into the cabin windows, they will observe a video installation of the broadcasted celebrations along with a live installation of a happy, happy family at play.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com for video, FM station and live family 2000 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2153 images/spacer.jpg Three Awakenings A site specific installation made for the sculpture park adjacent to the Port Angeles Fine Arts Center consisting of three FM radio stations broadcasting a 45 minute meditative text to patrons outfitted with FM radios (head phones or boom boxes). While each station is tuned to the same frequency and broadcast identical texts, their range has a radius of only 50 feet and, therefore, the texts will apply uniquely to the context of their placement. The Arts Center staff will have the option to move these to different locations as a means of providing fuller discovery of the park, artwork and the inner self. . FM station maintenance and placement The stations, when fully charged, will run continuously for 8-10 hours before they must be collected and recharged. Each is equipped with a security loop for attachment to a tree, but they should be hidden to encourage daily discovery and rediscovery via FM radio. For this reason, black plastic bags are required enclose each station (these are 4x10 cylinders with a 24 telescoping attenna) to keep the units clean and dry, and to encourage amouflage. The stations require about 13 hours to recharge.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com for three roving FM stations, forest and participating patrons 2000 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2154 images/works/Senn-1997-petes.gif Petes Pool Sound and Video Installation Six monochrome monitors (amber and green) displayed local citizens telling stories of their experiences at Petes Pool over the years. The anechdotes appeared within a Canopy Lyre, a sculptural instrument which played intermittently and in counterpoint to the spoken sounds. The faces of those telling stories faded from darkness on the video monitors, told a story, and then faded into the white background. A specially designed sculptural instrument called a Canopy Lyre was stretched between tree trunks (trees unmarked), amidst the video monitors and within the grove of trees near the entrance of Petes Pool. The instrument produced delicate bell-like sounds when metal resonators were struck by two foot long pine dowels. These were driven by the wind and electronically by sub-audio frequencies contained on two CD players.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com Video, and sculpture 1997 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2155 images/works/Senn-1997-point.gif Water-driven Canopy Lyre Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com Sculptural instrument, sound garden 1997 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2156 images/spacer.jpg Pendulyres, Pendulings, Over Ground and Other Things In June of 1996, I began interviewing on video employees of the old Northern Pacific Railroad who had worked at Tacoma Washingtons Union Station from 1930 to 1970. Without a poitical agenda in mind, what I happened upon was a group of people who dearly loved their jobs, were highly skilled and literate, and uniformly spoke of a network of people, thousands upon thousands (at one time the railroad averaged one person every four miles watching the track), who had cooperated to enable a highly complex system to work very effectively. As I interviewed twelve former NP employees (telegraphers, dispatchers, a car men, a secretary, an accountant, and a train master), I found a system virtually free of what we politely call jerks today, and I soon learned that this was for very practical reasons. Person-to-person communication skills underpinned the smooth running of the pre-automated, pre-computerized pre-1970s American rail system. To communicate poorly was to jeopreodize human life. With many tons of fast moving steel rolling in every direction, the selfish and immature did not remain long in the system. To my absolute delight, I learned that the railroad of old exemplified a cooperative ideal and to interview these old timers was to shed light on their unique and extraordinary lives and on a spirit which has served them well in their present lives. Exhibit Description This installation components: 1. Color video (silent): Consists of a frame-by-frame mapping, in part, of the ground beneath the new History Museum. The video documents a 3/4-mile circle travelling south from 1933 Commerce Street, left at 21st Street, north tthrough Pugnatti park, through the area beneath the new History Museum, around Union Station, across Pacific Avenue and back toward its starting place. It was shot using a Hi8 camera and focused competely on inner-city weeds, trees, flowers while taking pains to avoid hyperdermic needles, refuse and, at one point, interruption by a heroin addict. Captured within a two hour period, the unedited piece is aided by weather which changes from sunny and windy, to overcast and still, to a sudden windy downpour, to a wet, still, and sunny conclusion. The video cycles every 18 minutes and was taken in May of 1993 without any idea that this exhibit would one day occur. 2. Monochrome videos: Consist of interviews of Northern Pacific telegraphers, dispatchers, car men, secretaries, accountants, and train masters (twelve in all) who worked at Tacomas Union Station between 1930 and 1960. The video cycles every two hours. Those interviewed include Tom Frederickson, Bud Emmons, Dick Leary, Hank Burke, Pat Almquist, Ed Overly, George Stephenson, Ed Anderson, Chuck and Anabell Stillman, Don Shane and Duke Tone. This portion of the exhibit was supported in part by a Special Project Grant from the City of Tacoma Cultural Resource Division. 3. Sculptural Instruments: Includes four pendulum-based instruments: a Jiggerling (by the color monitor), a Tooned Penduling (back left), a Double Stringed Pendulyre (by the green monochrome monitor), and a Tooned Penduling (front left). The small wooden pendulums in each instrument are driven by four speaker-pumps which carry subaudio frequencies pulsing between 1 beat every 29 to 36 seconds, to 15 pulses every second. Each speaker-pump is controlled by a separate oscillator (16 in all) with a unique phase duration lasting, again, between 29 and 36 seconds. The string and metallic sounds are amplified by piezo contact microphones.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com Sound and Video 1996 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2157 images/works/Senn-1996-resite.gif reSite The instruments consist of 2 tuned pendulings, a tuned pendulyre, and a linglyre. The pendulums for each is driven by 4 speaker-pumps carrying subaudio frequencies. Each monochrome monitor is paired with an instrument and carries the stories of 9 people recounting life and work at an isolated limestone cave and dance hall called The Catacombs of Yucatan in the 1930s. The videos are intermittent, fade to white (also acting as a light source) and contrast the pitched and unpitched clatter of the instruments. The cluster of color videos consists of a 27-inch monitor on the bottom and two 13-inch monitors on top which are turned on axis and simultaneously broadcast the same percussive video.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com 4 pendulum instruments, 4 monochrome videos, and a 3-cluster of color video monitors 1996 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2158 images/works/Senn-1995-CatacombsofYacatan.gif Catacombs of Yucatan Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com Sound and Video 1995 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2159 images/works/Senn-1994-pitching.gif Pitching Pennies Through Glass Transparencies carry message Pitching Pennies Through Glass with one word is printed on each clear speaker diaphram panel. Transparencies used as speaker diaphram for piezo elements broadcasting the processed sound of 16p nails striking concrete. Continuously running video consists of closeup of 16p nails striking concrete. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com Constructed from rusted wire mesh, 16p nails, concrete pad, green monochrome monitor, piezo speaker elements, video tape and pine dowel frame with transparencies stretch within. 1994 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2160 images/works/Senn-1994-photospeakers.gif Photo Speakers Constructed from photoscans of a childs face pressed against glass, rusted wire mesh, pine dowels, pvc and piezo speakers. Photoscans act as diaphram f or piezo elements attached from behind playing one of two channels from a video playback unit. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com - 1994 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2161 images/works/Senn-1992-scrapercussion9.gif Scrapercussion #9 Resonant scrap attached to a water-filled oil tank. Contact speakers are located beneath tank to effect feedback circuits. Instrument is struck or bowed, but used primarily as a feedback source. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com 1992 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2162 images/works/Senn-1999-tulips.gif Tulips Amidst Too Lips Too Lips small sculptural fluttering instruments, surround a continuous video of spring tulips blowing in an inner-city Tacoma park. Oscillating fan slightly blows the Too Lip tops which may be played by gallery patrons. Pre-recorded accompaniment from Dan Senns The Catacombs of Yucatan, the Hands Off Coursing track (Periplum Records, 1998).Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com 1999 USA 121 Dan Senn 1953 2163 images/works/Senn-1994-Plate.gif Plate Tech Tonics Wind blown pendulums (wooden dowels with sails) are located on strings above piezos. Oscillating fans are activated by patrons pressing switches at along installation base board. Switches at base activate feedback circuits and pendulum beating. Oscillating fans pointed at silver platters cause weight of resonator to shift affecting instrument resonance.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.newsense-intermedium.com 1994 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2165 images/works/Osbourne-2001-flying.jpg Flying Machines Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Steel, speakers, motors, custom electronics (dimensions variable), 2001 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2180 images/works/Osbourne-2001-vanishing.jpg Vanishing Point Vanishing Point is a site-specific sound installation and made for the windows of the main space of the Berkeley Art Museum. It is in part a response to Robert Irwins Untitled (1969), which is part of the Museums permanent collection. Irwins piece is one of a series of disc paintings that he produced in answer to the self-posed question, How do I paint a painting that doesn t begin and end at the edge? The painting articulates a limnal state in which its contours appear always in flux. Using that piece as a point of reference, Vanishing Point uses sound in the space of the Museum windows to articulate similar terrain — one in which the beginning and end points of audio events are unclear and one in which sounds hover though a series of intermediary states. The audio content of the pieces is a series of chords and pitch relationships derived from the measurements of the windows. The chords drift from one into another via slow arcing glissandi. This transformation takes place over the course of several minutes, so that the gradually shifting states between the two chords can be heard in an extended manner. The sound in each of these transformations fades in just after the glissandi have started and fade out just before the pitches for the target chord are reached. Thus the actual chords that articulate the space of the piece are themselves not heard, but their presence is clearly implied. Built from plain sine tones, the chords are hard to localize in space and their physical source appears to shift depending on the location of the listener. These sounds are played through special drivers attached to the windows so that the glass panes of the windows themselves function as speakers. This allows the piece to be heard both inside and outside the building as it turns the architectural space into a sounding body that acoustically articulates its own vanishing point between interior and exterior. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Ten-channel sound installation. Compact disks, CD players, amplifiers, speaker drivers (dimensions variable), 2001 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2184 images/works/Osbourne-1999-silhouette.jpg Silhouette In Silhouette the motion of visitors is sensed and turned into sound. Using a form of ultrasonic radar, the piece produces a sound that is a direct audio analogue to the physical movement that occurs within the scope of the radar. There are several zones of activity, and each has its own sonic signature - a result of digital filtering applied to the signal generated by the movement of the visitor. As a visitor moves through the piece these zones reveal themselves, and the aural topography of the piece emerges with continued interaction. Silhouette serves as an acoustic mirror to and an articulation of the living presence everyday motion.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound (10 x 10 x 10 ft.). 1999 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2185 images/spacer.jpg Pretty Natal In Pretty Natal, a baby monitoring system used to alert parents to the sounds of an unhappy toddler is altered to broadcast sounds of cultural discontent: riots, protest speeches, aggressive music, and so on. The title refers to the 1977 hit song by those four London lads who spawned audio and fashion distress to both sides of the Atlantic that served as a wake-up call to (wannabe) anarchists everywhere.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Baby monitor, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions: 12 x 3 1/2 x 2. 1999 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2187 images/works/Osbourne-1996-redlens.jpg Red Lens In Red Lens, movement in the vicinity of the piece is sensed, turned into sound, and enhanced in a pleasing and indifferent manner. Creating a space which encourages interaction between participants as much as it does between participants and the electronics, the piece trades in the fact that humans are captivated by their own image when represented (however badly) in technological systems. Taking its title from the rose-colored glasses which provide the wearer with a deceptively cheery outlook, Red Lens provides an audio radar image of the participants themselves to produce an x-ray spectacle for the ears.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound (dimensions variable). 1996 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2188 images/works/Osbourne-1995-lastcall.jpg Last Call A sail is constructed from metal wire strung diagonally between a vertical wooden mast and an anchor point on the floor. A motion detection system is used to turn the movement of visitors into sound signals, and these signals are used to resonate the wire sail. The sail in turn functions to filter the sound signals generated by visitors to the piece, and these signals are broadcast through a speaker attached to another mast placed at a distance from the sail. When a visitor is near the sail, they can hear the filtered sound of their motion calling to them from across the room; as they move towards the speaker, the sound of their image fades away. Based in part to the mythological story of Odysseus encounter with the Sirens, Last Call refers both to the promise of desire and the desire of promise. The sail, with its historical associations of exploration, exploitation, and a sense of endless frontier that today is no longer with us, serves both as an allegory for a time when an open horizon was a promise of material, spiritual, and cultural riches, and as a reminder of the many costs which those types of promises bore out. Here the sail is filled with sound instead of wind, thus turning it into a great harp and pairing the image of the Sirens lyres with the energies that push at the sail. However, the real driving force of the piece is found in the sonic image of the visitor. This image, always calling and perpetually out of reach, presents the visitor with a shimmering, unattainable picture of him- or herself. Last Call posits this desire derived from the promise of an idealized self as a permanent condition, one that relentlessly informs and directs human behavior at all social levels from the individual to the nationwide. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound (dimensions variable). 1995 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2189 images/works/Osbourne-1995-groundswell.jpg Groundswell In this installation pieces of clothing are hung from support lines wired for sound. Shifting air currents buffet the garments, and their movements tug on the lines to produce an uneasy chorus of groans and cracks which emanate from a pair of audio speakers attached to panes of glass in a set of street-level windows. To best hear the piece, a visitor must lean their head against the window, thus enacting a combination of the terms ear to the ground and nose to the glass. Situated in a building now closed to the public due to earthquake risk, the piece overlooks San Franciscos Civic Center Plaza, a campground for transients bordered by government buildings. Within these site conditions of geologic peril and social neglect, the piece refers to the twin hazards of public opinion and seismic activity in a three-strikes, fault-lined California. An allegory for natural and human-made tempests, Groundswell is an articulation of public and private consciousness in the face of forces over which we have no control.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions variable. 1995 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2190 images/works/Osbourne-1995-fence.jpg Fence Sitters Fence Sitters is an installation built specifically for the Victoria Room, a gallery located in the heart of San Franciscos Wine District. In it, a set of contact microphones and audio speakers are placed on the inside of the large frosted windows at the front of the gallery. The microphones pick up sounds both in and outside of the gallery, and these sounds are amplified through the speakers. As the microphones produce a very specialized and somewhat oblique signal, the acoustic image they provide matches the translucence and opacity of the visual image of the windows themselves. The piece mirrors the somewhat uneasy relationship between the gallery and the local population by serving as a surveillance system that both obscures more than it reveals and offers better listening to those inside the gallery than out.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions variable. 1995 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2192 images/works/Osbourne-1994-blind.jpg Blindfield In this installation, a set of pivoting-head fans are connected by thin wires to contact microphones which amplify the vibrations of both the wires and the fans. Some of the fans have their blades removed and are replaced by audio speakers which broadcast the signals from the contact microphones. As the fans pivot, they cause the tension on the wires to vary, which is heard as a slowly rising and falling collection of tones. This provides an aural image of the shifting stresses on the physical system of the piece. The title, a combination of the words blindfold and minefield, is an allusion to a loss of vision and the subsequent need to watch ones step. An allegory for the process of large- and small-scale group social dynamics, Blindfield refers to the complex and often uneasy ways human communities are balanced and maintained.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions variable. 1994 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2766 images/spacer.jpg One Thousand Cycles - 1981 USA audio/Marclay-records-1000_cycles-1981.mp3 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2293 images/works/Barsotti-2002-werner.jpg Werner Man shoveling debris: Lerner Building, Chicago, Illinois, 1993. - 2002 USA audio/Barsotti-2002-werner.mp3 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2292 images/works/Barsotti-2003-say.jpg Say tin-tah-pee-mick Say tin-tah-pee-mick is my debut solo release. it consists of two pieces that were created through a series of studio setups using my own field recordings, pre-existing recordings that I made of various objects such as a can opener, a radiator and an old squeaking chair, tidbits of recordings that I generated collaboratively with other artists in Chicago, (Olivia Block and Tod Szeczyk), bits from “the cutting room floor” from my many sessions at Chicago’s Experimental Sound Studio as a recording engineer, and a series of objects and materials that I brought into the studio with me, including parts of my own invented instruments. - 2003 USA audio/Barsotti-2003-backporch.mp3 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2294 images/spacer.jpg Box16 - 2003 USA audio/Barsotti-2003-box16.mp3 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2295 images/works/Barsotti-2003-trainyard.jpg Trainyard presence Presence in Magnolia train yard. - 2003 USA audio/Barsotti-2003-trainyard.mp3 130 Morton Feldman 1926 2418 images/spacer.jpg Give My Regards To Eighth Street - 1968 USA audio/Feldman-1968-Give_My_Regards_To_Eighth_Street-Text.mp3 130 Morton Feldman 1926 2419 images/spacer.jpg Voices and Cello - 1973 USA audio/Feldman-1973-VoicesAndCello.mp3 94 John Hudak 1958 2425 images/spacer.jpg Rabbit2 - 2003 USA audio/Hudak-2003-rabbit2.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2767 images/spacer.jpg 1930 - 1985 USA audio/Marclay-1930-1985.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2765 images/spacer.jpg Jukebox Capriccio - 1985 USA audio/Marclay-jukebox_capriccio-1985.mp3 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2768 images/spacer.jpg Night Music - 1989 USA audio/Marclay-night_music-1989.mp3 139 Keiko Uenishi 1976 2437 images/spacer.jpg during the brief twilight - 2003 USA audio/oblaat-2003-during_the_brief_twilight.mp3 92 Gregory Whitehead 1947 2320 images/spacer.jpg Fun things to do with Silly Words - 2004 USA audio/whitehead-2004-funthingstodowith_sillywords.wav 80 Karlheinz Essl 1960 2342 images/spacer.jpg fLOW fLOW is a site-specific work-in-progress that was started under ever-changing titles in October 1998. The entire project is carried out in numerous steps and takes place in various location with changing musicians from different fields like New Music, experimental jazz, free improvisation and New Electronic Music. The project is based on a sound scape that is generated in realtime by a computer program written in MSP which runs on Apple Macintosh G3 machines. It fills the space with flooding sounds that resemble - metaphorically - the timbres of water, fire, earth, and air. This ambient sound scape generator has been released as a shareware Macintosh computer program which can be downloaded from the net. For each performance, the sound scape is interpreted and commented by live-musicians. Each realisation is developed for the specific place and takes into account its individual socio-cultural context. Besides music and sound, a realisation can also include light installations, film projections, performance aspects, elaborated time scores and computer-generated Playing Strategies. Integral part of each performance is the m@ze°2 (Modular Algorithmic Zound Environment), a computer-based Realtime Composition and Improvisation Environment developed by Karlheinz Essl since 1996 which the composer plays himself on an Apple PowerBook computer.Accessed 10.12.06 from http://www.essl.at - 1998 USA audio/essl-flow_1(NB-loop_with_flow2).mp3 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2416 images/spacer.jpg B.B. Finally Dreams About Life, B.B.s You Play It - 1962 USA audio/Higgins-1962-FinallyDreams.mp3 23 John Oswald 1953 2438 images/spacer.jpg Kissing Jesus In The Dark - 1980 USA audio/Oswald-John_Kissing-Jesus-In-The-Dark_01.mp3 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2454 images/spacer.jpg Lee Ranado and Christian Marclay - 2004 USA audio/SY-xxxx-Lee_RanaldoandChristian_Marclay-001.mp3 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2396 images/works/SY-1999-el-oido.jpg El Oido (The Ear) You Are Everywhere and Nowhere, All at Once: The sounds of forgotten conversations, voices of loved ones, talks delivered via wire, crosscut with various tone poems (music(s)), with the hope of formulating new dream theories. You are listening to a conversation that took place in Heaven, some time ago. The voices of: Charles Bukowski Raymond Carver George Cowdery Thom DeJesu Kim Gordon Courtney Love Thurston Moore Cody Ranaldo Lee Ranaldo Leah Singer Sounds by: Kim Gordon Takehisa Kosugi Thurston Moore Jim O’Rourke Lee Ranaldo Steve Shelley William Winant This work grows out of recent installation works I have been creating (NYC, Copenhagen) dealing with repeated phrases of both voice and sound, the silences between them, and the crosspolinations which occur as they are juxtaposed in different combinations. The voices are those of friends, family, loved ones or other artists, and although chosen for personal reasons my hope is that the various voices will overlay to create a new narrative of their own. The sound sources are all taken from recent musical projects I have been involved in, and here again the hope is that by juxtaposing various moods or textures (randomly) against each other new moods will evolve. “El Oido” consists of 4 separate 6-minute loops, which spin against each other in stereo pairs—each pair is fixed but the relation between the two pairs slowly randomized over time due to slight differences in the length of each tape. So combinations are ever changing as the two tapes go slowly more out of synch with each other. I have found in daily life that the interactions of many varied sources—books/films/dreams/conversations/events/magazines/etc—cross to create new paths of information. “The Ear” is a New Information Generator - 1999 USA audio/SY-2000_Lee_Ranaldo_El_Oido.mp3 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2547 images/spacer.jpg Shout - 2006 USA audio/Dockstader-2006-Shout.wav 151 George Maciunas 1931 2672 images/spacer.jpg Radio Interview - 1977 USA audio/Maciunas-1977-interview002.wav 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2400 images/works/SY-1987-ciccone.jpg Ciccone Youth - 1987 USA audio/Sonic_Youth(Ciccone)-Addicted_to_Love.wav 76 La Monte Young 1935 2579 images/works/Young-1969-driftstudy.jpg Drift Study NOTES ON THE CONTINUOUS PERIODIC COMPOSITE SOUND WAVEFORM ENVIRONMENT REALIZATIONS OF MAP OF 49S DREAM THE TWO SYSTEMS OF ELEVEN SETS OF GALACTIC INTERVALS ORNAMENTAL LIGHTYEARS TRACERY BY LA MONTE YOUNG MAP OF 49S DREAM THE TWO SYSTEMS OF ELEVEN SETS OF GALACTIC INTERVALS ORNAMENTAL LIGHTYEARS TRACERY consists of a total environmental set of frequency structures of sound and light-a collaboration of my work with light projections and designs created by Marian Zazeela. Although the work is a section of THE TORTOISE, HIS DREAMS AND JOURNEYS it is different from the previous sections and will have its own subsections, each of which will receive an individual title. A major difference is that all work on this section has taken place since I began to write 2-3PM 12XI 663:43AM 28 X11 66 FOR JOHN CAGE FROM VERTICAL HEARING OR HEARING IN THE PRESENT TENSE which I have since revised under the title THE TWO SYSTEMS OF ELEVEN CA TEGORIES 1:07:40 AM 3 X 67—. I have concentrated primarily on selected intervals from categories Al, 131, and A2, B2, X=5 from the latter work. THE TWO SYSTEMS OF ELEVEN CATEGORIES applies to sets of concurrent generating frequencies which are integral multiples of a common fundamental and outlines a means for achieving graduated degrees of control over which frequencies will be present within a complex of such concurrent generating frequencies and their associated combination frequencies. Generating frequencies are defined to he the prime, or zeroth order; combination frequencies from which all higher order combination frequencies are derived. The nth order (N 0) combination frequencies are defined to be the sum and difference frequencies produced by all lower order combination frequencies. This control is achieved by categorizing sets of concurrent generating frequencies according to the specific generating and combination frequencies to be excluded. Consider the premise that in determining the relationship of two or more frequencies the brain can best analyze information of a periodic nature. Since chords in which any pair of frequency components must he represented by some irrational fraction (such as those required for any system of equal temperament) produce composite sound waveforms that are infinitely non-repeating, only an infinite number of lifetimes of listening could possibly yield the precise analysis of the intervallic relationship. Consequently the human auditory mechanism could be best expected to analyse the intervallic relationships between the frequency components of chords in which every pair of components can be represented by some rational fraction, since only these harmonically related frequencies produce periodic composite sound waveforms. As sources for the frequency environments I have selected sine waves since they have only one frequency component. These are produced by frequency generators tuned both by ear and with an oscilloscope which continuously displays the generator frequency ratios with lissajous and intensity modulated ring patterns. Most recently I have been using a Moog Synthesizer with ultra-stable variable frequency sine wave oscillators designed for my work. To my knowledge there have been no previous studies of the long-term effects of continuous periodic composite sound waveforms on people. (long-term is defined to be longer than a few hours in this case.) My past work in music with sounds of long duration slowly led in this direction until it became possible for me to develop a situation allowing the study of truly continuous sounds by establishing continuous frequency environments with electronic instruments. I have maintained an environment of constant periodic sound waveforms at my studio and home continuously since September 1966. The only exceptions have been that I sometimes, but not always, turn off the equipment when no one will be in the environment at all, and when listening to other music. Also, I sometimes turn it off to test the acoustical situation for spurious (incidental) sounds, and to study the contrasts of such extended periods of sound with periods of silence. The sets of frequency ratios listened to are often played continuously 24 hours a day for several weeks or months. Marian Zazeela and I have worked and lived in this environment, and varied groups of people have been invited to listen and report their reactions to the frequencies. Although in 1957 I was originally drawn to work with sounds of long duration by intuition alone, my work of this nature has led to the formulation of three principles which suggest further study: 1. Tuning is a function of time. Since tuning an interval establishes the relationship of two frequencies in time, the degree of precision is proportional to the duration of the analysis, i.e. to the duration of tuning. Therefore, it is necessary to sustain the frequencies for longer periods if higher standards of precision are to be achieved. The fact that this information is not generally known to musicians may be one reason that only a few examples of pitches of long duration such as organum, pedal point, and the drone are to be found in music. On the other hand, astronomers have known for some time that if a measurement or comparison is to be made of two orbits which involve many years of time, the degree of precision of the measurement will be proportional to the duration for which the measurement is made. (1) 2. Consider the possibility that the number of complete cycles of a periodic composite waveform is a primary factor in recognizing an interval and/or in determining the degree of precision in tuning once the interval has been recognized. If this were the case, ratios comprised of lower frequencies (such as 52.5 Hz: 30 Hz=7:4) would have to be sustained for longer periods of time than the identical ratios comprised of higher frequencies (such as 840 Hz:480 Hz=7:4), in order to produce an equivalent number of complete cycles of their periodic composite waveforms. 3. In the tradition of modal music, a fixed tonic is continued as a drone or frequently repeated, and a limited set of frequencies with intervallic relationships established in reference to the tonic is repeated in various melodic permutations throughout a performance in a particular mode. Generally, a specific mood or psychological state is attributed to each of the modes. The place theory of pitch identification postulates that each time the same frequency is repeated it is received at the same fixed place on the basilar membrane and transmitted to the same fixed point in the cerebral cortex presumably by the same fiber or neuron of the auditory nerve. The volley theory of pitch perception assumes that a sequence of electrical impulses is sent traveling along specified neurons of the auditory nerve. For frequencies up to about 2000 Hz only, these produce a more or less complete reproduction of the frequency of the vibratory motion of the basilar membrane in the case of a single sine wave and a more or less distorted reproduction of the complete waveform for more complex signals. It is presumed that this reproduction will he best for sounds at lower frequencies and less good for higher frequencies since an individual neuron cannot fire faster than 300 Hz. At lower frequencies a group of neurons working together would be able to supply several pulses per cycle whereas at higher frequencies they could only supply one every several cycles. The assumptions of place theory and volley theory suggest that when a specific set of harmonically related fre quencies is continuous, as is often the case in my music, it could more definitively produce (or simulate) a psychological state that may be re ported by the listener since the set of harmonically related frequencies will continuously trigger a specific set of the auditory neurons which in turn will continuously perform the same operation of transmitting a periodic pattern of impulses to the corresponding set of fixed points in the cerebral cortex. When these states are sustained over longer periods of time they may provide greater opportunity to define the psychological characteristics of the ratios of the frequencies to each other. (2) (1) A notable example of the application of principles 1 and 3 is the classical music of India which has nearly always included a sustained drone and has evolved and actually practices the most highly developed system of modal scales and moods related to modes in the history of music. (2) Ibid. Copyright © La Monte Young, 1969 From Aspen Magazone No. 8. Accessed 12.04.2007 from http://www.ubu.com/aspen/aspen8/waveform.html - 1969 USA audio/Young-drift_study.wav 167 Camille Norment 1974 3159 images/works/Norment-2001-notesUndermind.jpg Notes from the Undermind In this work, the visitor is invited to enter a padded cell as a hidden space of the social unconscious, located in what was usually an unused, hollow shell of the museum. Mounted throughout the space are stainless steel poles reminiscent of dancing poles for strippers, those lining the aisles of subway cars, and the bars of prison cells. Each pole subtly rings at a different pitch as they vibrate at their resonant frequency, allowing the voice of the material itself to be present in the space. The tones of the subtle harmonic choir change as poles are touched by visitors, stopping the poles from resonating. The dissonant ringing is symptomatic of a psychosis - a collapse of seduction and repulsion further complicated by the other elements in the work. The walls, ceiling, and floor are covered with material which, functionally has a sound dampening and sound distorting effect, and aesthetically serves to further fetishize the space. As visitors speak, the acoustic distortion of their voices blends subtly, yet harmonically with the ringing of the poles, creating an audible effect that is both eerie and seductive. This seductive play is enhanced by each visitors physical navigation through and around the poles in the sexualized space. Through the simplicity of natural interaction - walking, talking, listening - visitors experience their physical presence in the space. The body itself becomes a fetishized component of the environment, as well as an activator of the work. The vertical poles were chosen as structural objects because of their sonic quality as well as their physical attraction — people instinctively find themselves grabbing a hold and discover that in doing so they alter the harmonics of the subtle sonic environment. An everyday and unconscious act of the body is utilized as a performance mechanism. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html dimensions variable 2001 USA audio/Norment-2001-notesUndermind.wav 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2808 images/spacer.jpg Ground Creeper Variations People stroll over linear pavement patterns, along planters, water pools, and loudspeakers; they walk past trees, shrubs, and flowers, and sit among benches. The physical and social space of the Fulton Mall walkway in Downtown Fresno, designed by landscape architect Garrett Eckbo and the planning firm Victor Gruen and Associates in the early 1960s, presents a rich fabric for site-specific art projects. As part of the Fresno Metropolitan Museums Off-Site series, sound artist Ed Osborn transformed the architectural space of the Fulton Mall walkway into four sound compositions, which were broadcast over the loudspeakers located throughout the mall. Osborn based the underlying structure of the compositions on a set of architectural plans created for the original design of the Fulton Mall. Using a computer program, which transforms visual structures, shapes and lines into electronic sound, Osborn read the plans like a musical score. The linear pavement patterns, for example, translated into elongated and steady tones, whereas the clusters of planters unfolded as a series of pulsating sounds. Osborn built the four sound variations upon the same structural framework, but selected different parts of the walkway for each composition; he ordered them into specific sequences, chose the various overlay of data, and altered elements such as pace, pitch, and pulse, thus creating four distinctive sound interpretations. In addition, Osborn invited artists Frank Delgado and Kenneth Froelich from Fresno, and Tara Rodgers from Oakland to each create a remix of his work. The resulting compositions explored the richness of various individual responses to Osborns conceptual strategies and sound work. Ground Creeper Variations - the title of the sound compositions - plays off the name of a vine called the Trumpet Creeper, one of the plants originally intended for the walkway. The vine creeping along a surface implies the careful scanning and reading of the ground patterns. It also refers to the flowing pattern of pavement lines, water pools, and movement of people through the walkway. Osborns sound pieces and the remixes were broadcast over 39 speakers located throughout the six blocks of Fulton Mall expanding from Tuolumne to Inyo Street. Ground Creeper Variations not only derived its composition from the physical space of the walkway, but also created and becomes part of its spatial environment. Pedestrians walking through Fulton Mall had the opportunity to experience the sounds of Ground Creeper Variations inhabiting its physical space. Accessed 24.04.2007 from http://www.fresnomet.org/exhibition/off_site_ed_osborn_ground_creeper_variations - 2006 USA audio/osborn-2006-groundcreeper-gcv1_final.wav 167 Camille Norment 1974 3160 images/spacer.jpg Kansas Adapted from live performance recording in San Francisco for artists radio noir experimental audio narrative series. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 2003 USA audio/Norment-2003-kansas(radio).wav 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 3028 images/spacer.jpg Time Perspectives. There were no electronic music studios available to me at the time. My friend Ramon Sender Barayon started a studio in the attic at the San Francisco Conservatory of Music. I made my piece at home using only the tape recorder at seven-and-a-half and three-and-three-quarters ips plus a special feature that allowed me to hand wind the tape in record mode so that I had manual variable speed.2 I discovered this feature through experimentation, as it was not a documented use of the machine. I was improvising with sounds and with the uses of the recorder. I imagined how an improvised passage recorded at high speed would sound at low speed and vice versa. Thus my real-time improvisation added a new layer that involved projecting future modification and manipulation of the tape recorder as an instrument. Since I had no other electronic equipment I recorded through cardboard tubes for filters, put the microphone in the bathtub for reverberation and amplified small vibrating objects on an apple box with a contact microphone. The resulting four-channel piece was called Time Perspectives. The synch was done with two stereo tape recorders. (There were no four channel tape recorders at the time.) Ramon and I lined up the tape in the long halls of the San Francisco Conservatory to get the starting points. This piece is now forty-five years old. Accessed 01.07.2007 from http://quasar.lib.uoguelph.ca/index.php/csieci/article/view/9/32 - 1959 USA audio/oliveros-1959-timeperspectives.wav 183 Pamela Z 1956 3298 images/spacer.jpg Pop Titles You Pop Titles You is a found text piece for voice and three delay lines. The text is taken from an issue of the Phonolog Report, a reference publication that was found in record stores and listed the titles of available recordings and their composers and performers (until it was replaced by computers). This piece appears on the 1988 ZED recording, Echolocation, and was later used as one of the segments of the 1995 sound work and 1998 performance work Parts of Speech. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ (from Parts of Speech) Solo Voice and Electronics 1986 USA audio/Z-1986-PopTitlesYou.wav 183 Pamela Z 1956 3302 images/spacer.jpg Badagada The syllables ba-da-ga-da-ga-da-ga-da-ga are layered in a delay line to form a harmonic, rhythmic accompaniment to a melody sung in English. This song appears on the 1988 ZED recording, Echolocation. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ Solo Voice and Electronics 1988 USA audio/Z-1988-Badagada_Excerpt.wav 183 Pamela Z 1956 3297 images/spacer.jpg Bone Music This work for voice, electronics, and 5 gallon plastic water bottle layers a haunting, wordless melody and frenetic, processed chattering in an imaginary language over the polyrhythm of three boomy, percussive delay loops. This piece was originally intended for the Qube Chix’ Circle of Bone, but didn’t really belong in the piece and became a staple of Pamela Zs solo repertoire. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ Solo Voice , Found Percussion and Electronics 1992 USA audio/Z-1992-Bone_Music_Excerpt.wav 152 James Tenney 1934 2898 images/spacer.jpg Entrance/Exit Music. In collaboration with George Brecht. - 1962 USA audio/Brecht_+_Tenney_withMaciunas-Exit_(excerpt).wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2957 images/works/Partch-1954-Kithara_II.jpg Kithara Close to 6 feet high, to the top of the music rack; 3.5 feet across at the broad center; tapering in width from 9 inches at the bottom of the instrument proper to 4 inches at the tops of the two arms. They are arranged in twelve hexads, each containing four to six identities of a tonality. Pyrex rods (5/8 inch) stop the two outside hexads for higher chords and gliding tones or chords. The instrument belongs to the lyre type, hollow arms and base; it is an elaboration of the ancient Greek Kithara. The base acts as a resonator. The two large sides are 0.25 inch redwood ply; the seven soundboards (five of them not visible) are vertical-grain redwood. The 72 strings are guitar, tenor guitar, and banjo. Guitar tuning heads. 1954 USA audio/Partch-__kithara.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2947 images/works/Partch-1950-bass.jpg Bass Marimba 5 feet high (to the block level -- not including the music rack); 7.5 feet long. The longest block is 52 inches; the shortest 27 inches. The player stands on a riser 22 inches high. Eleven blocks ranging from the low cello C to the B-flat below middle C (approximately). Played with a variety of heavy and light mallets, bare hands (as in bongo drumming), felted sticks on the edges of the ends, and wire cream whippers. Resonators and frame are of redwood. The blocks are vertical-grain Sitka spruce, mounted on foam rubber. 1950 USA audio/Partch-_bass_marimba.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2948 images/works/Partch-1955-Boo.jpg The Boo (Bamboo Marimba) 6 feet broad at the floor, decreasing to 4 feet at the top; close to 4 feet high. 64 sections of bamboo, each with one closed end, and a tongue cut in the open end for the same natural frequency as its air column. A dry percussive sound, with one prominent inharmonic overtone. The range is approximately from the B-flat below middle C to the second F above. Played with felted sticks and small mallets on the edges of the tongues. The instrument is based upon experiments made by Bill Loughborough. Philippine bamboo, ranging from 4.25 to 2.75 inches outside diameter, mounted on foam rubber. The frame is of oak, and gum plywood. 1955 USA audio/Partch-_boo.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2950 images/works/Partch-1950-cloud.jpg Cloud Chamber Bowls The rack is 7 feet long, 6 feet high. From 10 to 12 tops and bottoms of 12-gallon Pyrex carboys (the bottoms are inverted). At the University of California Radiation Laboratory, at one time, centers were cut from such carboys for use in cloud-chamber experiments. Played on the edges with small soft mallets, also on the flat tops. The bowls give a bell-like tone, and each has at least one inharmonic overtone. When one of them breaks it is virtually impossible to find an exact duplicate. Redwood frame, glass carboys, rope. and funnels for suspension purposes. 1950 USA audio/Partch-_cloud_chamber.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2952 images/works/Partch-1946-diamond.jpg Diamond Marimba 40 inches high at the back, 33 at the front, 36 inches across the top. The 36 blocks are arranged in diagonal rows, so that one sweep of the mallet will sound an arpeggio-like chord. Strokes with the right hand are major; those with the left hand are minor (from top to bottom). The range is almost three octaves, beginning with the approximate C# above middle C. The blocks are Brazilian rosewood and Pernambuco, mounted on thin foam rubber; the resonators are Brazilian bamboo. 1946 USA audio/Partch-_diamond_marimba.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2956 images/works/Partch-1945-Harmonic.jpg Harmonic Canon I Harmonic Canon I has two planes of 44 strings each. The planes intersect near the middle of each string and thus the player may play on either plane or both at once. Also a moveable pyrex rod controls the pitch on some strings in one plane. The harmonic canons are both melody instruments and as providers of the harmonic underpinning, hence its name, canon, used in the sense of law. It is played with picks or fingers and is strikingly used in cascades of pitches. The base and rack are Plexiglas. The resonating box, including the thin soundboards, is redwoo 1945 USA audio/Partch-_harmonic_cannon_1.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2958 images/works/Partch-1951-Marimba_eroica.jpg Marimba Eroica The lowest gives an approximate F below the lowest piano A. Above this are (approximately) the lowest piano C, the lowest E, and the octave above the lowest A. The instrument is played with heavy padded mallets, and with hands in padded gloves. The resonators were designed and built by Bill Loughborough and Gerd Stern. Resonators are of five-ply 3/4-inch redwood veneer, with steel rods for holding the sides rigid. Three of the tone-producing planks are of vertical-grain Sitka spruce; one is vertical-grain redwood. 1951 USA audio/Partch-_marimba_eroica.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2961 images/works/Partch-1950-Spoils_of_war.jpg Spoils of War The single resonator is 5 feet high. The 27-inch Pernambuco block above the resonator gives an A, one octave above the pianos lowest A. The small redwood block in front gives an approximate C#, third above middle C. The seven brass artillery casings give a microtonal sequence from a flat C#, third above middle C, to the next D. The two cloud-chamber bowls are separated by about a semitone A -- A-flat. The whang-gun, on the left, is a piece of spring steel controlled by a pedal, and makes a whang sound. The raspador is also on the left. Played with a variety of mallets. - 1950 USA audio/Partch-_spoils_of_war.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2949 images/works/Partch-1953-Chromelodeon_II.jpg Chromelodeon A pedal-pumped reed organ with sub-bass, adapted to play all the chromatic pitches in Harry Partchs 43-tone per octave source scale. The instrument uses a standard piano keyboard, brightly painted to indicate harmonic relationships between the various pitches. Reeds are inserted for a 43-tone-to-the-octave scale. Thus, an acoustic octave covers that many keys and reeds, successively, and measures some three and a half keyboard octaves. The scale is in just intonation, and each tone is a frequency ratio to a fun 1953 USA audio/Partch-chromelodean.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2962 images/works/Partch-1953-Surrogate_kithara.jpg Surrogate Kithara Roughly a triangle, 40 by 40 by 36 inches. Each resonator is 36 by 5.5 by 4.5 inches, outside. The attached seat for the player is 14 inches above the floor, and the upper resonator 22.5 inches above.Each resonator has eight strings. The higher is composed of identities of a major tonality, the lower of identities of a minor tonality. As with the Kitharas, 0.5 inch glass rods stop the strings for higher tones and chords. Played with picks, fingers, mallets, and felted sticks. Redwood base, and redwood resonators except for thin vertical-grain Sitka spruce for soundboards. Mandolin tuning beads 1953 USA audio/Partch-surrogate_kithara.wav 153 Harry Partch 1901 2946 images/works/Partch-1930-viola.jpg Adapted Viola Partchs first instrument, 1930, the adapted viola is a viola with an elongated bridge making it a fifth lower than the viola and an octave below the violin. It is played like a small cello, held between the legs. The fingerboard is marked with brads to facilitate playing Partchs 43-tone scale. - 1930 USA audio/Partch-viola.wav 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2938 images/works/Barron-1956-planet.jpg Forbidden Planet We design and construct electronic circuits which function electronically in a manner remarkably similar to the way that lower life-forms function psychologically. [. . .]. In scoring Forbidden Planet – as in all of our work – we created individual cybernetics circuits for particular themes and leit motifs, rather than using standard sound generators. Actually, each circuit has a characteristic activity pattern as well as a voice. [. . .]. We were delighted to hear people tell us that the tonalities in Forbidden Planet remind them of what their dreams sound like. From the original album sleeve notes - 1956 USA audio/Barron-1956-Forbidden_Planet-Main_Titles.wav 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2291 images/works/Barsotti-2001-sonicabal.jpg Sonicabal 2 A cd compilation of Seattle based experimental musicians and sound artists. - 2001 USA audio/Barsotti-2001-sonicabal2.wav 145 Steve Barsotti 1970 2296 images/works/Barsotti-2006-rarebit.jpg Rarebit “Rarebit” is a highly original recording by artists Steve Barsotti and Eric Leonardson made with their inventive, self-built instruments. The instrumental music has an organic quality, sounding unlike any traditional Western instrument or music. Barsotti and Leonardsons sense of musical form arises from their deep attention to the individual essences of sounds, rather than the conventional grid of harmony and meter. The duos sensibilities are informed in part by their multi-arts education in sound, performance, and visual media, their openness to the aurality of the urban soundscape and many years of studio practice and live performance. What results is abstract sound composition that possesses a communicative style. - 2006 USA audio/Barsotti-2006-Rarebit-measuringwidths.wav 150 George Brecht 1924 2758 images/spacer.jpg Comb Music - 1959 USA audio/Brecht-1959-comb.wav 150 George Brecht 1924 2715 images/spacer.jpg Art by Telephone Shortly after its opening, the Museum of Contemporary Art planned an exhibition to record the trend, incipient then and pervasive today, toward conceptualization of art. This exhibition, scheduled for the spring of 1968 and abandoned because of technical difficulties, consisted of works in different media, conceived by artists in this country and Europe and executed in Chicago on their behalf. The telephone was designated the most fitting means of communication in relaying instructions to those entrusted with fabrication of the artists projects or enactment of their ideas. To heighten the challenge of a wholly verbal exchange, drawings, blueprints or written descriptions were avoided. -Jan van der Marck (covertext) Participating artists: Siah Armajani, Richard Artschwager, John Baldessari, Iain Baxter, Mel Bochner, Geoge Brecht, Jack Burnham, James Lee Byars, Robert H. Cumming, Francoise Dallegret, Jan Dibbets, John Giorno, Robert Grosvenor, Hans Haacke, Richard Hamilton, Dick Higgins, Davi Det Hompson, Robert Huot, Alani Jacquet, Ed Kienholz, Joseph Kosuth, Les Levine, Sol LeWitt, Robert Morris, Bruce Nauman, Claes Oldenburg, Dennis Oppenheim, Richard Serra, Robert Smithson, Guenther Uecker, Stan Van Der Beek, Bernar Venet, Frank Lincoln, Viner Wolf Vostell, William Wegman, William T. Wiley. Cover: b/w, gatefold, documentation-photo, texts about the artists and an introduction by Jan van der Marck. Design: Sherman Mutchnick. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.ubu.com/sound/art_by_telephone.html - 1969 USA audio/Brecht-Various-Artists_Art_By_Telephone_1969.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2219 images/works/Ultrared-1994-archive.jpg An Archive Of Silence Since 1994, Ultra-red has deployed recorded sound in the space of political reflection, analysis and action. What action is possible when no record exists? What politics arise from a record purloined, plagiarized or presented by proxy? Reflecting on their AIDS activism, Ultra-red present an archive of site recordings, bootleg remixes and silences.http://www.ultrared.org/ - 1994 USA audio/Ultrared-1994-an archive(extract).wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2228 images/works/Ultrared-2001-playlos.jpg Play Los Jornaleros del Norte In the increasingly esoteric world of electronic music, what is the relationship between the artist and the world she or he inhabits? More specifically, when considering the cosmopolitan milieu of electronic music with its pretensions to internationalism and cross-border performances, what is the relationship between the artist and the struggles of other forms of migratory labor? Beginning in 2001, the audio activist group Ultra-red asked these exact questions in the context of music and art festivals in Spain, Portugal, England, Germany and Ultra-reds home of Los Angeles. The music presented in these performances was the result of a series of encounters between Ultra-red and the musicians/organizers of Los Jornaleros del Norte. Los Jornaleros del Norte (translated, Day Laborers of the North) is comprised entirely of immigrant workers whose music represents migrant struggles for work and dignity in Los Angeles. Drawing on musical traditions of ranchero, cumbia and salsa, the songs of Los Jornaleros find resonance in the larger struggles against corporate-dominated globalization, border militarization, racism and for labor rights. For months in 2001, Ultra-red attended the rehearsals of Los Jornaleros listening for interesting sounds, stories and conversations. It is these moments that forms the basis of much of the music on the album. The tracks on Ultra-red Play Los Jornaleros del Norte mirror the range of musical influences of Los Jornaleros themselves. The track Aprende el Sombrero Rojo weaves between site recording and glitch-beat electronica. Mejor práctica offers a contemplative take on Norteña music, less Nortec than Minimalismo. Ritmo Armado imagines what Señor Coconut would sound like if he had a fondness for the revolutionary traditions of Guitarra Armada and Victor Jara. The album also features Ultra-reds trademark fondness for intricately composed soundscapes. Listen for a change. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2001 USA audio/UltraRed-2001-Jornaleros.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2226 images/works/Ultrared-2005-movement.jpg Movement for Airports Transistors Remixes From the album ULTRA-RED PLAY KANAK ATTAK, Movement for Airports takes sounds from a 2001 anti-deportation protest at Frankfurt Airport to craft an electro-house anthem. With its snarling bassline and crisp house riff, the track amplifies the rage of protestors demanding the release of migrants held by the German government and awaiting deportation to the countries from which they fled. In the summer of 2004, Ultra-red joined with members of the German anti-racist network Kanak Attak (www.kanak-attak.de) and musician Elliot Perkins for the Transistors Tour 2004. Beginning in Berlin, the Tour made its way through the Balkan region, stopping in Ljubljana, Zagreb and Sarajevo. These events were hosted by members organizations of the a.network (www.anetwork.org) The last stop, Belgrade, brought Ultra-red to the very place the German government deports up to 20,000 migrants a year as part of its repatriation agreement with Serbia. For the single release of Movement for Airports, Ultra-red solicited remixes from artists representing each of the countries visited during the Transistors Tour. Stylistically varied, the remixes show the sensibility of artists who have witnessed war, the criminalization of difference, and the constitution of social movements within the short span of a decade. In the context of migrant struggle, one remixer, Goran Simonoski of PoS, contemplates the incomplete project of trans-formation begun with Serbias pro-democracy movement: Revolution was the only way for us to stop dictatorship. God bless the revolution. The freedom of movement must be recognized as a fact of everyday life. Such freedom must be recognized for all people, from sex workers, to farm workers, families and lovers seeking reunion, Roma people, political refugees, and not just the sole right of privileged workers of the neoliberal order, like NGO workers, technical elites and cosmopolitan electronic musicians. The Movement for Airports remix EP is available for free download under fair-use guidelines at Ultra-reds PUBLIC RECORD web archive. Also included on the album is the original full-length version of the song, an exclusive Ultra-red remix and a radio-friendly single version. Selected with the help of Zagreb-based free digital publishing label EGOBOO.bits (www.egoboobits.net), the artists remixing Movement for Airports include Octex (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Jeanne Frémaux (Zagreb, Croatia), Vuneny (Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), PoS (Belgrade, Serbia-Montenegro), as well as Elliot Perkins and Ultra-red. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2005 USA audio/Ultrared-2005-movement.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2218 images/works/Ultrared-2006-encuentro.jpg Encuentro In April 2006, Ultra-red convened a daylong conference on the subject of militant sound investigation at the Los Angeles alternative art space, LACE. This contribution to Ultra-reds ongoing conversations on aesthetics and politics with fifty radical artists and community organizers features special Ultra-red megamixes by Eddie Peel of Sony Mao and Ultra-red.http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2006 USA audio/UltraRed-2006_Encuentro.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2226 images/works/Ultrared-2005-movement.jpg Movement for Airports Transistors Remixes From the album ULTRA-RED PLAY KANAK ATTAK, Movement for Airports takes sounds from a 2001 anti-deportation protest at Frankfurt Airport to craft an electro-house anthem. With its snarling bassline and crisp house riff, the track amplifies the rage of protestors demanding the release of migrants held by the German government and awaiting deportation to the countries from which they fled. In the summer of 2004, Ultra-red joined with members of the German anti-racist network Kanak Attak (www.kanak-attak.de) and musician Elliot Perkins for the Transistors Tour 2004. Beginning in Berlin, the Tour made its way through the Balkan region, stopping in Ljubljana, Zagreb and Sarajevo. These events were hosted by members organizations of the a.network (www.anetwork.org) The last stop, Belgrade, brought Ultra-red to the very place the German government deports up to 20,000 migrants a year as part of its repatriation agreement with Serbia. For the single release of Movement for Airports, Ultra-red solicited remixes from artists representing each of the countries visited during the Transistors Tour. Stylistically varied, the remixes show the sensibility of artists who have witnessed war, the criminalization of difference, and the constitution of social movements within the short span of a decade. In the context of migrant struggle, one remixer, Goran Simonoski of PoS, contemplates the incomplete project of trans-formation begun with Serbias pro-democracy movement: Revolution was the only way for us to stop dictatorship. God bless the revolution. The freedom of movement must be recognized as a fact of everyday life. Such freedom must be recognized for all people, from sex workers, to farm workers, families and lovers seeking reunion, Roma people, political refugees, and not just the sole right of privileged workers of the neoliberal order, like NGO workers, technical elites and cosmopolitan electronic musicians. The Movement for Airports remix EP is available for free download under fair-use guidelines at Ultra-reds PUBLIC RECORD web archive. Also included on the album is the original full-length version of the song, an exclusive Ultra-red remix and a radio-friendly single version. Selected with the help of Zagreb-based free digital publishing label EGOBOO.bits (www.egoboobits.net), the artists remixing Movement for Airports include Octex (Ljubljana, Slovenia), Jeanne Frémaux (Zagreb, Croatia), Vuneny (Mostar, Bosnia and Herzegovina), PoS (Belgrade, Serbia-Montenegro), as well as Elliot Perkins and Ultra-red. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2005 USA audio/Ultrared-2005-Airports.wav 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2229 images/works/Ultrared-2004-articles.jpg Articles of Incorporation forty tracks, each one-minute in length, are taken from digital tapes recorded over the ten years of the groups history. None of these tapes were ever used in Ultra-red projects and are heard here for the first time. Collected together like a collage of forgotten moments in history, the album reveals incredible gems from the groups past: An encounter with police during needle exchange, cruising for sex in dark alleys, protests small and massive, intimate gatherings in East LA, Frankfurt Germany and Dublin Ireland, and a visit to an AIDS hospice in India. These forty tracks become the source material for the second Public Record album, Sony Mao Play Ultra-red (Public Record No. 2.01.007). Also composed of forty tracks, Sony Maos album feeds upon the field recordings to imagine alternative routes both in sound and in action. Heroes of the granular-synthesis underground since 2000, Sony Mao investigate electro-acoustic chaos from the random interaction and layering of modules. The rhythmic and repetitious results have appeared on the release Trnsmssn.0014 for the Miami s Beta Bodega, as well as a full length release on the Mego-associated Fals.ch label titled, A Final Balance. Sony Mao have collaborated with Random Industries, Kim Cascone, Stephan Mathieu, Elliot Perkins aka Phonem, Lymph Ltd., Andreas Berthling, Oivind Idso, and Frank Metzger of Oval. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2004 USA audio/UltraRed-2004-Articles.wav 19 Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller 1957 2634 images/works/Cardiff-2001-telephone_call_1.jpg The Telephone Call This is the only time I’ve produced a second piece for a museum. The first one, the audio walk from 1997, used the structure of the building as a memory map. This one, a video walk, created a narrative that involved interactions with people in the space, but still used the architecture as a baseline. The basis of the narrative was about how our minds invent scenarios from chance meetings between people. The piece was largely about self-induced anxieties and how the fears we have change our perception of our world. hear woman in front of you talking about her fear of frogs. I can’t go into Chinatown even in case I see a store selling frog legs ... Janet Batrachophobia ... Frogs in my soup. Frogs in my bed, crawling up my legs. Frogs falling from the sky ... What am I afraid of ? the audio shifts to scary music as I say these things image shifts to an apartment, walking down a hallway. look through doorway and see a woman in a black slip on the bed. sound of cell phone rings beside you. sound of getting telephone out of bag. visuals go back to that of museum in front of you Janet Hello, Bernard What are you thinking about ? Janet Who is this ? Bernard What do you mean ? I’m sitting right beside you. Janet We have to go now. Point the camera where I’m pointing it. Synchronize your movements with mine. Stand up. Walk to the right. Follow this woman. Go behind the stairs. Now walk past her. Janet Cardiff ’s video walk, The Telephone Call, opened at the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art on March 1, 2001, as part of 010101, Art in Technological Times, an exhibition about the intersection of art and new technologies. The piece leads visitors through the museum on a meandering tour up the central staircase, taking them briefly into a nearby gallery, and then into a service stair normally off limits to visitors. Cardiff ’s voice muses on the people she is seeing and the overheard conversations and encounters around her. Layers of real and recorded sound overlap, creating a rich and ambiguous sense of space. A man calls. In the bleak service stairwell, the tour pauses and the camera goes black. Ominous footsteps approach from behind in the stairwell. Alone and convinced they’re in the wrong place, visitors wait, hearts racing. As one visitor put it, “I thought someone was going to kill me on the stairs. Brilliant.” The walk concludes with a stroll over the fifth floor bridge high above the museum’s atrium, closing with a view out to the west hills of San Francisco. Accessed 04.11.2008 from http://www.cardiffmiller.com/artworks/walks/telephonecall.html Digital Camcorder, Stereo Headphones, collaged sound 2001 USA audio/Cardiff_The_Telephone.wav 164 Gordon Monahan 1956 3035 images/spacer.jpg Piano Mechanics Accessed 02.07.2007 from http://www.gordonmonahan.com - 1981 USA audio/Monahan-PianoMechanics.wav 167 Camille Norment 1974 3155 images/works/Norment-2001-driftglass.jpg Driftglass One must be receptive to the image at the moment it appears. G. Bachelard The Poetics of Space Driftglass is a striking example of the transformation of everyday objects and behaviors into a new, elegantly intriguing experience. Enacting the image that has disappeared, for the transient body, it is a tease of presence defined through absent reflections and sonic feedback. In this work, the mirror is subverted as a place of self-reflection and creates a teasing act of disappearance. When approaching the mirror from an angle, a visitor simply notices a mirror, a surface reflecting people and the environment. It is only when viewing the mirror en face (and being caught in the sonic space of the mirror) that they uncannily see themselves as only a vague blur. Side by side, two or more persons will see clear reflections of each other while unable to see themselves clearly. The social environment becomes a substitution for the individual’s own diffused reflection. In this gaze, the other is an imago, an idealized image and projection of desire through which the body is redefined, creating an intriguing social interplay of the gaze. It offers “an exterior destiny to the interior being.” (ibid) To double the play on presence through sensor technology, Driftglass gives a sonic feedback emanating from the mirror itself; a hypnotic ‘ringing’ that intensifies for the lingering body that approaches the mirror in a vain attempt to catch a better glimpse of oneself. Referencing the shrill of microphone feedback, it is as if the body were the microphone and the mirror the speaker, and thus the body itself becomes a performer of the work. This sonic repulsion also serves to frustrate the desire to locate an individual identity, while confirming a cultural perception that seeks to refute the individual as separate from the environment itself. In this work, viewer is thus simultaneously affirmed and negated, existing and not existing like a ghost seeking a new shell. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 2001 USA audio/Norment-driftglassCapture_2.wav 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2414 images/spacer.jpg Piano Piece #13 (for Nam June Paik) by George Maciunas 1999 USA video/SY-2000-piano_piece.mpg 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2222 images/spacer.jpg Not A Matter Of If But When 3 With this third installment of NOT A MATTER OF IF BUT WHEN, The Speculative Archive present scattered images of a year living in Damascus, Syria. These five videos offer short and enigmatic encounters with some facts of daily life: coffee, dusk, breezes, the regime, someone else¹s regime, and recitation of a sura about the day of noise and clamour, or the calamity, Judgment day. The videos suggest the contours of everyday life shaped by a host of regimes. Also included in this collection of images is a fragment of an interview about predicting the future, which is sometimes confused with wishful thinking. The Speculative Archive produce video, publications, and installations that focus on the production of documents, their collection, circulation and reception, and their socio-political effects. The Archive use the word speculative as a qualifier to foreground the temporal complexities of archival and documentary practices. The Archive is not a physical site but a set of socio-political and cultural interventions in which documents, objects, and memories are taken up in ongoing struggles around historical meaning. The Archive is a collaboration of Los Angeles-based artists Julia Meltzer and David Thorne. For more info: www.speculativearchive.org. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2005 USA video/Ultrared-2005-notamatter.mpg 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3070 images/works/Monk-2001-Mercy.jpg Mercy Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 6 Performers, 2 Musicians 2001 USA video/Monk-2001-Mercy.mpg 183 Pamela Z 1956 3288 images/works/Z-2005-wunder.jpg Wunderkabinet Wunderkabinet is a one-act multi-media opera developed by composer/performer Pamela Z in collaboration with cellist/composer Matthew Brubeck and media artist Christina McPhee. Scored for voice and electronics, cello and electronics, and video, the piece is inspired by and based on the exhibits displayed at the enchanting and renowned Museum of Jurassic Technology in Los Angeles. Wunderkabinet premiered in September of 2005 with a two-week run at The LAB Gallery in San Francisco. The music of Wunderkabinet is performed by Pamela Z (voice and live electronic processing) and Matthew Brubeck (cello and electronics). The piece is performed in a multi-layered set (designed by Pamela Z) which constantly shifts and changes as it is bathed in Christina McFees projected images – evoking the dark yet radiant focus of the museums dioramas. The score (composed by Z and Brubeck) utilizes bowed and plucked strings, sampled found objects, and a wide range of vocal work ranging from operatic bel canto to experimental extended vocal techniques and spoken text. The libretto is derived from passages of actual descriptive texts from the Museum of Jurassic Technologys exhibitions and stories inspired by them. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ Voice and Electronics, Cello and Electronics, and multiple channels of Video 2005 USA video/Z-2005-Wundercabinet2.mpg 183 Pamela Z 1956 3288 images/works/Z-2005-wunder.jpg Wunderkabinet Wunderkabinet is a one-act multi-media opera developed by composer/performer Pamela Z in collaboration with cellist/composer Matthew Brubeck and media artist Christina McPhee. Scored for voice and electronics, cello and electronics, and video, the piece is inspired by and based on the exhibits displayed at the enchanting and renowned Museum of Jurassic Technology in Los Angeles. Wunderkabinet premiered in September of 2005 with a two-week run at The LAB Gallery in San Francisco. The music of Wunderkabinet is performed by Pamela Z (voice and live electronic processing) and Matthew Brubeck (cello and electronics). The piece is performed in a multi-layered set (designed by Pamela Z) which constantly shifts and changes as it is bathed in Christina McFees projected images – evoking the dark yet radiant focus of the museums dioramas. The score (composed by Z and Brubeck) utilizes bowed and plucked strings, sampled found objects, and a wide range of vocal work ranging from operatic bel canto to experimental extended vocal techniques and spoken text. The libretto is derived from passages of actual descriptive texts from the Museum of Jurassic Technologys exhibitions and stories inspired by them. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ Voice and Electronics, Cello and Electronics, and multiple channels of Video 2005 USA video/Z-2005-WunderCabinet.mpg 183 Pamela Z 1956 3287 images/spacer.jpg Metal/Vox/Water Metal/Vox/Water is an evening comprised of several of Pamela Z’s short solo works and some excerpts from her large-scale multi-media works, staged with a lighting design by Elaine Buckholtz, a sculptural element by Pamela Z, and a large projection of video by Pamela Z and her collaborators Jeanne Finley + John Muse. Ms. Z digitally processes her voice in real time to create layers of sound and triggers sampled sounds with the BodySynth™ MIDI controller. The evening takes it’s title from a segment in which she performs a “trio” with amplified strips of metal hung in the space and a video that samples metal, water, and voice. In another segment (an exceprt from Voci) she triggers samples of birdsong and morphs her own voice into a birdvoice. Other segments in Metal/Vox/Water are drawn from excerpts of her large-scale multi-media performance works (Parts of Speech and Gaijin) and presented alongside short concert works that have been her signature throughout her career as a composer/performer. Accessed 05.01.2008 from http://www.pamelaz.com/ Solo Voice and Electronics, and Video 2005 USA video/Z-2005-MetalVoiceWater.mpg 151 George Maciunas 1931 2770 images/spacer.jpg PIANO COMPOSITIONS (No.13) FOR NAM JUNE PAIK Composition no.1 let piano movers carry piano into the stage Composition no.2 tune the piano Composition no.3 paint with orange paint patterns over piano Composition no.4 with a straight stick the length of a keyboard sound all keys together Composition no.5 place a dog or cat (or both) inside the piano and play Chopin Composition no.6 stretch 3 higest strings with tuning key until they burst Composition no.7 place one piano on top of one another (one can be smaller) Composition no.8 place piano upside down and put a vase with flowers over the sound box Composition no.9 draw a picture of the piano so that the audience can see the picture Composition no.10 write piano composition no.10 and show to the audience the sign Composition no.11 wash the piano, wax and polish it well Composition no.12 let piano movers carry piano out of the stage Composition no.13 hammer all the keys on a piano down with nails - 1962 USA video/SY-2000-piano_piece.mpg 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2193 images/works/Osbourne-1992-attempting.jpg Attempting Ziggurats Attempting Ziggurats focuses on the diaspora aspect of the story of the Tower of Babel, and, in particular, its continuing reverberations in American culture. The breaking of tongues at the Tower of Babel and the subsequent scattering of the Babylonian people was the third great punishment to be sent down upon humans in the Old Testament (following the expulsion from the Garden of Eden and the Great Flood). Each of these punishments is more elaborate than the one preceding it; they mirror in complexity the growth of human society, culture, science, arts, and economics. The events at the Tower of Babel can be viewed as both the end of a common understanding and the origin of cultural difference. It can also be seen as a parable of warning of the consequences of ambition run amok. Many of these themes surface repeatedly in American culture and history. The installation itself consists of childrens wagons which carry gears, wheels, and audio speakers. The speakers broadcast the voices of immigrants and foreign visitors to the United States. They speak of their earliest memories, their experiences in the United States, and the things they would do if given the chance. They also speak about ideas of heaven. Occasionally audible are sounds of social and economic exchange, and radio transmissions from the Apollo missions to the moon. The recording played in a particular wagon is triggered on when a viewer approaches it; the viewer must frequently be in motion in order for the recordings to be heard at any length. In this way the piece allows audition and comprehension by encouraging a small enaction of diasporaradic movement among the viewers. In a prototypical American childhood, a wagon is one of the first vehicles that a child is allowed to operate. It is an initial taste of speed, enhanced physical power, and a possible elevation in social status; it is one of the first tools in a childs creation of self-defined environment. As such, the wagon serves well both to allude to the hope and ambition that drove the construction of the Tower of Babel and to the early point in the Biblical version of human history at which the events took place. The wheels and gears that the wagons hold are from larger and more powerful devices, a reference to both the limits of the wagons capacity and their lowly standing in a hierarchy of transport and mechanical ability. This comparison suggests the mismatch of the goal of the Tower builders to the technologies (if not the social structures) available to achieve it. American culture is based on an inverse principle of diaspora: America (in theory) welcomes all who arrive at its shores to make a better life for themselves by allowing an unfettered pursuit of an advancement in one s social, economic, or spiritual standing. While this promise has hardly been equal for all, it has resulted in a plethora of cultural groups living within the same country. It has often been the case that some of those groups have - if not literally speaking different languages - deep and continuing misunderstandings between them. This accumulation of cultural difference has been a part of American society for so long that one can describe it in Biblical terms as being forever held in noisy confusion upon the half-built Tower, the allure of a shiny new world obscured by the difficulties in getting everyone to cooperate in it. Attempting Ziggurats illuminates this state of affairs considering it not as a single point of diaspora, but as an ongoing condition of collective, diasporadic living. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions variable. 1992 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2194 images/works/Osbourne-2000-theground.jpg The Ground Breaks, The Sky Stops Built from sounds of seismic activity and recordings made on the coast of France during the total solar eclipse of August 11, 1999, The Ground Breaks, The Sky Stops is a sonic impression of geological and psychological realignment.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ composition and programming. 2000 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2195 images/works/Osbourne-1998-language.jpg Language Master A performance that is built around the ways that languages both spoken and electronic are commingled and transformed, Language Master is named after an arcane language instruction device that functions as the core instrument of the piece. The device is a kind of analog sampler that records and plays back snippets of audio from cards that have recording tape embossed onto them. The speed of the cards as they run through the machine can be manipulated as they move, resulting in an analog tape counterpoint to the scratching techniques of record djs. These manipulations can be heard as the constellation of beeps and tearing sounds that overlay the other audio material. The audio sources heard refer both to the absorption of words from one language to another and also to the development of the syntax of recorded audio from Marinetti to Lucier. This is extended to the digital realm by having the material run through an audio processing unit that has a constantly shifting delay time. Language Master functions as a cut-and-splice tape collage that leaves the stitches intact and audible.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 1998 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2196 images/works/Osbourne-1998-shuffle.jpg Shuffleboardwalking Though almost every sound has had a microphone pointed in its direction at one point or another, the interior monologue has gone as the principle unrecorded sound of the electronic age. While often depicted in literature, film, and other forms of narrative, its status as a sound sans external source prevents it from having a mechanical inscription the mediascape. In Shuffleboardwalking this absence is used as a launching point for several short audio meditations that attempt to emulate the condition of the interior monologue by creating personal stream-of-consciousness soundscapes. Over binaurally-recorded, real-time, audio-verite scenes are layered bits of spoken text, fragments of music, and occasional displaced sounds. A fabricated glimpse into the thoughts of another, Shuffleboardwalking offers a simulation of an audio mind.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 1998 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2199 images/works/Osbourne-1993-aslongas.jpg As Long As Blood Flows The piece takes as its text a partial listing of contents from What A Young Man Ought To Know, a tract written in 1897 as a guide to the perils of sexual activity of any sort. The listings here are from chapters 4, 5, and 6, all of which bear the same title: Evils To Be Shunned and Consequences To Be Dreaded. The text, which is spoken and gradually harmonized, is used as base over which a soprano soloist sings wordless melodies. Although the text can be seen as humorous due to its arcane language and strident morality, there is a striking resemblance between the tone of its discussion of venereal distresses and much of the current rhetoric surrounding the AIDS crisis. Nearly one hundred years after its writing, the text serves as a commentary on the deeply ingrained fear and willful ignorance that surrounds many discussions of the disease.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ duet for two voices with electronic processing 1993 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2200 images/works/Osbourne-1992-guitar.jpg Guitar Mechanical A piece in which pickups are picked up.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 1992 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2201 images/spacer.jpg There Goes Swifty There Goes Swifty is an audio tape piece that was constructed from sounds recorded at a greyhound track. While the sounds of the event were what initially drew me to it as potential material, the levels of perceptual and informational manipulation surrounding the races were what held my interest and informed the development of the piece. As a result, There Goes Swifty is more a study of temporal perception that uses these sounds as a tableau rather than a concerted portrait of the event itself.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Field recording, tape. 1990 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2202 images/spacer.jpg Ski-A-Delics The first and probably last all-ski musical ensemble ever to exist, the Ski-A-Delics were formed in Boston in during the depression of the late eighties and quickly became that regions signature sound of the time. The five members of the group, Greg Wildes, Jonathan Sahula, Patrick Donnelly, Laura Burns, and Ed Osborn each played a ski equipped with a single string. Though they had between them fewer strings than are found on an average guitar, the group quickly abandoned the idea of keeping them in tune yet still managed to use them to produce both rhythm and melody lines simultaneously. With their chaotic and often scarcely-memorable performances the group gained quite a following and performed internationally, yet recorded output is hard to find -- the clips here are some of the few in existence.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 1988 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2204 images/works/Osbourne-2004-skimmer.jpg Skimmer Skimmer shows a gradually slowing panorama of water interrupted by occasional flying stones. Over time the piece deforms the temporal and acoustic space of the simple physical activity of skipping stones into something both hypnotic and uncertain. The sounds heard in the piece, mostly footsteps moving back and forth in search of more stones to toss, are processed and layered so that a slowly expanding field of audio is built up over the course of the piece. They represent an oversized human presence, a sounding body that repeatedly disturbs the otherwise tranquil scene around it. They also articulate two kinds of space: the literal acoustic space of movement along the beach, and the slow undulating space of the water surface, its size unclear and rhythms hypnotic. The contrast between the two spaces is large, but it gradually fades into an intermediary state that is not fully physical and not entirely abstract to create a slow driftscape of liquid imagery and shifting sound.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 2004 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2209 images/works/Osbourne-2000-arena.jpg Arena A video work accompanied by a set of still images from it, Arena examines the space of speed and the rendering of human experience that speed leaves in its wake. Cleared, restricted, and highly scrutinized, the tarmac of the autodrome is a cathedral reserved for velocity. Like other spaces of ritualized combat, this place carries a strange charge even when not in use. Contained in these hyper-slow images of speed (and its counterpart - failure) is a rendering of physical space for machines occasionally ruptured by the emergence of bodies from within and around them. Highlighted here are two related themes. The first is a form of sacred space of the mechanical, a place defined as a geographic articulation of velocity. The second consists of the psychological conditions that inform the culture of such a place: the expectations of mechanical virtuosity, machismo, and heroism that are regularly undermined by misstep, accident, and simple defeat -- velocity and its aftermath. The blur of images refers not so much to the optical distortion that the pace of the vehicles renders upon a stationary observer, but rather to the kinesthetic mapping of desire onto these machines and what they represent. On a more visceral level, it refers to the urges both to be enthralled by spectacle and to be in the presence of overwhelming force. Though complicated to achieve, the essence of speed is a simplified and reduced condition in which everything either serves or opposes it. Shown here are both glimmers of speed made excruciatingly slow — the simple condition made visible — and the after effects of speed when that simple condition has been returned to the slower arena of the complex. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ - 2000 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2211 images/works/Osbourne-1998-walkway.jpg Walkway In Walkway, the movements of passerby under a sidewalk awning are sensed and turned into sound. Using a form of ultrasonic radar, an audio signal is produced that corresponds to the physical movement that occurs on the sidewalk. This audio signal is then processed using a slowly shifting set of harmonies based on The Girl From Ipanema and broadcast through speakers placed under the awning. Walkway creates a sounding arena occupied and articulated by pedestrians in which anyone can experience the momentary acoustic aura of being tall and tan and young and lovely.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Sensors, electronics, speakers, sound (dimensions variable). 1998 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2212 images/works/Osbourne-1994-Eichelbergers.jpg Sound Sign for Eichelbergers Restaurant Above the entrance to Eichelbergers Bar and Grill a speaker broadcasts sounds typically associated with bar and restaurant life: people conversing, food preparation, eating, drinking, and so on. The piece serves as a form of aural signage for the place: as both an identification mark and a lure, its function falls somewhere between that of an anthem and that of a siren song.Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Mixed media, custom electronics, sound. Dimensions variable. 1994 USA 134 Ed Osborn 1930 2213 images/works/Osbourne-1991-monkeys.jpg Even Monkeys Fall From Trees Even Monkeys Fall From Trees is an installation that consists of three confessional-type booths which have voices and other sounds of human activity emanating from them. Unlike actual confessionals there is no entry into the booths, so the listener must remain outside and in public view while listening to them. The voices heard from within the booths are of people who live or work near the location of the installation. They relate stories of everyday thoughts and experiences including earliest memories, morning routines, giving and getting advice, handling secrets, settling disputes, thoughts on their community, encounters with institutional or moral authorities, things lost and found, trust, and beliefs. The selection of subjects here is used to illustrate some of the personal mythologies that persons speaking carry with them, and to show some of the social links within the community where the installation occurs. The title is a Japanese colloquialism meaning everyone makes mistakes. This is both an acknowledgement of failure and an award of compassion. It is also a reference to the evolutionary ancestry of humans and to some of the endeavors that we have undertaken since abandoning our arboreal homes. Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.roving.net/ Wood structures, sound. Dimensions variable. 1991 USA 11 Philip Dadson 1952 2214 images/spacer.jpg The Archeology of Stones The Archeology of Stones focuses on the evocative and unique acoustic sound character of song-stones, as well as the mythologies surrounding them. Song-stones are collected from beach, river and lake locations for sonic properties. Dadson, a New Zealand composer, experimental instrument builder, and performer, has over the last 18 years collected song-stones and their accompanying stories from around the world. Phil Dadson is the founding member of the New Zealand percussion group From Scratch and the director of SoundCulture 97, New Zealand. - 1996 USA 108 Nigel Helyer 1952 2215 images/spacer.jpg Silent Forest an installation that links the the ecological voids caused by the use of dioxin defoliants in the Vietnam conflict with the high culture of Western opera. A co-founder of SoundCulture - 1996 USA 138 Ultra-Red 1994 2223 images/works/Ultrared-2006-silence.jpg A Silence Broken Ultra-reds online record label and archive, Public Record, release its first album for 2006, the compilation A SILENCE BROKEN. Contemplating the status of the historic partnership between queer artists and AIDS activism, Ultra-red assembled an all-star cast to come up with tracks based on a recording of protesters chanting Silence=Death. Out of the streets and onto the dancefloor, A SILENCE BROKEN includes music by gender-queer House legend, TERRE THAEMLITZ; Matmoss Drew Daniels in his SOFT PINK TRUTH guise; Montreals highly-conceptual dance band LEZZIES ON X; and from Toronto, the mysterious MIAU MIAU TM and sound designers for a better tomorrow, PSBEUYS. The Ultra-red organization offers DEATH DRIVE (Eddie Peel of Sony Mao and Needle fame), the strategic minimalist JACK TACTIC, and ULTRA-RED itself. Current numbers show over a million people in the USA live with HIV and AIDS. Additionally, 45% of all African American men who have sex with men are HIV positive, 70% of whom don t know their HIV status. Contributing to today s AIDS crisis is the fact that one out eight Americans live in poverty. While HIV is increasingly an epidemic among the poor and people of color, the history of artists engaged in AIDS politics seems to recede from memory. A SILENCE BROKEN asks what remains of the alliance between queer artists and the AIDS epidemic. Should AIDS cultural activism return from its slow fade, A SILENCE BROKEN suggest the groove will be different from when Silence=Death first appeared on posters in 1986. A SILENCE BROKEN is the sound of a new generation even as AIDS remains a crisis of homophobia, racism, poverty, big pharma greed, religious moralizing and public apathy. Terre Thaemlitz describes AIDS cultural work of sounding like a broken record, Formulaic. We still listen to this broken record comforted by knowing where the skips will occur, never lifting the needle out of fear of hearing the underlying silence in which we have lived for years, preferring to let the sound engineers apply an ever so gentle and unimaginative fadeout. Organize the silence, declares the liner-notes. And here are some grooves for the struggle. A SILENCE BROKEN is available exclusively for free download at www.publicrec.org. http://www.ultrared.org/ - 2006 USA 122 Throbbing Gristle 1976 2282 images/works/TG-1981-veterans.jpg Veterans Auditorium Throbbing Gristles concert Friday night at Culver Citys Veterans Auditorium was an underground event of the first order. Besides the group s status as guiding light for a whole experimental-music movement in England, there was the fact that this was Throbbing Gristle s first and last Los Angeles appearance. After a San Francisco concert this Friday, the group will shelve its musical endeavors to concentrate on video projects. Throbbing Gristle originated the industrial music concept that s influenced many of the artier modern bands, and while TG s music has at times moved toward more conventional-sounding song formats, Friday s show was centred on a driving, relentless factory noise that assumed various rhythms as the set roared on. While the four players use instruments like bass, guitar and electric piano, everything is treated electronically, resulting in a thickly layered, miasmic sound. When Cosey Fanni Tutti blasted out some high notes from her cornet, it was as though free-jazz had been mated with some monstrous machinery. This kind of thing can become tedious, or cold and remote, but TG s leader Genesis P-Orridge fronted the group with a fierce intensity, lending the performance its immediacy and spontaneity. P-Orridge gyrated like an actual rock singer, slapped his bass guitar around, and prowled into the crowd to converse with the fans. Like all the vocals, these were transformed into ghostly scraps of sound sucked into the prevailing noise. With its strong beat, this noise was engaging and exhilarating. And for a group whose records and writings reveal grim obsessions, the whole presentation had a surprisingly positive air. After exactly 60 minutes, Throbbing Gristle shut everything down, but remained for an hour or more talking pleasantly with the fans who poured onto the stage at show s end. -Richard Cromelin, Los Angeles Times, 25 May 1981 Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.brainwashed.com/ - 1981 USA 122 Throbbing Gristle 1976 2283 images/works/TG-1981-kezar.jpg Kezar Pavilion In my life Ive been to many a concert but in many ways a live performance by the British group, Throbbing Gristle, is different. I got there early and noticed Genesis standing near the sound board that was situated in the middle of the hall, I was almost tempted to play the part of the rock fan and run over and fall at his feet but thats not what TG is all about so I carried on. In watching him talk with the sound people there seemed to be an air of relaxed authority about the man. As if he knew exactly who he was and where hes going. (So enough bull shit now to the show). Two S.F. punk bands opened and I was not impressed, to the extent that I put some cotton in my ears to dull the din. The only excitement was when the bassist broke his guitar and Genesis had to load him his. Finally they ended and the stage was cleared. The cotton came out of the eras and I was ready. The stage was sparse, considering TG s music, there were a few black cases that seemed to hold different boxes of knobs and dials. Cosey had a case set down in front of her which held five foot pedals, her guitar was an odd shape hardly and body to it and her horn connected to the control panel was present. Peter had a few more dials to play with plus some noise makers and four Sony cassette players that seemed to be connected to a switching network. Chris was a bit back stage and I couldn t see exactly what he had. Genesis had his bass guitar which seemed to have an extra pickup at the bottom of the strings and also had some foot pedals to play with. The music, well as usual it s hard to distinguish the new songs from the old. Devastating is probably the best word to describe the music. It overwhelms you, from the screams and blasts of Heathen Earth to Genesis soft voice echoing back and forth across the hall. I don t know what to make of Genesis, I guess you could say he puts 100% of himself behind his music and vocals but there s something special in the way he delivers a song in the way his emotions seem to flow from him and into the audience. The band as a whole were very comfortable on stage although Cosey looked a bit bored with it all. But towards the end she seemed to be playing more and I did see her smile once or twice. During one break between songs a member of the audience yelled out What A Day and a nice little conversation ensued between Genesis and the audience. With Genesis saying he d forgotten some of the words the audience pretty well sang the song themselves. But Peter had already started the tapes for the next song and What A Day died before it started. You know for the life of me I can t remember anymore about the actual music. I can remember closing my eyes during one piece and floating off into the 4th dimension (no drugs here just TG). I can remember jumping up and down because of the intense beat, and I can remember screaming along with the rest of the audience as they yelled back at Genesis during 'Heathen Earth'. The show ended within the usual 60 minutes with a short version of 'Discipline'. At the end there was no screaming for more. I think the audience was too mesmerised by the last 60 minutes to really do anything. The group stayed on stage and started packing things up. Genesis talked with the audience for a while and I spoke with peter for a few minutes. As I said at the beginning it wasn't your average rock concert, it was more a happening, an event and one I'll remember for a long time to come. So in closing I'd like to thank Genesis P-Orridge, Cosey Fanni Tutti, Chris Carter and Peter Christopherson for coming to the States. God knows I doubt if they profited from this trip but I do hope they come back again. I don't worship them but I do feel they're above most musical groups and I hope they stick around for a few years yet. Alex Douglas Accessed 7.12.06 from http://www.brainwashed.com/ - 1981 USA 80 Karlheinz Essl 1960 2347 images/spacer.jpg fLOCK fLOCK - the version of fLOW which was played at the Chicago Cultural Center on 18 Apr 1999 - was controlled by a precisely worked out time-table (overall duration: 45 minutes) which the musicians followed by using stopwatches. The performers were musicians of the Chicago-based Ensemble Noamnesia, two well-know jazz musicians from the Chicago AACM and the composer Karlheinz Essl himself on his computer-based electronic music instrument m@ze°2.Accessed 10.12.06 from http://www.essl.at - 1998 USA 80 Karlheinz Essl 1960 2359 images/works/Essl-2001-breakaways.jpg BREAKAWAYS The Vienna Group, a circle of five authors interested in the transformation of the written word into action and music marks the beginning of a new movement of experimental literature in the 50s and early 60s. In this tradition other Austrian writers, like Liesl Ujvary, Brigitta Falkner, Kathrin Röggla are performing their texts by using different media like film, comics, computer-generated sound and the Internet. The presentation of their work will be part of a revue about certain aspects of the Austrian literary avantgarde and its international context presented by the author Sabine Scholl together with the composer Karlheinz Essl who uses original musical documents of the Vienna Group to compose and perform an ongoing soundtrack for this event. Based on original source material by Friedrich Achleitner, HC Artmann, Konrad Bayer, Gerhard Rühm, Oswald Wiener, VALIE EXPORT, Günter Brus, Hermann Nitsch, Ferry Radax, Elfriede Gerstl, Liesl Ujvary, Andreas Okopenko, Brigitta Falkner, Kathrin Röggla and many others. Computer-generated video projection by Michaela Grill. Re-Play: The Austrian Avantgarde in Literature curated by Sabine Scholl, music by Karlheinz Essl, video projections by Michaela Grill In the lounge area of the Austrian Cultural Forum, a multimedia event on the Austrian avant-garde in literature is being re-played. The program focusses in particular on the so-called Vienna Group, a circle of authors interested in the transformation of written word into action and music, marking the beginning of a new movement of experimental literature in the 1950s and early 1960s. The Austrian Avant-garde in Literature is presented by the author Sabine Scholl together with the composer Karlheinz Essl, who took original sound documents of Vienna Group performances as a point of departure for some of his compositions. In conceptual terms, The Austrian Avant-garde in Literature was among the most ambitious programs of the inaugural season of the Austrian Cultural Forum (April - June 2002). The program was part of an interdisciplinary literary festival bringing visual electronic arts, graphic design, online activity and commissioned electronic music to the study of modern and contemporary Austrian literature. The program on the Austrian avant-garde organized by Sabine Scholl, with music commissioned from composer Karlheinz Essl and video projections by Michaela Grill, identified new avenues for analyzing the work of the Austrian avant-garde in literature, particularly the Vienna Group and its influences on contemporary writers, and for relating it to international audiences. Christoph Thun-Hohenstein / Iris Klein Accessed 10.12.06 from http://www.essl.at - 2001 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2394 images/works/SY-1997-6mins.jpg 6 Minutes and 5 Seconds Lee Ranaldo. This piece was mounted for a sound-art group show in Brooklyn at the Williamsburg Art and Historical Society that Brian Connelly organized called “…Just What Do You Think You’re Doing, Dave?” The piece consits of a bare speaker wired to a piece of the physical gallery, in this case a steam radiator. The tape loop plays a 5 second hi volume burst of sound every 6 minutes. Otherwise the piece remains silent. The effect in the gallery space was of this brief extreme assault of sound for five seconds, which would then disappear. It would surprise viewers in this silent gallery space—coming out of nowhere, making this sonic statement, and then going into a long silence again. The piece had a sort of science fiction aspect for me, a cool dark aura—inhabiting the space but revealing itself only rarely. - 1997 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2397 images/spacer.jpg Four Organs this is a photo work based on a past work by Robt Smithson, which was included in an artists multiples box in 1970. it was a picture of rubble torn in 4 quarters and put in a glassine envelope. Im taking it a step further: steve reich, the composer, is a friend and lives in our bldg. the 4 organs of his famous four Organs piece are gathering dust in our basement. that piece meant the world to me at the time (also around 1970). Ive photographed the stacked up organs and will do a similar torn print/glassine envelope and dedicate it to both men... 4/25/00 Hi Thomas, I m sorry all the preparations for the black box have been taking so long. I would like to describe my own proposal to you (it needs a bit of background): My piece would be a photo-work, dedicated to two artists who have had a profound effect on me: Steve Reich and Robert Smithson. Here, first, is some background: Steve Reich lives in the same building as we do, and we have become friendly. There is an early piece of his called Four Organs which has had a profound influence on me ever since I first heard it many years ago. If you haven t heard it then you should! Anyway, the four organs used in this piece are in the basement of our building, stacked up now and collecting dust. They look beautiful there, and have a curious resonance for me whenever I see them. I have taken a picture of them, which for some time I have wanted to use in an artwork of some sort. I think I ve finally figured out how. In 1970 Robert Smithson (another influential and inspiring artist for me a syou probably know) contributed a piece to an artist s box edition multiple (much like our black box!) which was organized by gallerist Marion Goodman at the time under the label Multiples, Inc. The box included artists such as Dan Graham, Smithon, Mel Bochner, Richard Serra and many others from the time. Smithsons piece was called Torn Photograph and was an image of construction rubble from one of his slideworks which he had torn in 4 quarters and packaged in a glassine envelope. I m not sure the dimensions off hand but it s fairly large, like maybe 50x50 cm or so. I propose to do a similar idea with the photo of the Reich organs. The nice thing is that the completed photo can actually be larger than the box, as it will be torn in quarters. I propose about 40x40 cm or so. One side would be printed completely with the photo of the organs, and on the other side just a small bit of information (title, etc) in the lower right corner (just as the original had). What do you think? If this sounds good I can send you the photo and a layout to follow for it s creation. When I arrive in Ystad I will tear up the pictures and place in the glassine envelopes and then they will be ready for the box. I don t know if this pleases you or not--let me know what you think.As an alternative--i was thinking of submitting a drawing I did in ink of Leah when she was pregnant which I thought would make a nice lithograph... so, there are two ideas.... I am in London now for the Sonic Boom show installation and opening--did I tell you about it? I will send you the info... I am hoping that in the next weeks I will be able to work on the recordings of Mats, Thurston, Steve and me... regards for now, Lee Ranaldo - 2000 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2398 images/works/SY-1999-TextofLight.jpg Text of Light The Text of Light group was formed in 1999 with the idea to perform improvised music to the films of Stan Brakhage and other members of the American Cinema avante garde of the 1950s-60s (Brakhages film Text of Light was the premiere performance and namesake of the group). The original premise was to improvise (not illustrate ) to films from the American Avante-Garde (50s-60s etc), an under-known period of American filmic poetics. Members of the group include Lee Ranaldo and Alan Licht (gtrs/devices), Christian Marclay and DJ Olive (turntables), William Hooker (drums/perc), Ulrich Krieger (sax/electronics), and most recently Tim Barnes (drums/perc).Various combinations of these players attend Text gigs, depending on individual schedules, so the group takes on various permutations---sometimes all members participate, sometimes not. - 1999 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2399 images/spacer.jpg Having Never Written a Note for Percussion William Winant: [Sonic Youth] and I decided to do work by contemporary avant garde composers that we could all learn together. I chose most of the pieces and had Lee Ranaldo contact some of the composers and collect scores from the various publishers. I knew Id have to find things that would work with these specific people and their instruments, either as a solo, quartet, quintet, or sextet. I chose graphic scores with open instrumentation and varying degrees of indeterminacy written into them. Plus, between myself, Jim ORourke and the composers who were at the session -- Takehisa Kosugi and Christian Wolff -- we were able to explain how the compositions were supposed to work. [Among the pieces we recorded was] James Tenneys Having Never Written a Note for Percussion from his postcard series. [Tenney] had all these compositions for solo instruments that were musical analogs of Zen koans, musical questions to ponder that would bring enlightenment. The one we did was originally for solo percussion, which I orchestrated for the band. - 1999 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2401 images/works/SY-2000-SYR5.jpg SYR5: Kim Gordon/Ikue Mori/DJ Olive 1. Olives Horn – 4:22 2. International Spy – 2:41 3. Neu Adult – 2:35 4. Paperbag / Orange Laptop – 6:18 5. Stuck on Gum – 4:05 6. Fried Mushroom – 8:25 7. What Do You Want? (Kim) – 3:55 8. Lemonade – 6:38 9. We Are the Princesses – 3:36 10. Take Me Back – 4:25 11. Take It to the Hit – 7:32 - 2000 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2402 images/works/Stockhausen-1987-montags_lied.jpg SYR4: Goodbye 20th Century Disc one 1. Edges (Christian Wolff) – 16:03 2. Six (3rd Take) (John Cage) – 3:03 3. Six for New Time (Pauline Oliveros) – 8:06 4. +- (Takehisa Kosugi) – 7:01 5. Voice Piece for Soprano (Yoko Ono) – 0:17 6. Pendulum Music (Steve Reich) – 5:55 Disc two 1. Having Never Written a Note for Percussion (James Tenney) – 9:09 2. Six (4th Take) (John Cage ) – 2:10 3. Burdocks (Christian Wolff) – 13:12 4. Four6 (John Cage) – 30:01 5. Piano Piece #13 (Carpenters Piece) for Nam June (George Maciunas) – 3:58 (This piece is literally piano keys being nailed down one by one - the disc contains a Quicktime of one performance of the piece.) 6. Pièce enfantine (Nicolas Slonimsky) – 1:28 7. Treatise (Page 183) (Cornelius Cardew) – 3:25 - 1999 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2403 images/spacer.jpg Mix Tape: The Art of Cassette Culture Ed. Thurston Moore. The first time I ever heard of someone making a mix tape was in 1978. Robert Christgau, the dean of rock critics, was writing in The Village Voice about his favorite Clash record, which just happened to be the one he made himself: a tape of all the bands non-LP B-sides. One aspect really struck me - Christgau said it was a tape he made to give to friends. He had made his own personalized Clash record and was handing it out as a memento of his rock-and-roll devotion. In those days, tape decks were as essential as turntables and just as bulky. But then Sony came out with the Walkman. I suppose the record industry expected consumers to buy cassettes of the LPs, and some surely did, but hey - why not just buy blank cassettes and record tracks from LPs instead? Of course, this is what every Walkman user did, and before long there were warning stickers on records and cassettes, stating: home taping is killing music! It was a quaint forebear of todays industry paranoia over downloading and CD burning. Around 1980, there was a spontaneous scene of young bands recording singles of superfast hardcore punk - Minor Threat, Negative Approach, Necros, Battalion of Saints, Adolescents, Sin 34, the Meatmen, Urban Waste, Void, Crucifucks, Youth Brigade, the Mob, Gang Green. I was fanatical and bought them all as soon as they came out. I was just a dishwasher at a SoHo restaurant - not exactly raking in the dough - but I needed these sides! I also needed to hear these records in a more time-fluid way, and it hit me that I could make a mix tape of all the best songs. So I made what I thought was the most killer hardcore tape ever. I wrote H on one side, and C on the other. That night, after my love Kim had fallen asleep, I put the tape in our stereo cassette player, dragged one of the little speakers over to the bed, and listened to it at ultralow thrash volume. I was in a state of humming bliss. This music had every cell and fiber in my body on heavy sizzle mode. It was sweet. On a Sonic Youth tour in the mid-80s, we decided to get a cassette player for the van. One idea was to install a dashboard unit, but that was pricey. There was a street trend in NYC of hip hop heads blasting rap mix tapes through massive boom boxes, or ghetto blasters. So I went into this Delancey Street store and, using the band s limited funds, bought the biggest boom box on display: a Conion that took 16 D batteries. The Conion - we nicknamed it the Conan - was almost like an extra body, about the size of a small kid. My solution was to stand it on end between the two front seats, facing the back. As we drove through the Holland Tunnel and began to distance ourselves from the city, I jammed in the first of the rap compilations I d made, and the boom box sounded superb. We had it onstage with us when we played, and I miked it through the PA for between-song tape action. Kids gave us cassettes all across the US - some of them hopeful demos and some mix tapes, and we d jam them all. By tour s end, there must have been hundreds of tapes strewn about the van, with their plastic cases stomped and cracked. These days, CD technology has displaced the cassette in the mainstream, and mix CDs have become the new cultural love letter/trading post. For those of us who think that digital delivers a harsher sound than analog, it s a sonic nightmare dealing with the new world reality of MP3s. They re even more compressed and harsh than CDs, and in the case of vintage grooves - be it Led Zeppelin, Bad Brains, or Pavement - sound even more detached from musical vibration. But even if MP3 music sounds lame, as long as it s recognizable in form, free, and shareable, it s here to stay. It will get better as more sophisticated methods of replication emerge. For now, its clunk is glamorized by celebrity iTunes playlists. ITunes has become the Hallmark card of mix tapes - all you gotta do is sign your name to personalize it. Once again, we re being told that home taping (in the form of ripping and burning) is killing music. But it s not: It simply exists as a nod to the true love and ego involved in sharing music with friends and lovers. Trying to control music sharing - by shutting down P2P sites or MP3 blogs or BitTorrent or whatever other technology comes along - is like trying to control an affair of the heart. Nothing will stop it. Accessed 11.12.06 from http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.04/play.html?pg=3 - 2006 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2404 images/spacer.jpg kim gordons art show - 2003 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2405 images/spacer.jpg Rodney Graham by Kim Gordon In the work of Rodney Graham, sound—be it the abstract noise of a 1950s Italian projector, as in his latest work, Rheinmetall/Victoria, or a song presented within a film, as in How I Became a Ramblin Man—is more than an integral part of the work. It has an equal weight to the visual components as subject matter. Even though Graham is not a New York-based artist, the work reminds me of the energy and interests floating around New York in the early 80s. Visual artists such as Robert Longo and Richard Prince played music alongside young composers such as Rhys Chatham and Glenn Branca. There was a lack of boundaries as to the formalism of art, or a deliberate ignoring of them. People had discussions about the context of performing in clubs as opposed to alternative spaces. While most of those artists eventually focused their careers exclusively within a visual realm, letting music influence them subliminally, Graham has always kept the question open: Am I a musician trapped in an artists mind or an artist trapped in a musician s body? The question is really irrelevant, but it makes for a lot of interesting art. Accessed 11.12.06 from http://www.bombsite.com/graham/graham.html - 2003 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2412 images/spacer.jpg Club In The Shadow Collaboration with painter Jutta Koether - 2003 USA 132 Sonic Youth 1981 2413 images/works/Stockhausen-1967-beatles.jpg X Girl Sophistication meets Street. With a style established by Kim Gordon (Sonic Youth) over 10 years ago, X-girl continues to outfit the young urban girl with smart fashion thats fun to wear. So you feel like dressing young but not looking like your baby sister? X-girl is a style all your own! - 1994 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2427 images/spacer.jpg I am Sitting in a Room - 1970 USA 114 Merzbow 1956 2497 images/spacer.jpg Minazo Vol.2 http://importantrecords.com/ - 2006 USA 114 Merzbow 1956 2498 images/spacer.jpg Merzdub - 2006 USA 114 Merzbow 1956 2504 images/works/Merzbow-2003-ikebana.jpg Ikebana: Merzbows Amlux Rebuilt, Reused And Recycled Disc 1 - Side One 1. DJ Spooky: Takemitsu 4:36 2. DJ/Rupture: In And Out Of Institutions 4:05 3. Plug: untitled 3:39 4. Alec Empire: Digital Hardcore 5:43 5. Kim Hiorthoy: Cow Cow (Shee Sheep) 5:13 6. Nau-Zee-auN: Testosterphone 4:34 7. Bola: Klunk 7:01 8. Kurt Weisman: Spicy Water 4:06 9. Atom: Merzwaltz 5:31 10. Custom Drummer: Luxus 2:26 11. Raub Roy: untitled 3:35 12. Abstinence: Freq 5:37 13. Insta-Void: Cho Nama Yo! 2:44 14. Masami Akita: Looping Jane 8:31 Disc 2 - Side Two 1. Negativland: An Actual Attack 4:49 2. Hrvatski: Toru Pup 4:15 3. Mouse On Mars: Superstar 4:01 4. Cornelius: untitled 5:40 5. Jack Dangers: Available Memory 8:21 6. Freiband: Merzmix 3:10 7. E.A.R./Sonic Boom: Takemitsu 7:00 8. KK Null: Decomposition 3:09 9. Staalplaat Sound System: A Golden Cow On The Bridge 2:38 10. Kawabata Makoto: Revolved Jane 9:09 11. Nobukazu Takemura: Assembler Mix 8:47 12. Lasse Marhaug: Takemitsu Unholy 4:38 13. Kim Cascone: Black Gun Red 2:59 14. John Wiese: untitled 2:38 15. Zipperspy: With CB 1:54 - 2003 USA 114 Merzbow 1956 2507 images/works/Merzbow-2000-mazk.jpg Masami Akita and Zbigniew Karkowski - Mazk 1. 36:01 - 2000 USA 51 Otomo Yoshihide 1959 2532 images/works/Yoshihide-2002-persepolis.jpg Persepolis + Remixes, Edition 1 Disc 1 1. Iannis Xenakis - Persepolis (60:42) Mixed at INA-GRM (Institute National Acoustique-Groupe Recherche de Musique) in Paris Engineered at studio 116A by Daniel Teruggi, under the consultation of Iannis Xenakis Disc 2: Remixes 1. Otomo Yoshihide (9:20) 2. Ryoji Ikeda - Per Se (8:35) 3. Zbigniew Karkowski - Doing by Not Doing (15:12) 4. Antimatter (9:59) 5. Construction Kit - Clitchè (5:00) 6. Francisco Lopez - Untitled 113 for Iannis Xenakis (10:05) 7. Laminar - Whorl (7:05) 8. Merzbow (7:01) 9. Ulf Langheinrich (7:34) Accessed 12.12.06 from http://www.japanimprov.com/ 2-CD set 2002 USA 51 Otomo Yoshihide 1959 2542 images/spacer.jpg Panty Christ With Bob Ostertag. 1. Overture (5:14) 2. Feet So Low (3:12) 3. Bitter Mommy (3:14) 4. I Love Animals (3:34) 5. Sunshine (1:13) 6. Giddy Up Cowboy (7:20) 7. Purple Butterflies (1:43) 8. When I Come Back (2:18) 9. Coconut (2:06) 10. King Kong (6:10) 11. Wooden Shoes (2:40) 12. Suzanne (4:18) 13. Just Whistle (2:15) 14. The Tigress Inside (3:32) 15. A Dreadful Thing (Coda) (1:34) All songs by Justin Bond, Bob Ostertag and Otomo Yoshihide Justin Bond: voice Bob Ostertag: sampler Otomo Yoshihide: turntables, guitar Friends: Richard Rogers: keyboard Jon Rose: additional voice, violin Trevor Dunn: bass Animo Computer (Mizuhiro): synthesizer Kazuhisa Uchihashi: guitar Recorded live at the Great American Music Hall, and in the studio at Toast, October 1997 Assembled, arranged and mixed by Bob Ostertag in March 1998 Cover art and design: Michael Mott Photography of Justin Bond: Daniel Nicolletta Design completion: Heide Foley Accessed 12.12.06 from http://www.japanimprov.com/ - 1999 USA 51 Otomo Yoshihide 1959 2545 images/spacer.jpg Moving Parts Christian Marclay and Otomo Yoshihide. 1. Sliced and Diced (3:57) 2. Derailment (7:05) 3. Deep Down Under (4:02) 4. Elephant Memories (3:12) 5. Blood Eddy (4:03) 6. Suburbia (3:15) 7. Hyoushi (4:14) 8. Fanfare (3:46) 9. Lucky Seven (2:49) 10. Distant Trip (9:04) 11. (15:54) There is no sound in the first 15 minutes of track 11 (untitled). Engineered by Quentin Chiappetta at Harmonic Ranch, New York, and by Xopher D. at Bloody Angle, San Francisco Remixed by Christian Marclay and Otomo Yoshihide in New York and Tokyo. Accessed 12.12.06 from http://www.japanimprov.com/ - 2000 USA 51 Otomo Yoshihide 1959 2546 images/works/Yoshihide-1999-split7.jpg Christian Marclay / Otomo Yoshihide Side A 1. Dont Stop Now (2:14) Christian Marclay Recorded by Quentin Chiapetta at Harmonic Ranch in New York, 1998 Side B 1. If 6 Was 0 (3:24) Otomo Yoshihide Recorded by Otomo Yoshihide at A-102 Studio in Tokyo, 1999 Accessed 12.12.06 from http://www.japanimprov.com/ - 1999 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2550 images/spacer.jpg O Superman - 1982 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2552 images/spacer.jpg Big Science - 1982 USA 47 Laurie Anderson 1947 2553 images/spacer.jpg Let X=X - 1982 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 2583 images/works/ZEV-1982-elemental.jpg Elemental Music Live performance at Savoy Tivoli, San Francisco on 12th February 1981. - 1981 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 2585 images/works/Zev-1990-ghost.jpeg Ghost Stories - 1990 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 2586 images/works/Zev-1990-opus.jpeg Opus 3.1 - 1998 USA 59 Z'EV 1951 2588 images/spacer.jpg N.A.M.E. Gallery, Chicago, Illinois 03.01.86 Tracklisting: A Untitled B Untitled Limited numbered edition of 333 copies between 2 pieces of steel. 2004 USA 45 Jonah Brucker-Cohen 1976 2620 images/works/Brucker_Cohen-2001-cranksystem.jpg Crank The Web Overview Crank the Web is a browser that allows people to physically crank their bandwidth in order to see a website. Simply enter a URL, start cranking, and text and images appear in the browser window. Prototype The idea behind Crank the Web is to combine ancient forms of automation with todays digital telecommunications technology. All bandwidth should be free and everyone should have access to the fastest speed connection. It is up to you to physically crank your bandwidth so that your internet connnection will rely on your personal strength, not personal wealth. System Users type in a URL on the screen and hit ENTER and a blank IE or Netscape page appears. The page they entered is read into a buffer and using the crank, they send a bit of data at a time to the computer which then unloads the buffer (containing text, images, animation, sound, etc..) into the open window. The page loads according to how fast they turn the crank. There is an indication on screen of the approximate bandwidth speed they are cranking. ccssed 22.02.2007 from http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~bruckerj/projects/cranktheweb.html - 2001 USA 45 Jonah Brucker-Cohen 1976 2621 images/works/Brucker_Cohen-2003-bumplist.jpg BumpList Description BumpList is a mailing list aiming to re-examine the culture and rules of online email lists. BumpList only allows for a minimum amount of subscribers so that when a new person subscribes, the first person to subscribe is bumped, or unsubscribed from the list. Once subscribed, you can only be unsubscribed if someone else subscribes and bumps you off. BumpList actively encourages people to participate in the list process by requiring them to subscribe repeatedly if they are bumped off. The focus of the project is to determine if by attaching simple rules to communication mediums, the method and manner of correspondences that occur as well as behaviors of connection will change over time. Overview In the digital age, networked communication platforms and mediums are becoming more and more user friendly and allow for multitudes of types of interaction, voices, and exchanges of images, sounds, and text, both synchronously and asynchronously. Messages can be sent, voices can be heard, and events can be realized with organization and clarity that never before existed. In particular, emailing lists have become important means of maintaining ties within groups, relaying important information among peers or collaborators, and forging a sense of community that transcends all national and cultural boundaries. Currently, we are actively encouraged to join public email lists. Unless a list adheres to certain rules, is password protected, or made private, anyone with a valid email address can join the discussion. We are also used to conventions of email lists such as subscribe/unsubscribe functions, digest mode, broadcast mode, and public archives of threaded messages. BumpList functions like a standard, public listserv, but adds the constraints of limited membership (currently only 5 people can subscribe at once) and the urgency of forcing people to re-subscribe if they get bumped and want to continue the conversations, discussions, arguments in which they are engaged. Rules In the discussion there are no rules. BumpList is an open forum just like any other email list. However depending on how much you want to participate in the discussion, it might be to your advantage not to advertise your subscription to the list. The more people you encourage to join, the greater the chance you will be bumped. Currently only 6 people can be on the list at any one time, thus making it an exclusive place so make your voice count! System BumpList exists as an extension to the well-known, open-source mail manager, SmartList. By using SmartList, the project maintains all of the security and subscribe/unsubscribe features of the manager and runs with the robustness of a widely used and distributed application. When subscribing, each participant gets a preliminary email telling them they are subscribed. When they are unsubscribed, they receive an email telling them they were bumped and given an option to rejoin. Accessed 22.02.2007 from http://www.coin-operated.com/projects/bumplist - 2003 USA 45 Jonah Brucker-Cohen 1976 2622 images/spacer.jpg IPO Madness Overview Pull the slot machine lever to generate a random 5 letter URL (ie. www.ABCDE.com) which is then looked up online. If the URL is a working URL, then the lights go off and sounds play and youve made your IPO! Prototype IPO Madness is intrinsically linked to the massive surge of Internet E-Commerce companies. In an online world where venture capital controls the means of production, the strength of e-commerce solutions resides in user-friendly domain names, e-catchy slogans, and e-branding. IPO Madness comments on the IPO giants by combining Internet domain name creation with the American symbol of wasted consumption and getting rich quick - a slot machine. The idea for IPO Madness came about during the e-commerce frenzy of the late 1990s. Everyone was getting rich from the stock market on tech stocks and it was getting ridiculous - so I built this project to make fun of all the hype surrounding the Internet. System The system uses a flat panel monitor inside of the slot machine and a microcontroller that is getting input from the arm. Once the arm is triggered, the computer inside the machine generates the URL and then uses its net connection to search and see ifthe URL is a working site. If they hit a working URL, the lights go off and that site is logged online with an accompanying webcam picture of them. Here is a screen shot of IPO Madness: Accessed 22.02.2007 from http://www.mee.tcd.ie/~bruckerj/projects/ipomadness.html - 2000 USA 45 Jonah Brucker-Cohen 1976 2623 images/works/Brucker_Cohen-2003-scrapyard.jpg The Scrapyard Challenge Workshops The Scrapyard Challenge Workshops are intensive workshops where participants build simple electronic projects (both digital and analog inputs) out of found or discarded junk (old electronics, clothing, furniture, outdated computer equipment, appliances, turntables, monitors, gadgets, etc..). To date, the Scrapyard Challenge workshops have been held 20 times in 10 countries across Europe, North America, and Australia. with 3 different themes including the MIDI Scrapyard Challenge where participants build simple musical controllers from discarded objects and junk, DIY Wearable Challenge where they create wearable tech projects from used clothing, and the DIY Urban Challenge where they work on public space interventions and other projects. The MIDI Scrapyard version includes a mini workshop where participants build simple drawing robots or DrawBots with small, inexpensive motors, batteries, and drawing markers that can also be connected to Serial or MIDI interface. At the end of the day or evening, the workshop participants have a small performance, concert, or fashion show (depending on the workshop theme) where they demonstrate and preent their creations together as a group. No electronics skills or any experience with technology is necessary to participate in the workshops. Accessed 22.02.2007 from http://www.scrapyardchallenge.com/ - 2003 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2627 images/spacer.jpg 100 Meeting Places for all ensembles - 2007 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2628 images/spacer.jpg Tintinnabulate Tintinnabulate is a multimedia ensemble of graduate students and faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute created and currently directed by Pauline Oliveros with technical support by Jonas Braasch and Dan Valente of the Architecture department. Tintinnabulate performs in interesting acoustic spaces with acoustic and electronic instruments and has participated in many co-located telepresence performances via the INTERNET. Currently Tintinnabulate is involved in weekly networked rehearsals with CCRMA at Stanford University and other locations. - 2007 USA 19 Janet Cardiff and George Bures Miller 1957 2635 images/spacer.jpg In Real Time I was sitting in the living room with the video camera taping as George and I were having coffee, moving the camera around the room. Then I replayed it and found myself unconsciously following the pan of the recorded shot and being disconcerted when George, having gotten up, wasn’t in the shot where he was supposed to be. I realized that it was the same kind of strange situation as the telescope pieces we had done where the architecture remains the same but the people and cars change. The viewer becomes like the robotic head of the telescope moving to align the prerecorded video to the physical world. When Madeleine Grynsztejn invited me to do an audio walk for the Carnegie I suggested that I try a new format, a video walk. It was a complete experiment but it opened up the walks to a whole new discourse and level of experimentation for us. The story became a narrative using the idea of the audience / participant as a ‘rat’ in a maze, testing the limits of reality. Accessed 04.11.2008 from http://www.cardiffmiller.com/artworks/walks/realtime.html - 2001 USA 116 Brian Eno 1948 2636 images/spacer.jpg New Urban Space Series #4:Compact Forest Proposal Mixed Media using recorded sound, 10 cd players 2001 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2645 images/spacer.jpg Random Round Graingers experiments with random music composition predated those of John Cage by 30 years with Random Round written in the 1920s. - 1920 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2646 images/works/grainger-1932-duoart.jpg Duo Art grand piano for beatless music and irregular barring - 1932 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2648 images/works/Grainger-19xx-kangeroo_photo.jpg Kangaroo Pouch Graingers own efficient framework design with the skatewheel mountings suggested by his collaborator, Burnett Cross and four vacuum-tube oscillators built by Branch, an electronics student, from the local White Plains High School. - 1952 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2649 images/works/Grainger-1952-butterfly_piano.jpg Butterfly Piano Piano conversion tuned in 6th tones - 1952 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2650 images/spacer.jpg Electric Eye Tone Tool with Burnett Cross - 1957 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2652 images/works/Grainger-1951-osc.jpg Oscillator playing tone-tool Illustration made on 23 November 1951 of instrument (a modified sewing machine) with handwritten explanations and instructions. - 1951 USA 148 Percy Grainger 1882 2653 images/works/grainger-1946-sliding_pipe.jpg Sliding pipe free music invention Flat piece of masonite with two slide whistles supported on wooden blocks- slide rod is attached to a horizontal wooden rod with string which slide along a groove cut into masonite. Grainger and Cross earliest experimental model to produce gliding tones. - 1946 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 2656 images/spacer.jpg Yantra Completed in 1955 Hand Animation 1950 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 2657 images/spacer.jpg Lapis Completed in 1966 Analogue Computer 1963 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 2658 images/spacer.jpg Moondrum he composed a musical soundtrack on a midi keyboard simultaneous to generating abstract imagery. Analogue Computer / Midi 1991 USA 112 John and James Whitney 1917 2659 images/spacer.jpg Spirals combination of original music and visuals - 1988 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2660 images/spacer.jpg Composition 1960 #2 Build a fire in front of an audience. Preferably, use wood although other combustibles may be used as necessary for starting the fire or controlling the kind of smoke. The fire may be of any size, but it should not be the kind which is associated with any other kind of object, such as a candle or cigarette lighter. The lights may be turned out. After the fire is burning, the builder(s) may sit by a watch it for the duration of the composition, however, he (they) should not sit between the fire and the audience in order that its members will be able to see and enjoy the fire. The composition may be of any duration. In the event that the performance is broadcast, the microphone may be brought up close to the fire. - 1960 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2661 images/spacer.jpg Composition 1960 #5 Turn a butterfly (or any number of butterflies) loose in the performance area. When the composition is over, be sure to allow the butterfly to fly away outside. The composition may be any length, but if an unlimited amount of time is available, the doors and windows may be opened before the butterfly is turned loose and the composition may be considered finished when the butterfly flies away. - 1960 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2662 images/spacer.jpg Composition 1960 #7 The player is instructed to hold a B and F sharp for a long time - 1960 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2663 images/spacer.jpg X for Henry Flynt A loud sound is repeated steadily every one to two seconds, a great number of times: 566 has been a popular choice since the premier of the scored version by Toshi Ichiyanagi in 1961 - 1960 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2664 images/spacer.jpg the artist artist: im hungry. someone else: here are twenty two ounces of honor. artist: im still hungry. someone else: here are twenty two more ounces of honor. - 1985 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2665 images/spacer.jpg buddhism buddhist monk: peace! sound of gunfire. - 1985 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2666 images/spacer.jpg couic! enters in a suit of medieval armor. trips. falls. - 1985 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2667 images/spacer.jpg erotic she giggles then sighs. she giggles then sighs. ad lib a couple of minutes. - 1985 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2668 images/spacer.jpg follow the leader two people nude and smiling one leads other follows. after a while follower no longer follows leader does not change roles. they look at each other. leader does something follower does something different. follower does something leader does that thing. leader follows the other away. - 1985 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2669 images/spacer.jpg tenderly blindfolded. both enter from different places as silently as possible. they find each other, touch fingertips, touch necks and hair, kiss. - 1985 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2705 images/works/Brecht-1963-DripMusic_Fountain.jpg Drip Music For single or multiple performance. A source of dripping water and an empty vessel are arranged so that the water falls into the vessel. Note, that Brecht also published two other versions of his Dirp Music: Drip Music, Second Version, 1959 Dripping Drip Music, Fluxversion 1, 1959 First performer on a tall ladder pours water from a pitcher very slowly down into the bell of a French horn or tuba held in the playing position by a second performer at floor level. Accessed 08.042007 from http://creativetechnology.salford.ac.uk/fuchs/modules/input_output/Fluxus/fluxus_brecht.htm - 1959 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2673 images/spacer.jpg Zen for T.V - 1963 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2674 images/spacer.jpg Moon is the Oldest T.V. - 1965 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2675 images/spacer.jpg T.V. Buddha closed-circuit camera 1974 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2676 images/spacer.jpg Candle T.V. - 1975 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2677 images/spacer.jpg Hommage a John Cage Created between 1958-61 - 1958 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2678 images/spacer.jpg Simple Created between 1958-61 - 1958 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2679 images/spacer.jpg Etude for Pianoforte Created between 1958-61 - 1960 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2680 images/spacer.jpg Prepared Piano for Merce Cunningham originally recorded to accompany a Cunningham dance performance. Here Paik plays a de-tuned piano in a manner strongly reminiscent of Cages piano preparations in tone, though less percussive in attack. Dramatic dynamics and a kind of mock-virtuoso, almost Lisztian touch at the keyboard also distinguish this from Cages drier and more restrained use of the instrument. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0268/is_4_40/ai_80856187 - 1977 USA 117 John Bischoff 1949 2689 images/spacer.jpg Aperture Bischoff qualifies his work as the realization of a reflective intention, where he determines sonic structure not only through the predetermined elements which go into a piece, but also through the active process of listening to the music as it happens and responding accordingly. Aperture opens the possibility for multiple readings through a series of diverse techniques ranging from additive synthesis to FM synthesis to sampled-based processes. Each of the pieces within the album was recorded in real-time with no overdubs. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 2003 USA 37 David Dunn 1953 2691 images/spacer.jpg Music, Language and Environment A three-part collection of works (spanning the years 1973-1990) exploring various issues of sound, language and environmental interaction. Includes site-specific works, linguistic compositions, and experiments in inerspecies communication. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 2000 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2694 images/spacer.jpg Piano Album: Short Pieces, 1962-1984 ...A beautifully produced collection of graphic, verbal and notated scores... R.I.P. Hayman, Ear (1981) With relevance to both music and literature, Piano Albums iconoclastic scores belongs in both belles lettres and music libraries... American Library Association Booklist. 32 pages, 81/2 by 11, color, illus. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 1962 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2695 images/spacer.jpg Piano Sonata No. 2 (Graphis 192) This musical work uses four overlays in different colors, each of which is placed over a different sheet of existing piano music. On the overlays are arrows directing eye and hand, separately or together, thus collaging the music that is read through them. 4 page folder, containing 4 silkscreened vinyl sheets in color, 9 by 12, 1982 Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 1982 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2696 images/spacer.jpg Sonata for Prepared Piano Four movements make up this thirteen-minute work, each using a very different method of interpreting similar photographic materials, a set of four photomontages that employ natural imagery (tree roots, rocks, branches and a human back). 8 pages, black and dark green, 11 by 14, 1983. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 1983 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2697 images/spacer.jpg Song for any voice(s) and instruments(s) (Graphis 192b) This is music or sound poetry based on words by the Latin poet P. Optatianus Porphyrius (fl. 325 AD). The words are cropped in the design to form the graphic images used for the arrows in Piano Sonata No. 2 (see above), to which this is a companion work. It may be interpreted by solo voice, group of voices or chorus, accompanied by any instrumental combination, according to the system which goes with the notation and controls it. 4 page folder, 81/2 by 11, containing graphic notation, 1983 Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 1983 USA 25 Dick Higgins 1938 2698 images/spacer.jpg Ten Ways of Looking at a Bird This composition for violin and harpsichord uses photographs of a male nude as graphic materials underlying staves, all interpreted within the limits of a series of sets of up-to-six pitches (a gamut) for each of its ten movements. 16 pages, black and blue, 81/2 by 11, illus., 1981 Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.deeplistening.org/dlc/dlcframe.html - 1981 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2701 images/spacer.jpg Chambers A virtually complete collection of composer Alvin Luciers major works from 1965 to 1977, interspersed with twelve interviews with the composer by Douglas Simon. Each score is written in prose and may be read by musicians as instructions for performance or by general readers as descriptions of imaginary musical activities. In response to Simons searching questions, Lucier expands on each composition, not only explaining its genesis and development but also revealing its importance to the vigorously experimental American tradition to which Alvin Lucier belongs. Many of his compositions jolt conventional notions of the role of composer, performer, and listener, and the spaces in which they play and listen. His works are scored for an astonishing range of instruments: sea shells, subway stations, toy crickets, sonar guns, violins, synthesizers, bird calls and Bunsen burners. - 1965 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2702 images/works/Lucier-1965-Solo.jpg Music for Solo Performer The first work in history to use brain waves to generate sound. It was composed during the Winter of 1964-65 with the technical assistance of physicist Edmond Dewan. The first performance was on May 5, 1965, at the Rose Art Museum, Brandeis University with the encouragement and participation of composer John Cage. Since then, it has been performed many times by Alvin Lucier in solo concerts and on tours in Europe and America with the Sonic Arts Union. - 1965 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2703 images/spacer.jpg Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas, Part 2 Twelve short pieces in which musicians create interference patterns between their sounds and those of pure waves flowing from loudspeakers. - 1972 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2706 images/spacer.jpg Chair Events he placed a real score beside an unaltered everyday object, constituted an expression of resistance to the galleries’ demands to present his work in a more formal way. - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2707 images/spacer.jpg Landmass Translations a series of maps with small alterations that would allow “to improve the climate” (one of them proposes to place one of the English Channel Islands next to the Canary Islands) or “to solve geopolitical conflicts” (the Marriage and between Miami the Havana proposes to move the Peninsula of Florida and the Island of Cuba so that the two mentioned cities could be physically –and therefore politically- connected). Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.theartwolf.com/brecht_macba.htm - 1970 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2708 images/spacer.jpg Chance Paintings Randomly staining bed sheets with a clearly anti-pictorial, anti-representative intent. Brecht referred to these early attempts to convert time and chance into the basis of his work as a kind of corrected abstract expressionism. In this period, which coincided with the death of Jackson Pollock, he struck up relationships with artists imparting classes at Rutgers University, in particular Allan Kaprow and Robert Watts with whom he co-signed a text (A multi-dimension project, 1957). The piece was an attempt overcome and go beyond the huge influence exerted at that time by abstract expressionism, in pursuit of a form of advanced art, radical conceptual practices and multimedia. # Brecht’s closeness to John Cage, with whom he shared an interest for Oriental thinking, led him to attend the classes on Experimental Composition Cage was giving in New York. - 1957 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2709 images/spacer.jpg Toward Events: An Arrangement These works brought together objects similar in shape to the vocabulary emerging from Robert Rauschenberg’s assemblage and combination, and from the collection in the work by Joseph Cornell and Marcel Duchamp. One radical difference however lay in the insistent emphasis on the temporary and participatory nature inherent in the words event and arrangement . This quality alone reveals Cage’s impact and the originality with which Brecht had been able to broaden his sources. All of the objects made in the years immediately following this group of works included a variety of different types of scores. In some cases they would arise out of the creation of the object, while in others the object was discovered and Brecht subsequently wrote a score for it, thus highlighting the relationship between language and perception. Or, in the words of the artist, “ensuring that the details of everyday life, the random constellations of objects that surround us, stop going unnoticed.” - 1959 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2710 images/spacer.jpg Motor Vehicle Sundown (Event) 1960 to John Cage The score idea evolved between 1959 and 1962, until reaching the form of a simple white card bearing a few typed lines intended to propose an object, thought or action - 1962 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2711 images/spacer.jpg Contingent Publications a postal address in New Jersey from which he distributed his scores and event objects. - 1963 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2712 images/spacer.jpg Yam Festival planned in conjunction with Robert Watts, was created as an alternative to the gallery system in that it produced art which could not be bought, spreading the notion of non-material artistic practice and at the same time organising representations or concerts of his most recent work, alongside that of other like-minded fellow artists. - 1962 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2714 images/spacer.jpg The Book of the Tumbler on Fire According to Brecht, the title captured his perception of all his work as an investigation into the continuity of different things. The core of the book is made up of an important series of events in the form of satin-covered boxes. Brecht continued producing these boxes until fairly recently and they make up, along with the chairs, paintings, scores and all kinds of diverse formats, chapters of his unending volume. - 1964 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2719 images/spacer.jpg George Brecht - El Sourdog Hex : works 1957-1973 - 1973 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2726 images/spacer.jpg Games and Puzzles Games and Puzzles shows a box containing an assortment of different balls like rubber balls, billiard balls, and Ping-Pong balls. This work is part of a series of Fluxus boxes developed by George Maciunas and Robert Watts that were to be produced in unlimited editions. They included concepts, events, and games by various Fluxus artists; their content often consisted of found objects. The unbiased use of these works is viewed as the creative point of departure for a new beginning. The found objects assembled here are detached from their conventional use, liberated from the rules assigned to them, and are consequently made available for a new, freely invented game. If playing pieces are lost, they can be replaced with other found objects. - 2001 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2732 images/spacer.jpg Solo for Violin - 1964 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2733 images/spacer.jpg Word Event - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2734 images/works/brecht-1961-aqueous.jpg Three Aqueous Events - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2736 images/works/brecht-1961-word.jpg Word Event READ THIS WORD THEN READ THIS WORD READ THIS WORD NEXT READ THIS WORD NOW SEE ONE WORD SEE ONE WORD NEXT SEE ONE WORD NOW AND THEN SEE ONE WORD AGAIN LOOK AT THREE WORDS HERE LOOK AT THREE WORDS NOW LOOK AT THREE WORDS NOW TOO TAKE IN FIVE WORDS AGAIN TAKE IN FIVE WORDS SO TAKE IN FIVE WORDS DO IT NOW SEE THESE WORDS AT A GLANCE SEE THESE WORDS AT THIS GLANCE AT THIS GLANCE HOLD THIS LINE IN VIEW HOLD THIS LINE IN ANOTHER VIEW AND IN A THIRD VIEW SPOT SEVEN LINES AT ONCE THEN TWICE THEN THRICE THEN A FOURTH TIME A FIFTH A SIXTH A SEVENTH AN EIGHTH - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2737 images/works/Brecht-1965-Bead.jpg Bead Puzzle - 1965 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2738 images/spacer.jpg Two Vehicle Events Detail of a 3.5 by 4.5 white card with printed text. George Brecht sent this card, along with others to RV in 1961. This is one of many examples in the 1960s whereby artists employed detailed instruction for constructing an experience. - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2739 images/spacer.jpg Repository - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2740 images/spacer.jpg Concerto for Orchestra, Fluxversion 3 The orchestra is divided into two teams, winds and strings, sitting in opposing rows. Wind instruments must be prepared so as to be able to shoot out peas. This can be accomplished by inserting a long, narrow tube into wind instruments. String instruments are strung with rubber bands which are used to shoot paper missiles. Performers must hit a performer on the opposite team with a missile. A performer hit three times must leave the stage. Missiles are exchanged until all performers on one side are gone. Conductor acts as referee. - 1962 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2741 images/spacer.jpg Octet for Winds Equal number of performers seat themselves opposite each other. A large pan of water is placed between the two groups and a toy sailboat is placed on the water. Performers blow their wind instruments at the sail of the boat pushing it to the opposing group. Both groups try to blow the boat away from themselves and toward the other group. If possible, all performers should play some popular tune while blowing on the sail. Piece ends when the boat reaches one end or the other of the pan. - 1964 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2745 images/spacer.jpg unknown work - 2006 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2746 images/spacer.jpg unknown work - 2006 USA 95 Bruce Nauman 1941 2747 images/spacer.jpg unknown work - 2006 USA 22 Christian Marclay 1955 2756 images/spacer.jpg Shake Rattle and Roll (fluxmix) PHILIP SHERBURNE: Lets talk about your recent show, Shake Rattle and Roll (fluxmix). CHRISTIAN MARCLAY: It started with this idea I had of doing a project with the Swiss National Collection, taking objects--from an antique chest to an old bicycle--that the government or the historical society deemed worth saving, and using them for their sound. But that project never happened. When the Walker invited me to be an artist in residence I still had this idea kicking around in the back of my mind. And then, when I found out they had a large Fluxus collection, it all made sense because Fluxus was all about doing things in a nontraditional way, reacting to the whole art system of creating collectable objects. They were more iconoclastic, trying to make fun of the whole process, so theres a lot of humor in it. At the same time, theres a delight in the strangeness of objects. I, of course, couldn t just do anything I wanted with them, I had to wear white gloves. PS: They made you do that? CM: Well, that s museum policy. The appropriate way of handling objects is with white gloves. So it became this magic show. And that playfulness was so much in tune with what Fluxus was all about. In some cases there are nonmusical objects that I use musically, and sometimes there are musical objects that I use differently from their proper function. These are the kind of spoofing, iconoclastic, and Dadaist gestures that Fluxus was all about. And to see these objects in a museum, protected--embalmed almost--made no sense. It was contrary to the initial objective of the artists. A lot of art objects end up like that. You can t touch them, even if they re objects that were made to be interacted with. And so it was about critiquing the institutionalization of the art object, but in a very playful and humorous way. PS: I m surprised to hear that you thought of this project before you had access to the Fluxus collection. So much of it seems tied up in Fluxus, and there s so much of Fluxus in your work in terms of sound, in terms of play, and in the recycling of everyday objects. The show feels like an art mix tape. You re taking these things and throwing them into a mix. It s curatorial, but it s a performative spin on curation. CM: Creating an exhibition in a nonmuseological way has always been something I have been interested in. I did a project in 1995 in Geneva at the Musee d Art et d Histoire, which used everything in the collection that had anything to do with music. It s a historical museum filled with everything from antiquities to contemporary art, and I just selected anything that had to do with music to create these flea market-like installations. Then I did another installation at the Kunsthaus in Zurich where I was playing with the museum s collection. So, again, these shows are not didactic. They don t inform the viewer about the art object and its historical value; it's more about using the art objects like raw material in very playful ways, and it makes you look at the objects differently. PS: When did you first become aware of the Fluxus movement? CM: I discovered Fluxus in the mid-seventies when I was an art student in Geneva, Switzerland, through John Armleder and his group Ecart. This group of artists was working in sort of a post-Fluxus mode and restaging some of the performances by Fluxus artists. What struck me about these performances was that many had something to do with sound, but they were more about making fun of the classical music rituals and the traditional relationship with the audience. That early exposure to Fluxus was important in my development and was an influence on my later interests in performance art. Accessed 08.04.2007 from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1285/is_2_35/ai_n11839367 - 2005 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2757 images/spacer.jpg TV Bra for Living Sculpture With cellist Charlotte Moorman - 1969 USA 133 Tod Dockstader 1932 2763 images/spacer.jpg tango - 1964 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2771 images/spacer.jpg HOMAGE TO DICK HIGGINS (performance by Dick Higgins to last one year) During the year of performance, do not create, compose anything but waltzes and marches for the policemens band. - 1962 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2772 images/spacer.jpg HOMAGE TO LA MONTE YOUNG (preferably to follow performance of any composition of 1961 by LMY.) Erase, scrape or wash away as well as possible the previously drawn line or lines of La Monte Young or any other lines encountered, like street dividing lines, rulled paper or score lines, lines on sports fields, lines on gaming tables, lines drawn by children on sidewalks etc. - 1962 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2773 images/spacer.jpg HOMAGE TO RICHARD MAXFIELD (performance to follow performance of any tape composition of R.M.) 1. While rewinding the previously played master tape of R.Maxfield, switch on the tape recorder the “erase” switch. 2. A chicken variation on the same theme: just rewind the previously played tape of R.Maxfield without erasing. - 1962 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2774 images/spacer.jpg HOMAGE TO WALTER DE MARIA Bring all boxes of Walter de Maria, including the 4 ft. x 4 ft. x 8 ft. box to performance area by the most difficult route, like via crowded subway or bus, through skylight, window or fire escape; and then take them back same way as soon as they are brought in. - 1962 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2775 images/works/Maciunas-usasurpasses3.jpg USA SURPASSES ALL NAZI GENOCIDE RECORDS! 54.8 x 87.8 cm - 1965 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2776 images/spacer.jpg Piano Piece #13 (Carpenters Piece) FOR NAM JUNE PAIK Hammer Nails into Piano Keys. As performed by Sonic Youth in 2001s Goodbye Twentieth Century record and tour - 1962 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2777 images/spacer.jpg An Anthology - 1959 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2778 images/spacer.jpg Fluxhouse Cooperative Maciunas purchased the empty loft building for the cooperative in 1966, with the monies put up by the Film-Makers Cinematheque, and his mother, and loans from Kaplan Fund and the National Foundation for the Arts. - 1966 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2780 images/spacer.jpg Seattle Fluxus Exhibition - 1977 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2782 images/spacer.jpg Fluxus wedding For the wedding both Billie Hutchins, the woman he married, and he wore bridal gowns. Geoff Hendricks prepared a special Fluxus ceremony and officiated as the priest. The bridesmaids, Jon Hendricks and Larry Miller, were in drag and the best man, Allison Knowles, in tails. Jonas Mekas was dressed as a Franciscan monk and only spoke Lithuanian. - 1978 USA 151 George Maciunas 1931 2783 images/spacer.jpg In Memoriam To Adriano Olivetti Each performer chooses any number from a used adding machine paper roll. Performer performs whenever his number appears in a row. Each row indicates the beat of metronome. Possible actions to perform on each appearance of the number: 1) bowler hats lifted or lowered. 2) mouth, lip, tongue sounds. 3) opening, closing umbrellas etc. - 1963 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2786 images/spacer.jpg Opera Sextronique With cellist Charlotte Moorman - 1967 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2788 images/spacer.jpg Video Synthesiser Built with Shuya Abe - 1969 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2789 images/spacer.jpg Good Morning, Mr Orwell - 1984 USA 82 John Cage 1912 2798 images/spacer.jpg Cartridge Music Calls for the amplification of small objects, feathers and pipe cleaners along with furniture amplified through contact microphones - 1960 USA 82 John Cage 1912 2799 images/spacer.jpg Living Room Music Using found objects - 1940 USA 149 Nam June Paik 1932 2800 images/spacer.jpg One for Violin - 1962 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2801 images/spacer.jpg Incidental Music Five Piano Pieces. Any number playable successively or simultaneously, in any order and combination, with one another and with other pieces. 1. The piano is tilted on its base and brought to rest against part of the piano. 2. Wooden blocks. A single wooden block is placed inside the piano. A block is placed upon this block, then a third upon the second, and so forth, singly, until at least one block falls from the column. 3. Photographing the piano situation. 4. Three dried peas or beans are dropped, one after aonther, onto the keyboard. Each such seed remaining on the keyboard is attached to the key or keys nearest it with a single piece of pressure-sensitive tape. 5. The piano seat is suitably arranged, and the performer seats himself. - 1961 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2802 images/spacer.jpg Piano Piece Vase of flowers on a piano - 1962 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2803 images/spacer.jpg Composition 1960 #10 (for Bob Morris) Draw a straight line and follow it - 1960 USA 150 George Brecht 1924 2804 images/spacer.jpg Five Events eating with | between two breaths | sleep | wet hand | several words - 1961 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2805 images/spacer.jpg Trio for Strings Some of the features that set this work apart are the extended time structure, the long sustained tones and rests, and the independent entries and exits of the tones. Moreover, the interval of a major third is totally avoided. In fact, there is no use of thirds and sixths of any type either as harmony or implied melody throughout the entire work. Rather, I chose to limit myself to perfect fourths, perfect fifths, major seconds, minor seconds, major sevenths, minor sevenths, minor ninths, and a very occasional augmented eleventh. Even though this work was written in equal temperament, and I had not even begun to think about just intonation, I was already beginning to establish what became my own musical mode. That is, a mode in which the number 5 is excluded as a factor in producing the numerators and denominators of the fractions which represent the musical intervals. I found that major thirds and minor thirds factorable by 5 (e.g. 5:4, 6:5) and their tonal inversions (8:5, 5:3), were never able to convey the feeling that I wanted to express in my compositions. The premonitions of this unique musical vocabulary of intervallic and chordal structures had already begun to appear in for Brass (1957) and for Guitar (1958). But it is first here in the Trio for Strings that every chord, triad and interval can be found to comprise one of the dream chords or some subset thereof. These dream chords were later used as the tonal content of The Four Dreams of China (1962) and The Subsequent Dreams of China (1980). The Trio for Strings is the first work I composed that is comprised almost entirely of long sustained tones. It is probably my most important early musical statement. This work has been credited by critics, musicologists and art historians with the initiation of a new direction in music and art, since no one had ever before made a work that was composed completely of sustained tones. There was sustenance in Eastern and Western music but it was always a drone, a pedal point, or a sustained tone of a cantus firmus over which melodies were sung or played. It is very difficult to find any other examples of sustenance besides these types of drones in music before they were introduced in the long sustained tones of for Brass and for Guitar and finally crystallized into the Trio for Strings. In the Trio for Strings, there was no melody as each tone was separated by silence from its preceding and succeeding tones in the same voice. The texture is contrapuntal in that long sustained tones overlap in time. Melody exists only in the sense that one remembers and identifies events that have taken place over long periods of time. The concept of the expanded time structure comprised of long sustained tones and the unique tonal palette of the work came to me not by theoretical deduction but by totally inspired intuition, and subsequently developed into the creation of continuous sound and light environments presented in collaboration with Marian Zazeela in our Dream Houses, major installations extending over durations of weeks and years. Thus, the origins of the long sustained tones that came to characterize my style and formed the beginnings of minimalism in music can be traced to for Brass, for Guitar and the Trio for Strings. - 1957 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2806 images/spacer.jpg The Well-tuned Piano - 1964 USA 12 Miya Masaoka 1958 2807 images/spacer.jpg Ritual with Giant Hissing Madagascar Cockroaches - 2006 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2819 images/spacer.jpg Bye Bye Butterfly Fixed duration: 08:05 Tape 1965 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2821 images/spacer.jpg Four Meditations for Orchestra Each of the Four Meditations for Orchestra has been performed in versions for voices or smaller instrumental ensembles. There is no conventional notation used. The score consists of recipe-like instructions which are the same for each player. Each performer is responsible for their own part within the guidelines given. Since there is no written part to watch, all the performers attention can be given to sound and invention. Accessed 29.04.2007 from http://www.sara.uea.ac.uk/ - 1996 USA 127 Pauline Oliveros 1932 2822 images/spacer.jpg Out of the Dark Instrumentation: Doublebass (2), cello (2), viola (2), violin (2), or other paired instruments 1998 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2839 images/spacer.jpg 13 1 73 5:35-6 : 14 : 03 PM NYC voice, sine waves, female voice, trumpet, trombone 1973 USA 76 La Monte Young 1935 2840 images/spacer.jpg Drift Study 14 VII 73 9 : 27 : 27-10 : 06 : 41 PM NYC Fixed duration: 39:14 sine waves 1973 USA 23 John Oswald 1953 2845 images/spacer.jpg Uncut by John Greyson - 2005 USA 23 John Oswald 1953 2846 images/spacer.jpg Sonic Outlaws by Craig Baldwin. - 1995 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2848 images/spacer.jpg Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas I This first part of Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas is a sound installation in which a pure wave slowly sweeps above and below a fixed wave, causing crests of sound to move back and forth between two loudspeakers. From Lovely Music sleeve notes. two loud speakers 1972 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2849 images/spacer.jpg Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas III This third part of Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas is similar to the first part with the addition of snare drums which resonate in sympathy with the sounds. two loud speakers and snare drums 1972 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2850 images/spacer.jpg Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas IV In this fourth part of Still and Moving Lines of Silence in Families of Hyperbolas dancers discover and move in valleys of quiet sound produced by the destructive interferences of one [sound] wave flowing from two loud speakers. From Lovely Music sleeve notes. loud speakers and dancers 1972 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2851 images/spacer.jpg Wire I Electroacoustic Music and 80ft long wire 1979 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2852 images/spacer.jpg Wire II Electroacoustic Music and 80ft long wire 1979 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2853 images/spacer.jpg Wire III Electroacoustic Music and 80ft long wire 1979 USA 32 Alvin Lucier 1931 2854 images/spacer.jpg Wire IV Electroacoustic Music and 80ft long wire 1979 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2896 images/spacer.jpg Collage #1 (Blue Suede) - 1961 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2897 images/spacer.jpg Analog #1: Noise Study - 1961 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2899 images/spacer.jpg Ergodos I. For John Cage - 1963 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2900 images/spacer.jpg Choreogram. variable duration. 1964 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2901 images/spacer.jpg Collage #2 Viet Flakes Concrete music for the film by Carolee Schneemann - 1966 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2902 images/spacer.jpg Postal Pieces. 1. Beast. String bass (1971); 7. For Buell Neidlinger. 2. A Rose Is A Rose Is A Round. Voices (1970); variable duration. 3. (night). For percussion perhaps, or . . . (1971); variable duration. For Harold Budd. 4. Koan. Solo violin (1971); 10 . [R: Malcolm Goldstein, on Sounding the New Violin , ¿What Next? WN0005 CD and cass.] 5. Maximusic. Verbal score for percussionist (1965); variable duration. For Max Neuhaus. 6. Swell Piece #1. Verbal score for any number of sustained-tone instruments (1967); variable duration. 7a. Swell Piece #2. Verbal score (1971); variable duration. 7b. Swell Piece #3. Verbal score (1971); variable duration. 8. August Harp. Solo harp (1971); 20 . For Susan Allen. 9. Cellogram. Solo cello (1971); 7 . For Joel Krosnick. 10. Having Never Written a Note for Percussion. Solo percussionist (1971); variable duration. For John Bergamo. - 1965 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2903 images/spacer.jpg Quintext I-V: Five Textures for String Quartet and Bass: Some Recent Thoughts for Morton Feldman, Clouds for Iannis Xenakis, A Choir of Angels for Carl Ruggles, Parabolas and Hyperbolas for Edgard Varèse, Spectra for Harry Partch - 1972 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2904 images/spacer.jpg Spectral CANON for CONLON Nancarrow Player piano 1974 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2905 images/spacer.jpg Harmonium #4 10 instruments and tape-delay system 1978 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2907 images/spacer.jpg Septet. 6 electric guitars and bass 1981 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2908 images/spacer.jpg deus ex machina Tam-tam player, tape-delay system, technician, and unwary audience 1982 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2909 images/spacer.jpg Bridge. 2 microtonal pianos, 8 hands, in a microtonal tuning system 1984 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2911 images/spacer.jpg Tempest II Mechanical drum 1994 USA 152 James Tenney 1934 2912 images/spacer.jpg In a large, reverberant space Variable instrumentation, 12 or more instruments 1995 USA 154 Jean Tinguely 1925 2917 images/works/Tinguely-1960-newyork.jpg Homage to New York a self-destructing machine sculpture in the garden of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. 1960 USA 154 Jean Tinguely 1925 2918 images/works/Tinguely-1962-endof_the_world.jpg Study for an End of the World No. 2 sculpture group that self-destructs in the presence of an audience in the desert - 1962 USA 154 Jean Tinguely 1925 2934 images/works/Tinguely1973-chaos.jpg Chaos No. 1 - 1973 USA 154 Jean Tinguely 1925 2936 images/spacer.jpg La Cascade - 1981 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2937 images/spacer.jpg Adapted Guitar I - 1952 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2945 images/works/partch-1941-adapted_guitar.jpg Adapted Guitar This picture apparently shows Partch with the original Adapted Guitar, possibly playing the first version of Barstow -- Eight Hitchhikers’ Inscriptions from a Highway Railing at Barstow, California. The guitar, which Partch had purchased in New York seven years earlier, was transformed in 1940 while he was living on the California coast south of Big Sur. To enable performance in just intonation, Partch attached a brass fingerboard, into which stainless steel raised frets were inserted. While Barstow is the only composition to come from Partch’s Big Sur years, it is, in it’s many versions, one of his most well known. 1941 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2951 images/works/Partch-1965-Cone-gongs.jpg Cone Gongs The cast-off remnants of technologys march are used for a higher purpose. Two greenish yellow aluminum gongs fashioned from the nose cones of airplane fuel tanks are mounted like mushrooms and played with gong mallets. - 1965 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2953 images/works/Partch-1964-Eucal_blossom.jpg Eucal Blossom 33 tuned lengths of thick-walled bamboo built on eucalyptus-branch base that makes the instrument resemble the shape of a flower. The eucal blossom is higher-pitched and much crisper in sound than its relative, the boo. The eucal blossom was only used by Partch in only his two last works. - 1967 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2954 images/works/Partch-1965-Gourd-tree.jpg Gourd Tree Twelve Chinese temple bells individually gourd-resonated and fitted to a eucalyptus bough. - 1964 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2955 images/works/Partch-1965-Harmonic_canon_III.jpg Harmonic Canon II 30 inches high in front, 36 at the back (not including the music rack); slightly more than 6 feet long. The resonating chambers are each 30.5 by 22.5 by 5.5 inches, outside. As with Harmonic Canon I, any pattern that is desired. Here, the bridges are made especially for each composition. There are 44 strings on each; without bridges those on Pollux would sound a unison C, approximately the C below middle C, while the upper 22 of Castor would sound the same unison, and the lower 22 would sound the C an octave below. The base and rack are Plexiglas. The resonating box, including the thin soundboards, is redwood. 1965 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2959 images/works/Partch-1963-Mazda_marimba.jpg Mazda marimba 24 tuned light bulbs. It is extremely delicate, amplified, and sounds something like a coffee percolator. - 1963 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2960 images/works/Partch-1965-Quadrangularis_reversum.jpg Quadrangularis Reversum Companion instrument to the diamond marimba, the quadrangularis reversum is a marimba that has a diamond-shaped center that it is the exact mirror (reverse) of the diamond marimba. On either side of the diamond are flanks of extra bars in an alto range. All bars are resonated by hanging pieces of bamboo and the entire instrument is contained in a eucalyptus branch and redwood structure that is certainly one of Partchs greatest musical instrument sculptures. The quadrangularis reversum was used by Partch in only his two last pieces. - 1965 USA 153 Harry Partch 1901 2963 images/works/Partch-1963-_Zymo-Xyl.jpg Zymo-Xyl Three instruments in one - fourteen high pitched oak xylophone bars; seventeen tuned whisky bottles; two hub caps and an aluminum kettle top. - 1963 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2964 images/works/Buchla-1963-100-system-large.jpeg 100 series The Modular Electronic Music System is composed of functional modules, each designed to generate a particular class of signals or perform a specific type of signal processing. Each module is 7 inches high and 4 1/4 inches (or an integral multiple thereof) wide. Up to 25 modules sharing a single power supply may be assembled in a single cabinet to form a super-module. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com The system employs three varieties of signals, each with a distinctly different function: Audio signals, the raw material of electronic music, are formed by various sorts of generators (sine, square, sawtooth, harmonic) or are produced externally (tape loop, radio, microphone). In composing a piece, signals may be filtered, gated, mixed, modulated, or otherwise processed. A standard level of 0 dB (ref. 600 Ohms) is employed for audio signals within the system. Control voltages, used to determine frequencies, envelope characteristics, amplitudes and other parameters, are generated by keyboards, programmable voltage sources and envelope generators. The standard control voltage range is from 0 to 15 volts. Timing pulses are originated by keyboards, programmable sequencers, and pulse generators. They are used to trigger notes, open gates, or initiate chains of musical events. Timing pulses are about 15 volts in amplitude. The rules for interconnecting are straight-forward. Any number of inputs may be connected to a single output. Timing pulse outputs may be paralleled and connected to one input. The system output may be derived from any module; output is of sufficient magnitude to drive line inputs on tape recorders or sensitive inputs on power amplifiers. Modular Electronic Music System 1963 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2965 images/works/Buchla-1970-200.jpeg 200 series THE ELECTRIC MUSIC BOX, Series 200, is a comprehensive collection of precision electronic modules for generating and processing sound. It is a system designed for those who desire simultaneous control of many aspects of sound and who demand professional standards of performance and reliability. The system features unusually high functional density, extended dynamic range, self-contained monitoring (preview) facilities, and unrestrained expandability. Interesting new techniques for polyphonic signal generation, dynamic spectral and timbral modification, complex pattern generation, and control of spatial location and movement are introduced. Organization is optimized for compactness, ease of access, and ready comprehension. Connections within the system are made with color-coded patchcords, for maximum graphic visual feedback, zero crosstalk, optimal utilization of panel space, and unlimited flexibility and expandability. A clear and consistent distinction is maintained, both in modular function and in interconnection, between signals (the raw material of electronic music), control voltages (defining parametric structure, e.g. pitch, timbre, intensity, location), and timing pulses (defining event times and durations). Components of the Electric Music Box are designed to interface readily with digital computers. All musical parameters are voltage (and therefore computer) controllable; necessary logic supplies, tracking adjustments, and digital outputs are incorporated; and the prerequisites of high stability and predictability are met. Even the smallest Electric Music Box can be expanded to a hybrid digital-analog system incorporating programmed patching, multiple arbitrary function generation, and powerful editing and performance capabilities. The Electric Music Box can be configured to serve a variety of applications, including electronic music composition and performance, music education, psychoacoustic studies, environmental control, special effects generation, bio-feedback research, and video synthesis. Buchla and Associates can supply systems, auxiliary equipment and complete studios to suit these and other applications. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com Electric Music Box 1970 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2966 images/works/Buchla-1971-500-system-large.jpeg 500 series digitally controlled analog synthesizer 1971 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2967 images/spacer.jpg Series 300 A line of components that enables digital control of 200 series modues, the 300 series includes a computer, several peripherals, various interfaces, and a specially developed music language. 300 series systems can be interfaced to virtually any computer, but software has initially been developed for 8080 and Z80 based machines. The model 300A Processor is a compact S-100 based computer with an 8080 CPU, 24kB memory, and interfaces for cassette rocorder, video display, EIA terminal, and the 300 series data bus. It requires an auxiliary cassette recorder for program and data storage and a video monitor for display. The model 301A Disk Store is a miniature floppy disk drive complete with power supply, controller, cables, and bootstrap loader. It plugs into a slot in the 300A processor, eliminates the need for a cassette recorder, and is particularly recommended for those interested in assembly language programming. Patch IV is an advanced, interactive, real-time music language designed to facilitate effective communication between musician and 300 series system. It is supplied on minidisk or cassette, as desired. Patch IV is fully documented and will be supported and refined by ourselves and other users. Several specialized interfaces are available to facilitate intrasystem communication. The include the 300-100 System Interface for adapting to the S-100 bus, the 318 Interface for keyboard models 218 and 219, and the 359 Interface, which supports from one to four model 259 complex waveform generators. To implement digital control of the Music Easel, the model 308 Controller is offered. Its cable assembly plugs into the program card socket, resulting in an unusually versatile and economical computer-based system. The model 329 Patchbay provides for unobtrusive interconnection between 200 series modules and 300 series hardware. Completing the 300 series lineup is the model 364 Multiple Arbitrary Function Generator, which generates, under software control, up to 64 simultaneous static or dynamically varying voltages for application to the various voltage controlled parameters in a 200 series system. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com digital control for 200 series modules 1971 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2968 images/works/Buchla-1972-musiceasel-large.jpeg Music Easel The Music Easel is a highly evolved electronic musical instrument. It maintains many of the design philosophies and functional characteristics of its predecessors, the 100 series Modular Electronic Music System and the 200 series Electric Music Box. The Music Easel introduces some substantial innovations in electronic instrument design - innovations that make it a truly expressive real-time instrument for composition and performance. The Music Easel contains many of the elements commonly used to generate and process sound: a keyboard, sequencer, pulser, preamplifier, envelope detector and balanced modulator; oscillators, gates, envelope generators and filters; facilities for mixing, monitoring and reverberating. Many of these elements possess an unusual degree of sophistication. The keyboard is solid state, with touch sensitive, chromatically organized keys, accurate and reproducible pressure output, tactile feedback, octave shifting, and voltage controlled portamento. A complex oscillator, developed through computer aided simulation studies, is a rich source of complex audio spectra. featuring voltage control of pitch, timbre and waveform, this oscillator provides the Music Easel with a timbral range unapproached by other musical instruments. The connectives are as important as the elements to be connected. Interconnection within the Music Easel is accomplished with a combination of switching and patching, a system which is flexible, expedient, and open ended. Logical, compact organization and color coded graphic feedback facilitate rapid and effective interaction. Multiple correlations between a performers actions and the Music Easels responses are readily implemented, enabling a degree of expressive articulation heretofore impossible with electronic instrumentation. Further augmenting the Music Easels real time performability is the capability of permanently storing and immediately retrieving complete instrument definitions (patches) or portions thereof. (An instrument definition includes settings of parameters, degrees of articulation, switch positions and interconnections.) Storage entails the installment of resistors on program cards; retrieval is accomplished by plugging in a desired program card and activating a switch. With its extended timbral resources, unusual expressive capability, and its facility for storage and recall of instrument definitions, the Music Easel opens new horizons to the composer and performer. To appreciate its potential as a new musical instrument the Music Easel must be seen, heard and played. Music Easels are provided with six blank program cards, an assortment of programming resistors, and a comprehensive instruction manual. Available accessories include additional program cards and resistors and a 12 volt battery pack. Complete with case and charger, this battery pack will power a Music Easel for approximately three hours per charge. Electrical requirements are 30 watts at 110 volts A.C. or 2 amperes at 12 volts D.C. Preamp input impedance is 1 megaohm; gain is 30 dB. Nominal program output level is 1 volt R.M.S., sufficient to drive tape recorders or power amplifiers. A separate 2 watt monitor output will drive headsets or low level speakers. Housed in a rugged aluminum case, the Music Easel is built to travel. Weight is 30 pounds; dimensions are 6 x 17 x 22 (carry on baggage for jetliners). Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1972 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2969 images/works/Buchla-1978-touche-alone.jpg Touché Touché combines both analog and digital circuitry in a unique hybrid architecture that develops the advantages of both approaches. User communications and data processing are handled by a self-contained 16 bit computer operating under the direction of FOIL, an advanced interactive music language especially designed for Touché. Easy to learn and use, FOIL applies techniques of man-machine communication that facilitate rapid access to Touchés vocabulary and enable real-time editing and performance. Sound production in Touché is accomplished with a pipelined, multiplexed digital signal generator that assures absolute pitch accuracy (crystal derived) and provides timbral possibilities formerly available only to those with access to major computer installations. Touchés 24 digital oscillators are combined into eight voices that are playable in a variety of polyphonic, split keyboard, and multi-instrument modes. Additionally, Touché contains a specialized hybrid processor that accepts multiple user inputs and simultaneously directs the progress of 64 acoustic parameters, each with a time resolution of 1/1000 of a second. This facility enables precise specification of complex sonic detail and offers expanded possibilities for expressive articulation. Touchés programmability extends far beyond the storage of knob settings - instrument definitions include precise specification of multiple temporal variables as well as minute details of the timbral palette. Up to 32 labeled instrument definitions are instantly accessible; additional definitions may be stored on tape for subsequent retrieval. Touché is flexible - with practically unlimited signal generation capabilities, Touché relies on software to realize its operational characteristics. And that makes updating easy and economical - new versions of FOIL will keep Touché a growing and vital instrument with ever-expanding resources. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com hybrid (digital/analog) instrument 1978 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2970 images/works/Buchla-1982-400-sequence-large.jpeg Buchla 400 The 400s unique architecture features three computers, each of a different nature, and each optimized to its particular function. SERVING AS THE NERVE CENTER OF THE INSTRUMENT is a general purpose digital computer. Programmed to perform user communication, data handling, and supervisory control, this host computer may be reprogrammed to realize future musical needs or alternative instrumental concepts. Receiving instructions and data from the host, a second computer (called the multiple arbitrary function generator), directs the progress of 64 acoustic parameters, each with a time resolution of 1/1000 of a second. This facility enables precise specification of complex sonic detail and offers expanded possibilities for expressive articulation. A third computer, this one a pipeline digital signal generator, produces the instruments six voices. Built into this computer are unusually powerful algorithms for timbre generation, including frequency modulation, waveshape interpolation and timbre modulation (unique to the Buchla, this technique significantly augments the electronic vocabulary). Gating and filtering are performed by voltage-controlled analog circuitry, providing a dynamic range exceeding 90 dB. Specialized phasing and location circuitry provides unusual depth and imaging in the resultant acoustic field and enables independent location of each voice in stereo space. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1982 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2971 images/works/Buchla-1987-700-photo.jpg 700 A direct descendent in a prestigious line of electronic musical instruments, the Buchla 700 continues a tradition of combining inventive musical.and instrumental concepts with state-of-the-art electronics technology. THE 700S ARCHITECTURE includes four dedicated computers, each of a different nature, and each optimized to its particular function. The nerve center of the instrument is a general purpose digital computer. Responsible for user communication, data processing, and supervisory control, this host computer can be programmed to accommodate varied musical needs. A second computer massages incoming data. It directs conversion of analog voltages into digital form, discards redundant information, and transmits essential data to the host computer. Receiving instructions and data from the host, a third computer (called the multiple arbitrary function generator) directs the instantaneous progress of 190 acoustic variables, each with a time resolution of 1/2000 of a second. This facility enables specification of complex sonic detail and extends the possibilities for expressive control. A fourth computer, essentially a pipelined digital signal processor (DSP), is responsible for producing the 700s twelve voices. Built into this computer are unusually powerful algorithms for sound generation, including frequency modulation, waveshape interpolation, and timbre modulation (unique to the Buchla, this technique significantly augments the electronic vocabulary. Custom analog circuitry, with a dynamic range of 100 dB, is used for metering and control of dynamics. Specialized phasing and location circuitry provides unusual depth and imaging in the resultant acoustic field and enables independent location of each voice in stereo space. Based on sealed membrane technology, the 700s input structure provides a comprehensive interactive editing and mode selection facility. Position-sensitive transducers are used to implement conceptual potentiometers, flywheels, switches, ribbon controllers, and other gesture-sensitive paraphernalia. Light emitting diodes display the status of touch sensitive keys, and a super-twisted liquid crystal display indicates the functions and settings of touch sensitive controls. Three MIDI ports comprise the 700 s primary performance inputs. Under software control, MIDI channels from any port(s) can be assigned to any of the 700 s voices, thus enabling simultaneous control from multiple MIDI devices (which might include keyboards, guitar controllers, drum machines, pitch followers, space wands or personal computers). Other inputs accept control voltages, pulses, foot pedals, and SMPTE time code. Two RS232 ports provide for communication with computers, modems, terminals, and printers. Control voltage and pulse outputs, three MIDI outputs, and special control signal outputs complete the 700 s comprehensive I/O facility. In addition to the self-contained LCD display, the 700 can drive an external video monitor that conforms to the EGA standard. This high resolution, multi-color display, coupled with the 700 s extensive input structure and sophisticated high level music software, provides the instrument with an efficient interactive editing and performance environment. A built-in 3 1/2 inch disk drive is used to store data for subsequent retrieval or to facilitate software exchange with other users. Instrument definitions, tuning tables, waveshape tables, scores, and high level languages can all be stored on microdisks. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1987 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2972 images/spacer.jpg OB-Mx - 1995 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2973 images/works/Buchla-1990-thunderhand.jpeg Thunder THUNDER IS A SPECIALIZED MIDI CONTROLLER that senses various aspects of the touch of hands on its playing surface, and transmits the resultant gestural information via MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) to responsive electronic instrumentation. THUNDER is an alternative controller. Making no attempt to emulate the appearance or playing techniques of existing acoustic instruments, THUNDER introduces new concepts for defining musically interesting relationships between performance gesture and modern electronic vocabularies. THUNDERs multi-faceted playing surface is organized to complement the shape and reach of the human hand; its 36 individual elements sense a performers slightest touch. All of THUNDERs keys respond to pressure; some sense position as well; others incorporate light emitting diodes used to indicate key status or currently selected options. Called STORM, THUNDER s built-in operating language performs the essential function of defining the potential interaction between a musician and his instrument. Designed for use by musicians (programming experience not required), STORM is both user friendly and musically powerful. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1990 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2974 images/works/Buchla-1996-lightning.jpg Lightning II LIGHTNING II is a specialized MIDI controller that senses the position and movement of handheld wands and transforms this information to MIDI signals for expressive control of electronic musical instrumentation. In addition to functioning as a powerful MIDI controller, LIGHTNING II, with its self contained 32 voice synthesizer, comprises a complete, ready to play instrument. The bulk of LIGHTNING IIs electronics is housed in a half rack cabinet. (This pic is not to scale, and the actual unit is not this fuzzy) A remote head, designed to be mounted on a standard mike stand in front of a performer, contains optics and numeric displays. Based on principles of optical triangulation, LIGHTNING gathers its information by tracking tiny infrared transmitters that are built into baton-like wands. Unencumbered by wires, these wands provide complete freedom of movement within a performance space that can be as large as 12 feet high by 20 feet wide. Basically, LIGHTNING II senses the horizontal and vertical position of each hand, for a total of four independent coordinates. From this information, LIGHTNINGs digital signal processor computes instantaneous velocity and acceleration, and performs detailed analysis of gesture. An easily mastered, musically oriented interface language allows the user to define relationships between various gestures and potential musical responses. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1996 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2975 images/works/Buchla-1999-marimba.jpg Marimba Lumina Modeled somewhat after its acoustic namesake, Marimba Lumina is an electronic MIDI controller that brings an extended vocabulary and range of expression to the mallet instrument family. Marimba Luminas playing surface includes a traditionally arrayed set of electronic bars and some (not so traditional) trigger pads and strips (reminiscent of those early ribbon controllers). The instrument is played with special foam covered mallets. Although primarily a controller, Marimba Lumina has a built in synthesizer, and can thus function as a complete instrument, ready to plug in and play. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 1999 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2976 images/works/Buchla-2000-marimba3point5.jpg Marimba Lumina 3.5 Modeled somewhat after its acoustic namesake, Marimba Lumina is an electronic MIDI controller that brings an extended vocabulary and range of expression to the mallet instrument family. Marimba Luminas playing surface includes a traditionally arrayed set of electronic bars and some (not so traditional) trigger pads and strips (reminiscent of those early ribbon controllers). The instrument is played with special foam covered mallets. Although primarily a controller, Marimba Lumina has a built in synthesizer, and can thus function as a complete instrument, ready to plug in and play. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 2000 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2977 images/works/Buchla-2001-ML25.jpeg Marimba Lumina 2.5 In response to requests for a more compact instrument, Buchla and Associates has created the Marimba Lumina 2.5, a close cousin to the 3 1/2 octave version. The ML 2.5 achieves its diminutive 44 inch length by shedding one octave. It fits in the trunk of a compact, travels with standard baggage, and doesnt hog stage space. Weighing in at a mere 15 pounds, it cuts chiropractic bills to the bone. In compensation for its restricted range, the Lumina 2.5 sports a dedicated transposition key; notes can be shifted an octave or two with the stroke of a mallet. 12 special pads can call an additional octaves worth of notes. The instrument is provided with 2 mallets and two pucks; the latter are small versions of shuffleboard pucks. Moved around on the bars, they can generate notes or can adjust MIDI controllable parameters. All other features of the original Marimba Lumina are retained in the Marimba Lumina 2.5. Full sized, location sensitive bars; mallet differentiation; extensive on-board sounds and effects; comprehensive editor; zoning and layering till the cows come home. Complete with built in synth, two pucks, two mallets, and a memory card, the Marimba Lumina 2.5 is priced at a modest $2495. Available accessories include cases, additional mallets, and a solar panel for those wanting independence from the power grid. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.buchla.com - 2001 USA 156 Don Buchla 1937 2978 images/works/Buchla-2002-Piano_Bar.jpg Piano Bar What makes the PianoBar unique is the revolutionary technology utilized in the Scanner Bar. The Scanner Bar sits ever so slightly above the pianos keys; nothing touches the keys, leaving the touch and feel wonderfully unaffected. The Scanner Bar is less than 1/2 thick and rests against the fall board out of the way of flying fingers. The Pedal Sensor rests underneath the pianos pedals to register their motion. The Scanner Bar and Pedal Sensor work together to capture the full range of your expressive touch - from resounding chords to delicate passages. The sensors feed the note and the velocity of the note to the Control Module where it is transformed into MIDI information and can be used to trigger over 300 built-in sounds. The configuration of MIDI is called a Setup. There are a total of 100 Setups in the Control Module; 20 can be stored on the portable Library Card. A Setup contains information about what sounds are played on the 16 MIDI channels, programmable zones, volume, velocity curves, and other functions. The Control Modules internal sound generator houses a large array of high quality sounds that can be played by the piano keys. These sounds, layered with the sound of the acoustic piano, can add an exciting new dimension to your playing. The PianoBar is portable and can be installed on virtually any 88-key piano - it goes wherever you go. It all comes in a rugged carrying case for easy transport. Accessed 31.05.2007 from http://www.moogmusic.com/detail.php?main_product_id=71 - 2002 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2984 images/spacer.jpg Heavenly Menagerie - 1950 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2987 images/spacer.jpg Bells of Atlantis - 1952 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2988 images/spacer.jpg Jazz of Lights - 1956 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2989 images/spacer.jpg The Very Eye of Night - 1959 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2990 images/spacer.jpg Bridges-Go-Round - 1958 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2991 images/spacer.jpg Mixed Emotions - 1999 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2992 images/spacer.jpg The Circe Circuit - 1982 USA 155 Louis and Bebe Barron 1920 2993 images/spacer.jpg Elegy for a Dying Planet - 1982 USA 164 Gordon Monahan 1956 3042 images/works/Monahan-1988-comeon.jpg Come On Baby Ride With Me... Installation on the MetroMover elevated train system in Miami, Florida. Each time a train pulls into a station, a 7-second snippet of sound is played over the trains PA system to accompany the opening of the train door. There are a total of twelve train cars on the system and each train car has its own set of two sounds that alternately play back at each station. The sounds are 7-second long excerpts from a diverse selection of musical genres, including Country and Western, Easy Listening, Free Jazz, Inuit Throat Singing, African Drumming, TV Sound Effects, Sound Poetry, etc. The train system is fully automated with no driver, and one of the impressions created when an unexpected sound effect plays over the PA system is that something in the automated system is failing, or that someone in central control is screwing around with the PA system. The piece was banned, apparently due to these aesthetic problems, by the Assistant Director of Metro-Dade Transit after running for two days. This work was commissioned for the 1988 New Music America Festival by Dade County Art In Public Places. © Gordon Monahan 1988. Accessed 02.07.2007 from http://www.gordonmonahan.com - 1988 USA 164 Gordon Monahan 1956 3044 images/works/Monahan-1990-fromnowhere.jpg Music From Nowhere In the Music From Nowhere series a variety of loudspeaker cabinets are transformed into acoustic sound-producing devices. The actual speakers are removed from inside the speaker cabinets and the cabinet interiors are refitted with mechanical-acoustic sound-producing systems. All devices are automated so that they work independently for an unlimited length of time. These may be modified water fountains, mechanical vibrators, or logic and motor-driven systems that articulate acoustic sounds. Each system is designed with built-in mechanical variables to produce variation or indeterminacy within the sound, thus helping to create the illusion that one is listening to a recording being broadcast through the given speaker cabinet. Each speaker cabinet has a plexiglas backing so that the viewer can see inside the box. These fake loudspeakers are exhibited together in a room so that a form of real musique concrete is achieved. The loudspeaker can be regarded as a profane oracle. It not only gives us our daily music, but more potently, it can define a lifestyle for the user: punk, heavy metal devotee, hippie, opera buff. There are many packaging formats for the sources of sounds we hear through loudspeakers: magnetic tape, vinyl disk, digital chip, digital disk, digital tape. All of these packaged sounds are given life when broadcast through a loudspeaker. However, the system we depend upon to give our music its life actually gives us something artificial: loudspeaker music is a pre-fabricated simulation of reality. For instance, the so-called bands we listen to in pop music recordings do not play together, they over-dub one track at a time to create an illusion of ensemble. And the resulting music is then transferred many rooms away by electrical impulses far removed from the reality of say, a vibrating string. In the Music From Nowhere series I have removed the loudspeakers from the loudspeaker cabinets and replaced them with real, acoustically-produced sounds to create a kind of fake loudspeaker. In spite of this, one still considers these objects to be speakers ; what else could you call them? When confronted with one of these speakers I have found that almost all viewers assume that they are listening to recorded or amplified sound. But these are packages of live, natural, environmental sounds. When one or more of these speakers share the same acoustical space they can form a composition not unlike pieces by the composers of the musique concrete movement. And as with recorded sound, these pieces are archives of sound that will change only when the original sound is removed from the cabinet (or erased from the medium). If unaltered, these sounds will remain the same, or perhaps degenerate over time as most recorded media will. In this way, these pieces can be considered analogous to other packaged sound media and in fact can be considered a new packaging format for sound that is simultaneously lo- and hi-fi. Each of these loudspeaker cabinets has a secret history that is their own. In past lives they may have broadcast the same music or radio programs at the same time, thus linking to each other through the global stream of electromagnetic communication. They have been oracles of fantasy for their listeners. Each sound that I have placed in these cabinets alludes to the past audio lives of the speakers that once occupied these packages. Perhaps for a fleeting moment some years ago, simulations of these very sounds were broadcast through these cabinets. ©Gordon Monahan 1989 Accessed 02.07.2007 from http://www.gordonmonahan.com - 1990 USA 164 Gordon Monahan 1956 3045 images/works/Monahan-1990-aquaeolianwhirlpll.jpeg Aquaeolian Whirlpool A sound installation produced at the New York Hall of Science. A 3.20 meter-high vortex of water in a plexiglas tube is created by pumping water through the tube, and sucking it out from the bottom. An array of 35 meter-long piano wires are anchored to the bottom of the tube and as the water vortex flows across them, aquaeolian tones are induced in the piano wires. The wires rise vertically to a soundboard near the ceiling of the space. Contact pick-ups are attached to the soundboard and the resulting audio signals are sent to a mixer. The inputs to the mixer are automatically switched on and off in random combinations and amplified into the room below. The sometimes thunderous sub-acqeous tones accompany the ebb and flow of the vortex which has the look of a tornado. The Aquaeolian Whirlpool demonstrates that the music of aeolian harps can be transposed from the medium of air to the medium of water; that the music produced in both cases is a kindred phenomenon; that the flowing of water and air is fundamental to our production of music; and that in many cases, water and air are interchangeable substances in the generation and transmission of sound. ©Gordon Monahan 1990 Accessed 02.07.2007 from http://www.gordonmonahan.com - 1990 USA 165 Halim El-Dabh 1921 3068 images/spacer.jpg Leiyla and the Poet - 1955 USA 165 Halim El-Dabh 1921 3069 images/spacer.jpg Electronic Fanfare with Otto Luening - 1955 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3071 images/works/Monk-2006-Impermance.jpg Impermanence Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 6 Performers, 2 Musicians 2006 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3072 images/spacer.jpg MAGIC FREQUENCIES Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 6 Performers, 2 Musicians. 6 Voices, Percussion, 2 Keyboards, Theremin, Violin 1998 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3073 images/spacer.jpg A CELEBRATION SERVICE Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 13 Performers 1996 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3074 images/spacer.jpg THE POLITICS OF QUIET Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 12 Performers. 10 Voices, 2 Keyboards, French Horn, Violin, Bowed Psaltry 1996 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3075 images/spacer.jpg VOLCANO SONGS Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 1 Performer 1994 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3076 images/spacer.jpg ATLAS: AN OPERA IN THREE PARTS Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 29 Performers. 18 Voices, 2 Keyboards, Clarinet, Bass Clarinet, Sheng, Bamboo Sax, 2 Violins, Viola, 2 Celli, French Horn, Percussion, Shawm 1991 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3077 images/spacer.jpg FACING NORTH Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 2 Performers. 2 Voices, Tape Developed in collaboration with Robert Een 1990 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3079 images/works/Monk-1983-TheGames.jpg THE GAMES Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 16 Performers. 16 Voices, Synthesizer, Keyboards Flemish Bagpipes, Bagpipes, Chinese Horn and Rauschpfeife 1983 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3080 images/spacer.jpg TURTLE DREAMS Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 7 Performers. 4 Voices, 2 Electric Organs 1983 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3081 images/spacer.jpg SPECIMEN DAYS: A CIVIL WAR OPERA Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 15 Performers. 14 Voices, Piano, 2 electric Organs 1981 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3082 images/spacer.jpg MUSIC CONCERT WITH FILM Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 8 Performers 1981 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3083 images/spacer.jpg RECENT RUINS Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 14 Performers 1979 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3084 images/spacer.jpg THE PLATEAU SERIES Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 8 Performers. 5 Voices, Tape 1978 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3085 images/spacer.jpg THE TRAVELOGUE SERIES: From 1972-76. PARIS/VENICE-MILAN/CHACON Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org In collaboration with Ping Chong 30 Performers 1972 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3086 images/spacer.jpg ANTHOLOGY AND SMALL SCROLL Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 9 Performers 1974 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3087 images/spacer.jpg VESSEL: AN OPERA EPIC Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org 75 Performers 1971 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3088 images/spacer.jpg CHILDREN Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Black and White, Silent, 9 Minutes, 16MM. 1967 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3089 images/spacer.jpg BALLBEARING This film was designed as an installation piece, to play continuously forward and backward for an unrestricted time period. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Silent, 6.5 and 13 minutes, 16MM. 1969 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3090 images/spacer.jpg MOUNTAIN Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Silent, 10 Minutes, 16MM. 1971 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3091 images/spacer.jpg HUMBOLDTS CURRENT A 1910 home movie of Humboldt and his wife on the beach in Asbury Park. Shown in the Obie Award winning piece of the same title by Ping Chong. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Black and White, Silent, 5 Minutes, S-8 and 16MM. 1977 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3092 images/spacer.jpg 16 MILLIMETER EARRINGS The film received a Merit Award at The Dance Film Festival in New York City, 1980. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Sound, 25 Minutes, 16MM.Voice, Guitar, Tapes 1980 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3093 images/spacer.jpg PARIS PARIS was first performed in 1972, the first part of THE TRAVELOGUE SERIES, a musical theater piece on journeys imaginary and real, to places with a unique and formative role in history and our consciousness. PARIS is an evocation of place; the ambiance, inhabitants, and mood of a location. KTCA-TV received the Corporation for Public Broadcasting First Place for Performance Programming for PARIS. The video received an Honorable Mention in the 26th Annual American Film Festival sponsored by the Educational Film Library Association, and was also selected for screening at the International Public Television conference in Belgium. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Sound, 26 Minutes, 1, 3/4 and 1/2 videotape. 1982 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3095 images/spacer.jpg MERMAID ADVENTURES This film was projected in the Pre-set section of the stage production TURTLE DREAMS (Cabaret). Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Silent, 10 Minutes, 16MM. 1983 USA 53 Meredith Monk 1942 3096 images/spacer.jpg 24 HOURS OF FACES: Part I and II Part I was used in the Shrine Installation of VOLCANO SONGS and ran as a continous loop. Part II was used in the live performance. Accessed 29th July 2007 from http://www.meredithmonk.org Color, Silent, 3/4 and 1/2 videotape. 1994 USA 165 Halim El-Dabh 1921 3098 images/spacer.jpg Symphony for 1,000 drums With El-Dabh suspended above the crowd, a thousand drummers began a heartbeat rhythm, progressing to more intricate patterns as El-Dabh directed from above. Around the world, drummers joined in to change the rhythm of the planet, and to bring peace to the lands of Earth. Accessed 29.07.2007 from http://halimeldabh.com/front/newwork.html - 2006 USA 165 Halim El-Dabh 1921 3099 images/spacer.jpg Emerge Featured Halim El-Dabh, theremin, sine wave generator, electronically processed derabucca, and voice; Robert Labaree, electronically processed çeng (Turkish harp); and Bob Gluck, electronically processed shofar. - 2007 USA 24 Vito Acconci 1940 3112 images/spacer.jpg Virtual Pleasure Mask Satirical Comment on Virtual Reality HMDs - 1993 USA 83 Bruce Odland 1952 3116 images/spacer.jpg Tonic a site-specific work created by sound artist Bruce Odland in partnership with Sam Auinger. Originally conceived as a temporary installation but set to become permanent in May 2003, this piece is located at a busy bus stop on the southeast corner of Santa Monica and San Vincente Boulevards in West Hollywood, California. It consists of a 12-ft aluminum tuning tube containing a microphone that collects the sounds of the passing vehicular traffic, filters them, and breaks the remaining noise down into musical intervals in the key of F. The resulting harmonic chords are broadcast by two cement loudspeakers designed by artist Cecile Bouchier on the street corner. The work reconfigures sound to propose a landscape where automobiles and people coexist harmoniously, with the sound and fury of one meaning music to the other. Accessed 28.11.2007 from Art Papers Vol 27 .3 2003 - 2003 USA 174 Simo Alitalo 1954 3117 images/spacer.jpg Encounters/Kohtaamisia A sound installation whose aim is to provide a “Muybrigean” break-down of wave mechanics, this piece consists of several loudspeaker “chains” that are suspended from the ceiling and connected to each other with steel springs. Low sounds are routed to the sub-bass speakers which cause the loudspeaker chains to slowly rotate in mid-air. The sound material consists of water-earth encounters and waves hitting the shore. They were recorded by hydrophones and underwater microphones buried in sand or placed underwater. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://www.location1.org/international-residency-program-2005-2006-group-show-ii/ - 2006 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3141 images/spacer.jpg Information Portrait Project In collaboration with Howard Goldkrand .Uses new media technologies as a way to augment and experience representations of “self” by inviting members of different communities to create self-portraits of themselves and their neighborhoods. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://mediaartists.org/content.php?sec=artistandsub=detailandartist_id=652 - 2003 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3142 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2003 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3143 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2002 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3144 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2002 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3145 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2000 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3146 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 2000 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3147 images/spacer.jpg unknown - 1999 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3148 images/spacer.jpg Waken Hamam The work consists of tendon-like biodynamic materials stretching from floor to walls which emit a gentle cacophony created out of an algorithm emulating the sound of bees. Accessed 02.01.2006 from http://mediaartists.org/content.php?sec=artistandsub=detailandartist_id=652 - 2005 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3149 images/works/Coleman-2005_shimmer.gif Fresh Projects : Shimmer presents two installations, created using generative software, that reconfigure the gallery into a laboratory for innovation in the use of scale and material. For Bifid, architect Alisa Andrasek develops a ceiling to floor installation made of densely woven translucent ribbons, creating the effect of a vibrant, artificial stalactite field within the museum space. Reaching up the adjoining walls, Waken, an installation of tendon-like materials and embedded speakers created by artists Beth Coleman and Howard Goldkrand, builds across a network of signals to produce a gentle cacophony of sound. Fabrication of ceiling installation courtesy of MB Wellington Studio, creator of Lightblocks. - 2005 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3150 images/works/Coleman-2005-BDO.gif BDO Our project BDO, starts with the machinimation of a fainting robot—an automated, virtual being (a player in a game) losing consciousness and falling into the actual world. With this project, we’re playing with a formal investigation—the putting together of different media from machinima animation, architectural and character modeling, to shooting of live action sequences. The script is in development this summer and what we are checking out here is different modalities of storytelling. So what does this mean—different modalities of storytelling. The first place we are looking is temporality—the nature of simultaneity of action/event in the landscape of a narrative. There is the time of something, the place of something, and its depth, the “z” line through the model, which in a sense is the charting of connectivity. The idea with the presentation was to show machinima tools in a real-time demo, so people could get a sense of the unlimited camera action and multi-player sensibility of working with this software as animation tool. The main points of the demo are pretty straightforward:demo screen capture You can control the character movement You can move the camera You can make a movie Beth Coleman is writing the script for BDO. Howard Goldkrand and Dana Torop designed the machinima play for the May demo, setting the characters in a terrain, choreographing the shootouts and underwater ballet. From Sven the s/m leather queen tour infinite forest, all the characters and the context are machinima shareware. We are using third party software created by Fountainhead Entertainment software and very generously shared with us for the purpose of this demonstration. Further credit goes to the following: Software: Quake III Arena by Id Software Machinimation by Fountainhead Entertainment Levels: LDAQ3A05CTF and LDAQ3A05T by Lee David Ash Models: Attorney by Todd Gantzler w/.bips by Paul Steed MisterPhono by Michael Skullhead Cote Nella by David FragCow Coen Sven by Mikael Gummo Bomark Blaster by Fountainhead Entertainment. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://www.soundlab.org/bdo1.html - 2005 USA 168 Beth Coleman 1969 3151 images/works/Coleman_1999-MSU.jpg Mobile Stealth Unit 002 The sculpture Mobile Stealth Unit is an information retrieval and dispersal droid. The unit broadcasts an audio stream through the 1800 watt sound system. The remote-control camera sitting on top of the unit transmits a live signal served from the laptop onto the Web, where viewers can pan, tilt and zoom around the space from the perspective of the driver. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://www.soundlab.org/MSU.html - 1999 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3153 images/works/Norment-2005-apparition_visible.jpg Apparition A doppleganger, an ’untitled apparition’ has recently emerged like a cybernetic avatar, a sporadic ghost in the mechanic continuum of the ever escaping present between the past and the future. In this photomontage series, a glimpse of its presence is seen walking through swamps reminiscent of those in Louisiana. Half hidden behind a tree, one is only able to identify the character contextually from the irony of her long dreadlocks and her pristine white southern belle dress. This image also bears a visceral reference to the tragic floods of the same year that left so many poor African-Americans all but ignored and left to negotiate vile waters. Levi Strauss likens the function of noise to an “anomaly in the unfolding of a syntagmatic sequence” (Toop). Similarly, this projected presence, this noise-like interruption, has announced itself in an oscillating dream space, a collective memory of African-American history, both repressed and embraced. It bears the uneasiness of a presence felt and not seen; a presence unverified, but whose existence remains unrefuted. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 2005 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3154 images/works/Norment-2005-skiptrace.jpg Skiptrace From a new series of optical illusion and perspective based photographs, this work redistributes the power of the gaze. When standing in front of the photograph - in direct confrontation - the image appears disturbingly out of focus and the subjects eyes appear to be glancing away form the viewer at something in the images own anterior view. When the viewer gazes at the image from the side, or passes across its plane, it appears as if the image becomes enlivened and jumps to a gaze directly back at the viewer. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 2005 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3156 images/works/Norment-2003-wayward.jpg Wayward An obscure interior space is illuminated by the uncanny pendulum-like swing of a light hanging from the ceiling. Its never-ending oscillation is unnerving yet readily becomes hypnotic and meditative. A subtle organic, yet distinctly digital rhythm emanates from within the glass bulb itself and casts a flight of sound throughout the space. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html light, audio and electrical components 2003 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3157 images/works/Norment-2001-groove.jpg groove When passing through an unassuming location in the exhibition space, a visitor may encounter an unexpected sensory groove, an enveloping sonice space. This perceptual experience is composed of two audio signals that are essentially inaudible to human ears, and are rather perceived and felt by the entire body. The audio, while silent is still nonetheless localized such that it can only be perceived when passing through the groove. The effect is unexpected and momentarily disorienting with its invasive patters of sound . A lingering visitor will experience subtly changes in pattern over time. Subjects may question their own perceptual experience as the persistence of paranoia strikes the mind through body. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html hidden audio components 2001 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3158 images/works/Norment-2001-ZeroDivide.jpg Zero Divide In Zero Divide, Camille Norment continues her investigation of sound, object and the body and their intersection in fantasy and fetish. Protruding at waist height from two walls flanking a corner, two stainless steel arms face each other, extending from the walls at 45° angles. They leave a space in-between thats just big enough for a body to press into and fill the void. Looking a little like sci-fi ray-guns pointed at one another, each object contains a speaker sphere that omits an oscillating sound loop of sighing voices. The phallic fetishes objects are engaged in each other in terms of sound and the direction of their aim, as if mutually aroused in attraction or repulsion and ready for release or annihilation. The title references what is in mathematical terms, an impossible equation. The result is void; without resolution, substance, or meaning. The piece also negates the conventions of installation, sculpture and 2D works. It activates the space as an installation, without needing its own room. It uses a normally dead space of the exhibition room, but is hung on the wall like a sculpture inhabiting the space of 2D works. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html stainless steel, synthesized voices, audio components 2001 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3161 images/works/Norment-2000-deadRoom.jpg Dead Room the death instinct is now only pure silence in its transcendent distinction from life, but it infuses all the more, throughout all the immanent combination it forms with this same life. G. Deleuze and F. Guattari Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia The exterior, is covered with sound insulation cones baring the aesthetics of a dark grey science fiction fortress. These walls are precursors to the surreal hypnotic atmosphere of the interior as they themselves gently pulse in a bio-mechanical rhythm. One can often find a visitor walking slowly around the cube, dragging a hand against its tactile surface, lost in a sensual revolution around the structure. Somewhere in between the aesthetics of a car interior and an insane asylum cell, and bearing a glowing sterility reminiscent of a coffin or hospital, the installations interior is a bright white vinyl padded cell. For 3 minutes and 33 seconds at a time, eight large sub-woofers pulse a rhythm of bass frequencies that are too low for the human ear to actually hear, interweaving amongst its references the average radio play duration of the typical pop song as well as Cagian trajectories of silence. The space is silent, but the sound can be seen as the woofers throb their play cycles, felt as the sound waves move through the body creating a subtle intangible disturbance, and heard in the helium voice disruption of the visitors voices. Visitors experience a subtly, yet ever present re-perception of the body. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html 360 x 360 x 240cm(h), variable 2000 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3162 images/works/Norment-1997-crossings.jpg Crossings Rows of floor lights are instantly triggered as viewers walk through the dark installation space; their bodies being tracked and their paths being illuminated like colorful runways. As multiple viewers walk the space, each triggering their own path, the intersecting rows create endlessly changing patterns of navigation. A surround soundscape is also a manipulation of the viewers navigation of the space as it morphs its sound to reflect the presence and paths of the visitors. The sound itself is a subtle, ambient biosphere, its own movement made more pronounced by the dark environment and contrasting light grid. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html 15 x 15 x 8 (h); dimensions variable 1997 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3163 images/works/Norment-1997-thebank.jpg Auction, The Bank The Bank, a long standing institution of ownership, commerce, and exploitation was the site for a group exhibition, each artist exploring the bank as thematic reference. Untitled Auction, The Bank draws reference to the role of the human body as commodity in the historical exchange of money and property. In the on-site installation, each of the teller lights blink and beckon the visitor to approach the carnival like soundscape and auction site to inspect the goods. A red carpet leads the viewer to the auction crate where X marks the spot of exchangeable property. Inside the teller stalls, piles of human teeth rest as if awaiting the commencement of business, recalling the various methods of ‘appraising’ the value of slaves. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 1997 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3164 images/works/Norment-1995-musicBox.jpg Music Box In the center of a black room, a larger-than-life childs music box chimes out a repetitive and hypnotically dissonant tune. The tune is not quite recognizable - in the manner of a memory that persists in keeping just enough distance from the conscious mind as to evoke an even stronger desire to remember. The shape of the box and natural properties of wood as an amplifier cause the sound to appear without direction. While the sound negotiates its way around the mind of the participant, the participant maneuver her way around a floor filled with stiletto-enhanced Pointe shoes. The space itself is further sexualized by the presence of a diamond-shaped mirror on the wall that only succeeds in reflecting the lower part of the body. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html dimensions variable 1995 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3165 images/works/Norment-1995-somedayNever.jpg Someday Never Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html - 1995 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3166 images/works/Norment-1994expulsionCell.jpg Expulsion Cell An uncanny symbolic statement to the persistent nature of gender politics that even today infiltrates the corporate arena, Expulsion Cell is literally, an office turned padded-cell/asylum cell. Each of the four walls and the floor are padded and covered with white cotton panels of fabric, sewn from ceiling to floor, in the manner of the button down oxford shirt, underlining a stringent masculinized space. All sound in the space is immediately absorbed, creating an aurally dead space in which the sounds of the viewer s body itself seemed exaggerated -like when you have a cold and hear only the voice of your own body. The florescent lights further illuminate the stark whiteness of the space, leaving the viewer s eye to be drawn to the ambiguous form made of lipstick which is laid in one corner, beckoning the viewer to deface, or queer the environment. As viewers defaced the environment with the lipstick, the subjectivity of the office space itself is revealed in relation to its inscribed gender roles. Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/apparition/index.html Accessed 02.01.2008 from http://norment.net/studio/art/index.html 3.5x3.5x2.5m(h), variable 1994 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3169 images/spacer.jpg Introduction to Physical Computing - 2002 USA 167 Camille Norment 1974 3171 images/spacer.jpg Designing Applications for Personal Networks CO-taught with Ignazio Moresco of Tempo Design - 2002 USA 180 Hayley Newman 1969 3243 images/works/Newman-2001-negotiation.jpg Living Together This was a project in which Nao Bustamante and I spent a week living together – well not exactly. As far as everyone was concerned we were living in a flat doing a project for which we had bought two outfits; daywear and nightwear. The concept was that only one of us could go out at a time without the inconvenience of leaving the flat wearing bed clothes. In the flat we had a living together hotline which people could ring to find out where the outfit would be on any given day. In actuality, we had bought more than one outfit and spent a week doing what we wanted, covering our tracks and getting involved in a heady matrix of lies. The duplicity of the project eventually caused us to experience confusion, p